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  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: December 2014

Chapter 14 - Fine-needle aspiration of the liver

References

Cytology of the normal liver
Dumonceau J-M, Polkowski M, Larghi A, et al. Indications, results, and clinical impact of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling in gastroenterology: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Clinical Guideline. Endoscopy 2011; 43: 1–16.
Ohlsson B, Nilsson J, Stenram U, et al. Percutaneous fine-needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis and management of liver tumours. Br J Surg 2002; 89: 757–62.
Swamy MCM, Arathi CA, Kodandaswamy CR. Value of ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration cytology in the investigative sequence of hepatic lesions with an emphasis on hepatocellular carcinoma. J Cytol 2011; 28(4): 178–84.
Wang K-X, Ben Q-W, Jin Z-D, et al. Assessment of morbidity and mortality associated with EUS-guided FNA: a systematic review. Gastrointest Endosc 2011; 73(2): 283–90.
Wee A. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatocellular nodular lesions: role, controversies, and approach to diagnosis. Cytopathology 2011; 22: 287–305.
Benign non-neoplastic hepatic lesions
Bonder A, Afdhal N. Evaluation of liver lesions. Clin Liver Dis 2012; 16: 271–83.
Chhieng DC. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of liver – an update. World J Surg Oncol 2004; 2: 5.
Cibas ES, Ducatman BS. Cytology: Diagnostic Principles and Clinical Correlates. 3rd edn. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders, 2009.
Congenital ciliated hepatic foregut cyst (CHFC)
Chhieng DC. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of liver – an update. World J Surg Oncol 2004; 2: 5.
Guerin F, Hadhri R, Fabre M, et al. Prenatal and postnatal ciliated hepatic foregut cysts in infants. J Pediatr Surg 2009; 45: E9–14.
Sharma S, Dean AG, Corn A, et al. Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst: an increasingly diagnosed condition. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int 2008; 7(6): 581–9.
Infectious cysts
Bonder A, Afdhal N. Evaluation of liver lesions. Clin Liver Dis 2012; 16: 271–83.
Chhieng DC. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of liver – an update. World J Surg Oncol 2004; 2: 5.
Clavel A, Varea M, Dioz O, et al. Visualization of hydatid elements: comparison of several techniques. J Clin Microbiol 1999; 37(5): 1561–3.
Satyanarayana S, Kaighatgi AT. Utility of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of infective lesions. Diagn Histopathol 2011; 17(7): 301–12.
Swamy MCM, Arathi CA, Kodandaswamy CR. Value of ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration cytology in the investigative sequence of hepatic lesions with an emphasis on hepatocellular carcinoma. J Cytol 2011; 28(4): 178–84.
Abscess/infections
Bonder A, Afdhal N. Evaluation of liver lesions. Clin Liver Dis 2012; 16: 271–83.
Wee A, Nilsson B, Yap I, et al. Aspiration cytology of liver abscesses with an emphasis on diagnostic pitfalls. Acta Cytol 1995; 39(3): 453–62.
Amoebic abscesses
Bhambhani S, Kashyap V. Amoebiasis: diagnosis by aspiration and exfoliative cytology. Cytopathology 2001; 12(5): 329–33.
Rekhi B, Ramadwar M, Shukla P. Cytomorphological spectrum of amoebic liver abscess in an uncommon case, clinically masquerading as malignancy. Diagn Cytopathol 2011; 39(11): 827–9.
Other infections
Satyanarayana S, Kaighatgi AT. Utility of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of infective lesions. Diagn Histopathol 2011; 17(7): 301–12.
Granulomas
Gaya DR, Thorburn D, Oien KA, et al. Hepatic granuloma: a 10 year single centre experience. J Clin Pathol 2003; 56: 850–3.
Guy CD, Yuan S, Ballo MS. Spindle-cell lesions of the liver: diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Diagn Cytopathol 2001; 25(2): 94–100.
Swamy MCM, Arathi CA, Kodandaswamy CR. Value of ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration cytology in the investigative sequence of hepatic lesions with an emphasis on hepatocellular carcinoma. J Cytol 2011; 28(4): 178–84.
Steatosis/focal fatty change
Layfield LJ. Focal fatty change of the liver: cytologic findings in a radiographic mimic of metastases. Diagn Cytopathol 1994; 11(4): 385–7; discussion 387–9.
Zeppa P, Anniciello A, Vetrani A, et al. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of hepatic focal fatty change. A report of two cases. Acta Cytol 2002; 46: 567–70.
Amyloidosis
Gangane N, Anshu, Shivkumar VB, Sharta S. Cytodiagnosis of hepatic amyloidosis by fine needle aspiration cytology: a case report. Acta Cytol 2006; 50(5): 574–6.
Lovat LB, Persey MR, Madhoo S, et al. The liver in systemic amyloidosis: insights from 123I serum amyloid P component scintigraphy in 484 patients. Gut 1998; 42: 727–34.
Benign neoplastic hepatic lesions
Bonder A, Afdhal N. Evaluation of liver lesions. Clin Liver Dis 2012; 16: 271–83.
Guy CD, Yuan S, Ballo MS. Spindle-cell lesions of the liver: diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Diagn Cytopathol 2001; 25(2): 94–100.
Kaw YT, Esparza AR. (1991). Cytologic diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma of the liver with fine-needle biopsy. Diagn Cytopathol 1991; 7: 628–30.
Layfield LJ, Mooney EE, Dodd LG. Not by blood alone: diagnosis of hemangiomas by fine-needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol 1998; 19(4): 250–4.
Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH)
Bioulac-Sage P, Cubel G, Taouji S, et al. Immunohistochemical markers on needle biopsies are helpful for the diagnosis of focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenoma subtypes. Am J Surg Pathol 2012; 36(11): 1691–9.
Wee A. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatocellular nodular lesions: role, controversies and approach to diagnosis. Cytopathology 2011; 22(5): 287–305.
Hepatocellular adenoma
McKnight R, Nassar A, Cohen C, Siddiqui MT. Arginase-1: a novel immunohistochemical marker of hepatocellular differentiation in fine needle aspiration cytology. Cancer Cytopathol 2012; 120(4): 223–9.
Wee A. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatocellular nodular lesions: role, controversies, and approach to diagnosis. Cytopathology 2011; 22: 287–305.
Bile duct adenoma/hamartoma
Hornick JL, Lauwers GY, Odze RD. Immunohistochemistry can help distinguish metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma from bile duct adenomas and hamartomas of the liver. Am J Surg Pathol 2005; 29: 381–9.
Wee A. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatocellular nodular lesions: role, controversies, and approach to diagnosis. Cytopathology 2001; 22: 287–305.
Cytology of borderline processes of the liver
Cirrhotic nodules, adenomatous hyperplasia, and dysplasia
Chang O, Yano Y, Masuzawa A, et al. The cytological characteristics of small cell change or dysplasia in small hepatic nodules. Oncol Rep 2010; 23(5): 1229–32.
Geramizadeh B, Asadi N, Tabei SZ. Cytologic comparison between malignant and regenerative nodules in the background of cirrhosis. Hepat Mon 2012; 12(7): 448–52.
Hill KA, Nayar R, DeFrias DV. Cytohistologic correlation of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Pitfall in diagnosis? Acta Cytol 2004; 48(2): 127–32.
Hollerbach S, Reiser M, Topalidis T, König M, Schmiegel W. Diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a high-risk patient by using transgastric EUS-guided fine-needle biopsy (EUS-FNA). Z Gastroenterol 2003; 41(10): 995–8.
Lin CC, Lin CJ, Hsu CW, et al. Fine-needle aspiration cytology to distinguish dysplasia from hepatocellular carcinoma with different grades. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008; 23(7 Pt 2): e146–52.
Yang GC, Yang GY, Tao LC. Distinguishing well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma from benign liver by the physical features of fine-needle aspirates. Mod Pathol 2004; 17(7): 798–802.
Cytology of malignant neoplasms of the liver/primary malignant neoplasms/epithelial malignant neoplasms
Hepatocellular carcinoma
Buijs M, Reyes DK, Pawlik TM, et al. Phase 2 trial of concurrent bevacizumab and transhepatic arterial chemoembolization in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer 2013; 119(5): 1042–9.
Geramizadeh B, Asadi N, Tabei SZ. Cytologic comparison between malignant and regenerative nodules in the background of cirrhosis. Hepat Mon 2012; 12(7): 448–52.
Khurana U, Handa U, Mohan H, Sachdev A. Evaluation of aspiration cytology of the liver space occupying lesions by simultaneous examination of smears and cell blocks. Diagn Cytopathol 2009; 37(8): 557–63.
Rowe LR, Mulvihill SJ, Emerson L, Gopez EV. Subcutaneous tumor seeding following needle core biopsy of hepatocellular carcinoma. Diagn Cytopathol 2007; 35(11): 717–21.
Saleh HA, Aulicino M, Zaidi SY, Khan AZ, Masood S. Discriminating hepatocellular carcinoma from metastatic carcinoma on fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the liver: the utility of immunocytochemical panel. Diagn Cytopathol 2009; 37(3): 184–90.
Wang L, Vuolo M, Suhrland MJ, Schlesinger K. HepPar1, MOC-31, pCEA, mCEA and CD10 for distinguishing hepatocellular carcinoma vs. metastatic adenocarcinoma in liver fine needle aspirates. Acta Cytol 2006; 50(3): 257–62.
Wee A. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of hepatocellular carcinoma and related hepatocellular nodular lesions in cirrhosis: controversies, challenges, and expectations. Patholog Res Int 2011; 2011: 587936.
Yang GC, Yang GY, Tao LC. Cytologic features and histologic correlations of microacinar and microtrabecular types of well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma in fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Cancer 2004; 102(1): 27–33.
Yang GC, GY Yang, Tao LC. Distinguishing well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma from benign liver by the physical features of fine-needle aspirates. Mod Pathol 2004; 17(7): 798–802.
Cholangiocarcinoma
Hertz G, Reddy VB, Green L, et al. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the liver: a multicenter study of 602 radiologically guided FNA. Diagn Cytopathol 2000; 23(5): 326–8.
Lal A, Okonkwo A, Schlinder S, DeFrias D, Nayar R. Role of biliary brush cytology in primary sclerosing cholangitis. Acta Cytol 2004; 48(1): 9–12.
Meara RS, Jhala D, Eloubeidi MA, et al. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided FNA biopsy of bile duct and gallbladder: analysis of 53 cases. Cytopathology 2006; 17(1): 42–9.
Pollack MJ, Gholam PM, Chak A. EUS-FNA in unresectable cholangiocarcinoma: a novel indication. Gastrointest Endosc 2008; 67(3): 444–5.
Sampatanukul P, Leong AS, Kosolbhand P, Tangkijvanich P. Proliferating ductules are a diagnostic discriminator for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in FNA biopsies. Diagn Cytopathol 2000; 22(6): 359–63.
Wight CO, Zaitoun AM, Boulton-Jones JR, et al. Improving diagnostic yield of biliary brushings cytology for pancreatic cancer and cholangiocarcinoma. Cytopathology 2004; 15(2): 87–92.
Hepatoblastoma
Bakshi P, Srinivasan R, Rao KL, et al. Fine needle aspiration biopsy in pediatric space-occupying lesions of liver: a retrospective study evaluating its role and diagnostic efficacy. J Pediatr Surg 2006; 41(11): 1903–8.
Iyer VK, Kapila K, Agarwala S, Verma K. Fine needle aspiration cytology of hepatoblastoma. Recognition of subtypes on cytomorphology. Acta Cytol 2005; 49(4): 355–64.
Jain R, Jain M. Mixed hepatoblastoma diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy cytology: a case report. Diagn Cytopathol 1998; 19(4): 306–8.
Laiq Z, Bishop JA, Ali SZ. Liver lesions in children and adolescents: cytopathologic analysis and clinical correlates in 44 cases. Diagn Cytopathol 2012; 40(7): 586–91.
Parikh B, Jojo A, Shah B, et al. Fine needle aspiration cytology of hepatoblastoma: a study of 20 cases. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2005; 48(3): 331–6.
Us-Krasovec M, Pohar-Marinsek Z, Golouh R, et al. Hepatoblastoma in fine needle aspirates. Acta Cytol 1996; 40(3): 450–6.
Sarcoma
Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma
Aalaei S, Jakate S. Right upper quadrant pain and fever in a 41-year-old man. Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the liver with metastasis to porta hepatis lymph nodes and lung. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2005; 129(5): e134–5.
Boucher LD, Swanson PE, Stanley MV, et al. Cytology of angiosarcoma. Findings in fourteen fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens and one pleural fluid specimen. Am J Clin Pathol 2000; 114(2): 210–19.
Iyer VK, Bandhu S, Verma K. An unusual mass lesion of the liver with distinctive cytology. Cytopathology 2004; 15(4): 233–6.
Jurczyk M, Zhu B, Laskin W, Lin X. Pitfalls in the diagnosis of hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma by FNA and needle core biopsy. Diagn Cytopathol 2014; 42(6): 516–20.
Kiani B, Ferrell LD, Qualman S, Frankel WL. Immunohistochemical analysis of embryonal sarcoma of the liver. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2006; 14(2): 193–7.
Krishnamurthy SC, Datta S, Jambhekar NA. Fine needle aspiration cytology of undifferentiated (embryonal) sarcoma of the liver: a case report. Acta Cytol 1996; 40(3): 567–70.
Liu K, Layfield LJ. Cytomorphologic features of angiosarcoma on fine needle aspiration biopsy. Acta Cytol 1999; 43(3): 407–15.
Nguyen GK, Husain M. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy cytology of angiosarcoma. Diagn Cytopathol 2000; 23(2): 143–5.
Nicol K, Savell V, Moore J, et al. Distinguishing undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver from biliary tract rhabdomyosarcoma: a Children’s Oncology Group study. Pediatr Dev Pathol 2007; 10(2): 89–97.
Lymphoma
Cohen J, Hariton E, Kothari D, Pihan GA, Robson SC. Hepatosplenic alpha/beta T-cell lymphoma masquerading as cirrhosis. J Gastrointest Oncol 2013; 4(2): 131–6.
Harris NL, Jaffe ES, Diebold J, et al. The World Health Organization classification of hematological malignancies report of the Clinical Advisory Committee Meeting, Airlie House, Virginia, November 1997. Mod Pathol 2000; 13(2): 193–207.
Kashimura M, Murayama K, Kojima M. Primary hepatic and hepatosplenic diffuse large B-cell lymphomas with intrasinusoidal and interstitial lymphomatous infiltration. Int J Surg Pathol 2013; 21(5): 531–4.
Mishra S, Shukla A, Tripathi AK, Kumar A. Primary T-cell lymphoma of liver. BMJ Case Rep 2013; pii: bcr2012008467.
Orucevic A, Reddy VB, Selvaggi SM, et al. Fine-needle aspiration of extranodal and extramedullary hematopoietic malignancies. Diagn Cytopathol 2000; 23(5): 318–21.
Metastatic malignant neoplasms
Metastatic small cell carcinoma
Cimino-Mathews A, Subhawong AP, Illei PB, et al. GATA3 expression in breast carcinoma: utility in triple-negative, sarcomatoid, and metastatic carcinomas. Hum Pathol 2013; 44(7): 1341–9.
Das DK. Cytodiagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in fine-needle aspirates of the liver: its differentiation from reactive hepatocytes and metastatic adenocarcinoma. Diagn Cytopathol 1999; 21(6): 370–7.
Gokden M, Shinde A. Recent immunohistochemical markers in the differential diagnosis of primary and metastatic carcinomas of the liver. Diagn Cytopathol 2005; 33(3): 166–72.
Granados R, Aramburu JA, Murillo N, et al. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of liver masses: diagnostic value and reproducibility of cytological criteria. Diagn Cytopathol 2001; 25(6): 365–75.
Khalbuss WE, Grigorian S, Bui MM, Elhosseiny A. Small-cell tumors of the liver: a cytological study of 91 cases and a review of the literature. Diagn Cytopathol 2005; 33(1): 8–14.
Parwani AV, Chan TY, Mathew S, Ali SZ. Metastatic malignant melanoma in liver aspirate: cytomorphologic distinction from hepatocellular carcinoma. Diagn Cytopathol 2004; 30(4): 247–50.
Reyes CV, Thompson KS, Jensen JD, Choudhury AM. Metastasis of unknown origin: the role of fine-needle aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol 1998; 18(5): 319–22.
Saad RS, Luckasevic TM, Noga CM, et al. Diagnostic value of HepPar1, pCEA, CD10, and CD34 expression in separating hepatocellular carcinoma from metastatic carcinoma in fine-needle aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol 2004; 30(1): 1–6.
Wu M, Szporn AH, Zhang D, et al. Cytology applications of p63 and TTF-1 immunostaining in differential diagnosis of lung cancers. Diagn Cytopathol 2005; 33(4): 223–7.

Cytology of the normal liver

Dumonceau J-M, Polkowski M, Larghi A, et al. Indications, results, and clinical impact of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling in gastroenterology: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Clinical Guideline. Endoscopy 2011; 43: 1–16.
Ohlsson B, Nilsson J, Stenram U, et al. Percutaneous fine-needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis and management of liver tumours. Br J Surg 2002; 89: 757–62.
Swamy MCM, Arathi CA, Kodandaswamy CR. Value of ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration cytology in the investigative sequence of hepatic lesions with an emphasis on hepatocellular carcinoma. J Cytol 2011; 28(4): 178–84.
Wang K-X, Ben Q-W, Jin Z-D, et al. Assessment of morbidity and mortality associated with EUS-guided FNA: a systematic review. Gastrointest Endosc 2011; 73(2): 283–90.
Wee A. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatocellular nodular lesions: role, controversies, and approach to diagnosis. Cytopathology 2011; 22: 287–305.

Benign non-neoplastic hepatic lesions

Bonder A, Afdhal N. Evaluation of liver lesions. Clin Liver Dis 2012; 16: 271–83.
Chhieng DC. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of liver – an update. World J Surg Oncol 2004; 2: 5.
Cibas ES, Ducatman BS. Cytology: Diagnostic Principles and Clinical Correlates. 3rd edn. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders, 2009.
Congenital ciliated hepatic foregut cyst (CHFC)
Chhieng DC. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of liver – an update. World J Surg Oncol 2004; 2: 5.
Guerin F, Hadhri R, Fabre M, et al. Prenatal and postnatal ciliated hepatic foregut cysts in infants. J Pediatr Surg 2009; 45: E9–14.
Sharma S, Dean AG, Corn A, et al. Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst: an increasingly diagnosed condition. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int 2008; 7(6): 581–9.

Congenital ciliated hepatic foregut cyst (CHFC)

Chhieng DC. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of liver – an update. World J Surg Oncol 2004; 2: 5.
Guerin F, Hadhri R, Fabre M, et al. Prenatal and postnatal ciliated hepatic foregut cysts in infants. J Pediatr Surg 2009; 45: E9–14.
Sharma S, Dean AG, Corn A, et al. Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst: an increasingly diagnosed condition. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int 2008; 7(6): 581–9.

Infectious cysts

Bonder A, Afdhal N. Evaluation of liver lesions. Clin Liver Dis 2012; 16: 271–83.
Chhieng DC. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of liver – an update. World J Surg Oncol 2004; 2: 5.
Clavel A, Varea M, Dioz O, et al. Visualization of hydatid elements: comparison of several techniques. J Clin Microbiol 1999; 37(5): 1561–3.
Satyanarayana S, Kaighatgi AT. Utility of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of infective lesions. Diagn Histopathol 2011; 17(7): 301–12.
Swamy MCM, Arathi CA, Kodandaswamy CR. Value of ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration cytology in the investigative sequence of hepatic lesions with an emphasis on hepatocellular carcinoma. J Cytol 2011; 28(4): 178–84.
Abscess/infections
Bonder A, Afdhal N. Evaluation of liver lesions. Clin Liver Dis 2012; 16: 271–83.
Wee A, Nilsson B, Yap I, et al. Aspiration cytology of liver abscesses with an emphasis on diagnostic pitfalls. Acta Cytol 1995; 39(3): 453–62.
Amoebic abscesses
Bhambhani S, Kashyap V. Amoebiasis: diagnosis by aspiration and exfoliative cytology. Cytopathology 2001; 12(5): 329–33.
Rekhi B, Ramadwar M, Shukla P. Cytomorphological spectrum of amoebic liver abscess in an uncommon case, clinically masquerading as malignancy. Diagn Cytopathol 2011; 39(11): 827–9.
Other infections
Satyanarayana S, Kaighatgi AT. Utility of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of infective lesions. Diagn Histopathol 2011; 17(7): 301–12.

Abscess/infections

Bonder A, Afdhal N. Evaluation of liver lesions. Clin Liver Dis 2012; 16: 271–83.
Wee A, Nilsson B, Yap I, et al. Aspiration cytology of liver abscesses with an emphasis on diagnostic pitfalls. Acta Cytol 1995; 39(3): 453–62.

Amoebic abscesses

Bhambhani S, Kashyap V. Amoebiasis: diagnosis by aspiration and exfoliative cytology. Cytopathology 2001; 12(5): 329–33.
Rekhi B, Ramadwar M, Shukla P. Cytomorphological spectrum of amoebic liver abscess in an uncommon case, clinically masquerading as malignancy. Diagn Cytopathol 2011; 39(11): 827–9.

Other infections

Satyanarayana S, Kaighatgi AT. Utility of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of infective lesions. Diagn Histopathol 2011; 17(7): 301–12.

Granulomas

Gaya DR, Thorburn D, Oien KA, et al. Hepatic granuloma: a 10 year single centre experience. J Clin Pathol 2003; 56: 850–3.
Guy CD, Yuan S, Ballo MS. Spindle-cell lesions of the liver: diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Diagn Cytopathol 2001; 25(2): 94–100.
Swamy MCM, Arathi CA, Kodandaswamy CR. Value of ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration cytology in the investigative sequence of hepatic lesions with an emphasis on hepatocellular carcinoma. J Cytol 2011; 28(4): 178–84.

Steatosis/focal fatty change

Layfield LJ. Focal fatty change of the liver: cytologic findings in a radiographic mimic of metastases. Diagn Cytopathol 1994; 11(4): 385–7; discussion 387–9.
Zeppa P, Anniciello A, Vetrani A, et al. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of hepatic focal fatty change. A report of two cases. Acta Cytol 2002; 46: 567–70.

Amyloidosis

Gangane N, Anshu, Shivkumar VB, Sharta S. Cytodiagnosis of hepatic amyloidosis by fine needle aspiration cytology: a case report. Acta Cytol 2006; 50(5): 574–6.
Lovat LB, Persey MR, Madhoo S, et al. The liver in systemic amyloidosis: insights from 123I serum amyloid P component scintigraphy in 484 patients. Gut 1998; 42: 727–34.

Benign neoplastic hepatic lesions

Bonder A, Afdhal N. Evaluation of liver lesions. Clin Liver Dis 2012; 16: 271–83.
Guy CD, Yuan S, Ballo MS. Spindle-cell lesions of the liver: diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Diagn Cytopathol 2001; 25(2): 94–100.
Kaw YT, Esparza AR. (1991). Cytologic diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma of the liver with fine-needle biopsy. Diagn Cytopathol 1991; 7: 628–30.
Layfield LJ, Mooney EE, Dodd LG. Not by blood alone: diagnosis of hemangiomas by fine-needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol 1998; 19(4): 250–4.
Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH)
Bioulac-Sage P, Cubel G, Taouji S, et al. Immunohistochemical markers on needle biopsies are helpful for the diagnosis of focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenoma subtypes. Am J Surg Pathol 2012; 36(11): 1691–9.
Wee A. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatocellular nodular lesions: role, controversies and approach to diagnosis. Cytopathology 2011; 22(5): 287–305.
Hepatocellular adenoma
McKnight R, Nassar A, Cohen C, Siddiqui MT. Arginase-1: a novel immunohistochemical marker of hepatocellular differentiation in fine needle aspiration cytology. Cancer Cytopathol 2012; 120(4): 223–9.
Wee A. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatocellular nodular lesions: role, controversies, and approach to diagnosis. Cytopathology 2011; 22: 287–305.
Bile duct adenoma/hamartoma
Hornick JL, Lauwers GY, Odze RD. Immunohistochemistry can help distinguish metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma from bile duct adenomas and hamartomas of the liver. Am J Surg Pathol 2005; 29: 381–9.
Wee A. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatocellular nodular lesions: role, controversies, and approach to diagnosis. Cytopathology 2001; 22: 287–305.

Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH)

Bioulac-Sage P, Cubel G, Taouji S, et al. Immunohistochemical markers on needle biopsies are helpful for the diagnosis of focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenoma subtypes. Am J Surg Pathol 2012; 36(11): 1691–9.
Wee A. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatocellular nodular lesions: role, controversies and approach to diagnosis. Cytopathology 2011; 22(5): 287–305.

Hepatocellular adenoma

McKnight R, Nassar A, Cohen C, Siddiqui MT. Arginase-1: a novel immunohistochemical marker of hepatocellular differentiation in fine needle aspiration cytology. Cancer Cytopathol 2012; 120(4): 223–9.
Wee A. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatocellular nodular lesions: role, controversies, and approach to diagnosis. Cytopathology 2011; 22: 287–305.

Bile duct adenoma/hamartoma

Hornick JL, Lauwers GY, Odze RD. Immunohistochemistry can help distinguish metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma from bile duct adenomas and hamartomas of the liver. Am J Surg Pathol 2005; 29: 381–9.
Wee A. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatocellular nodular lesions: role, controversies, and approach to diagnosis. Cytopathology 2001; 22: 287–305.

Cytology of borderline processes of the liver

Cirrhotic nodules, adenomatous hyperplasia, and dysplasia
Chang O, Yano Y, Masuzawa A, et al. The cytological characteristics of small cell change or dysplasia in small hepatic nodules. Oncol Rep 2010; 23(5): 1229–32.
Geramizadeh B, Asadi N, Tabei SZ. Cytologic comparison between malignant and regenerative nodules in the background of cirrhosis. Hepat Mon 2012; 12(7): 448–52.
Hill KA, Nayar R, DeFrias DV. Cytohistologic correlation of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Pitfall in diagnosis? Acta Cytol 2004; 48(2): 127–32.
Hollerbach S, Reiser M, Topalidis T, König M, Schmiegel W. Diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a high-risk patient by using transgastric EUS-guided fine-needle biopsy (EUS-FNA). Z Gastroenterol 2003; 41(10): 995–8.
Lin CC, Lin CJ, Hsu CW, et al. Fine-needle aspiration cytology to distinguish dysplasia from hepatocellular carcinoma with different grades. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008; 23(7 Pt 2): e146–52.
Yang GC, Yang GY, Tao LC. Distinguishing well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma from benign liver by the physical features of fine-needle aspirates. Mod Pathol 2004; 17(7): 798–802.

Cirrhotic nodules, adenomatous hyperplasia, and dysplasia

Chang O, Yano Y, Masuzawa A, et al. The cytological characteristics of small cell change or dysplasia in small hepatic nodules. Oncol Rep 2010; 23(5): 1229–32.
Geramizadeh B, Asadi N, Tabei SZ. Cytologic comparison between malignant and regenerative nodules in the background of cirrhosis. Hepat Mon 2012; 12(7): 448–52.
Hill KA, Nayar R, DeFrias DV. Cytohistologic correlation of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Pitfall in diagnosis? Acta Cytol 2004; 48(2): 127–32.
Hollerbach S, Reiser M, Topalidis T, König M, Schmiegel W. Diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a high-risk patient by using transgastric EUS-guided fine-needle biopsy (EUS-FNA). Z Gastroenterol 2003; 41(10): 995–8.
Lin CC, Lin CJ, Hsu CW, et al. Fine-needle aspiration cytology to distinguish dysplasia from hepatocellular carcinoma with different grades. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008; 23(7 Pt 2): e146–52.
Yang GC, Yang GY, Tao LC. Distinguishing well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma from benign liver by the physical features of fine-needle aspirates. Mod Pathol 2004; 17(7): 798–802.

Cytology of malignant neoplasms of the liver/primary malignant neoplasms/epithelial malignant neoplasms

Hepatocellular carcinoma
Buijs M, Reyes DK, Pawlik TM, et al. Phase 2 trial of concurrent bevacizumab and transhepatic arterial chemoembolization in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer 2013; 119(5): 1042–9.
Geramizadeh B, Asadi N, Tabei SZ. Cytologic comparison between malignant and regenerative nodules in the background of cirrhosis. Hepat Mon 2012; 12(7): 448–52.
Khurana U, Handa U, Mohan H, Sachdev A. Evaluation of aspiration cytology of the liver space occupying lesions by simultaneous examination of smears and cell blocks. Diagn Cytopathol 2009; 37(8): 557–63.
Rowe LR, Mulvihill SJ, Emerson L, Gopez EV. Subcutaneous tumor seeding following needle core biopsy of hepatocellular carcinoma. Diagn Cytopathol 2007; 35(11): 717–21.
Saleh HA, Aulicino M, Zaidi SY, Khan AZ, Masood S. Discriminating hepatocellular carcinoma from metastatic carcinoma on fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the liver: the utility of immunocytochemical panel. Diagn Cytopathol 2009; 37(3): 184–90.
Wang L, Vuolo M, Suhrland MJ, Schlesinger K. HepPar1, MOC-31, pCEA, mCEA and CD10 for distinguishing hepatocellular carcinoma vs. metastatic adenocarcinoma in liver fine needle aspirates. Acta Cytol 2006; 50(3): 257–62.
Wee A. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of hepatocellular carcinoma and related hepatocellular nodular lesions in cirrhosis: controversies, challenges, and expectations. Patholog Res Int 2011; 2011: 587936.
Yang GC, Yang GY, Tao LC. Cytologic features and histologic correlations of microacinar and microtrabecular types of well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma in fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Cancer 2004; 102(1): 27–33.
Yang GC, GY Yang, Tao LC. Distinguishing well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma from benign liver by the physical features of fine-needle aspirates. Mod Pathol 2004; 17(7): 798–802.
Cholangiocarcinoma
Hertz G, Reddy VB, Green L, et al. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the liver: a multicenter study of 602 radiologically guided FNA. Diagn Cytopathol 2000; 23(5): 326–8.
Lal A, Okonkwo A, Schlinder S, DeFrias D, Nayar R. Role of biliary brush cytology in primary sclerosing cholangitis. Acta Cytol 2004; 48(1): 9–12.
Meara RS, Jhala D, Eloubeidi MA, et al. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided FNA biopsy of bile duct and gallbladder: analysis of 53 cases. Cytopathology 2006; 17(1): 42–9.
Pollack MJ, Gholam PM, Chak A. EUS-FNA in unresectable cholangiocarcinoma: a novel indication. Gastrointest Endosc 2008; 67(3): 444–5.
Sampatanukul P, Leong AS, Kosolbhand P, Tangkijvanich P. Proliferating ductules are a diagnostic discriminator for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in FNA biopsies. Diagn Cytopathol 2000; 22(6): 359–63.
Wight CO, Zaitoun AM, Boulton-Jones JR, et al. Improving diagnostic yield of biliary brushings cytology for pancreatic cancer and cholangiocarcinoma. Cytopathology 2004; 15(2): 87–92.
Hepatoblastoma
Bakshi P, Srinivasan R, Rao KL, et al. Fine needle aspiration biopsy in pediatric space-occupying lesions of liver: a retrospective study evaluating its role and diagnostic efficacy. J Pediatr Surg 2006; 41(11): 1903–8.
Iyer VK, Kapila K, Agarwala S, Verma K. Fine needle aspiration cytology of hepatoblastoma. Recognition of subtypes on cytomorphology. Acta Cytol 2005; 49(4): 355–64.
Jain R, Jain M. Mixed hepatoblastoma diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy cytology: a case report. Diagn Cytopathol 1998; 19(4): 306–8.
Laiq Z, Bishop JA, Ali SZ. Liver lesions in children and adolescents: cytopathologic analysis and clinical correlates in 44 cases. Diagn Cytopathol 2012; 40(7): 586–91.
Parikh B, Jojo A, Shah B, et al. Fine needle aspiration cytology of hepatoblastoma: a study of 20 cases. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2005; 48(3): 331–6.
Us-Krasovec M, Pohar-Marinsek Z, Golouh R, et al. Hepatoblastoma in fine needle aspirates. Acta Cytol 1996; 40(3): 450–6.

Hepatocellular carcinoma

Buijs M, Reyes DK, Pawlik TM, et al. Phase 2 trial of concurrent bevacizumab and transhepatic arterial chemoembolization in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer 2013; 119(5): 1042–9.
Geramizadeh B, Asadi N, Tabei SZ. Cytologic comparison between malignant and regenerative nodules in the background of cirrhosis. Hepat Mon 2012; 12(7): 448–52.
Khurana U, Handa U, Mohan H, Sachdev A. Evaluation of aspiration cytology of the liver space occupying lesions by simultaneous examination of smears and cell blocks. Diagn Cytopathol 2009; 37(8): 557–63.
Rowe LR, Mulvihill SJ, Emerson L, Gopez EV. Subcutaneous tumor seeding following needle core biopsy of hepatocellular carcinoma. Diagn Cytopathol 2007; 35(11): 717–21.
Saleh HA, Aulicino M, Zaidi SY, Khan AZ, Masood S. Discriminating hepatocellular carcinoma from metastatic carcinoma on fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the liver: the utility of immunocytochemical panel. Diagn Cytopathol 2009; 37(3): 184–90.
Wang L, Vuolo M, Suhrland MJ, Schlesinger K. HepPar1, MOC-31, pCEA, mCEA and CD10 for distinguishing hepatocellular carcinoma vs. metastatic adenocarcinoma in liver fine needle aspirates. Acta Cytol 2006; 50(3): 257–62.
Wee A. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of hepatocellular carcinoma and related hepatocellular nodular lesions in cirrhosis: controversies, challenges, and expectations. Patholog Res Int 2011; 2011: 587936.
Yang GC, Yang GY, Tao LC. Cytologic features and histologic correlations of microacinar and microtrabecular types of well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma in fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Cancer 2004; 102(1): 27–33.
Yang GC, GY Yang, Tao LC. Distinguishing well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma from benign liver by the physical features of fine-needle aspirates. Mod Pathol 2004; 17(7): 798–802.

Cholangiocarcinoma

Hertz G, Reddy VB, Green L, et al. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the liver: a multicenter study of 602 radiologically guided FNA. Diagn Cytopathol 2000; 23(5): 326–8.
Lal A, Okonkwo A, Schlinder S, DeFrias D, Nayar R. Role of biliary brush cytology in primary sclerosing cholangitis. Acta Cytol 2004; 48(1): 9–12.
Meara RS, Jhala D, Eloubeidi MA, et al. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided FNA biopsy of bile duct and gallbladder: analysis of 53 cases. Cytopathology 2006; 17(1): 42–9.
Pollack MJ, Gholam PM, Chak A. EUS-FNA in unresectable cholangiocarcinoma: a novel indication. Gastrointest Endosc 2008; 67(3): 444–5.
Sampatanukul P, Leong AS, Kosolbhand P, Tangkijvanich P. Proliferating ductules are a diagnostic discriminator for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in FNA biopsies. Diagn Cytopathol 2000; 22(6): 359–63.
Wight CO, Zaitoun AM, Boulton-Jones JR, et al. Improving diagnostic yield of biliary brushings cytology for pancreatic cancer and cholangiocarcinoma. Cytopathology 2004; 15(2): 87–92.

Hepatoblastoma

Bakshi P, Srinivasan R, Rao KL, et al. Fine needle aspiration biopsy in pediatric space-occupying lesions of liver: a retrospective study evaluating its role and diagnostic efficacy. J Pediatr Surg 2006; 41(11): 1903–8.
Iyer VK, Kapila K, Agarwala S, Verma K. Fine needle aspiration cytology of hepatoblastoma. Recognition of subtypes on cytomorphology. Acta Cytol 2005; 49(4): 355–64.
Jain R, Jain M. Mixed hepatoblastoma diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy cytology: a case report. Diagn Cytopathol 1998; 19(4): 306–8.
Laiq Z, Bishop JA, Ali SZ. Liver lesions in children and adolescents: cytopathologic analysis and clinical correlates in 44 cases. Diagn Cytopathol 2012; 40(7): 586–91.
Parikh B, Jojo A, Shah B, et al. Fine needle aspiration cytology of hepatoblastoma: a study of 20 cases. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2005; 48(3): 331–6.
Us-Krasovec M, Pohar-Marinsek Z, Golouh R, et al. Hepatoblastoma in fine needle aspirates. Acta Cytol 1996; 40(3): 450–6.

Sarcoma

Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma
Aalaei S, Jakate S. Right upper quadrant pain and fever in a 41-year-old man. Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the liver with metastasis to porta hepatis lymph nodes and lung. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2005; 129(5): e134–5.
Boucher LD, Swanson PE, Stanley MV, et al. Cytology of angiosarcoma. Findings in fourteen fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens and one pleural fluid specimen. Am J Clin Pathol 2000; 114(2): 210–19.
Iyer VK, Bandhu S, Verma K. An unusual mass lesion of the liver with distinctive cytology. Cytopathology 2004; 15(4): 233–6.
Jurczyk M, Zhu B, Laskin W, Lin X. Pitfalls in the diagnosis of hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma by FNA and needle core biopsy. Diagn Cytopathol 2014; 42(6): 516–20.
Kiani B, Ferrell LD, Qualman S, Frankel WL. Immunohistochemical analysis of embryonal sarcoma of the liver. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2006; 14(2): 193–7.
Krishnamurthy SC, Datta S, Jambhekar NA. Fine needle aspiration cytology of undifferentiated (embryonal) sarcoma of the liver: a case report. Acta Cytol 1996; 40(3): 567–70.
Liu K, Layfield LJ. Cytomorphologic features of angiosarcoma on fine needle aspiration biopsy. Acta Cytol 1999; 43(3): 407–15.
Nguyen GK, Husain M. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy cytology of angiosarcoma. Diagn Cytopathol 2000; 23(2): 143–5.
Nicol K, Savell V, Moore J, et al. Distinguishing undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver from biliary tract rhabdomyosarcoma: a Children’s Oncology Group study. Pediatr Dev Pathol 2007; 10(2): 89–97.

Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma

Aalaei S, Jakate S. Right upper quadrant pain and fever in a 41-year-old man. Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the liver with metastasis to porta hepatis lymph nodes and lung. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2005; 129(5): e134–5.
Boucher LD, Swanson PE, Stanley MV, et al. Cytology of angiosarcoma. Findings in fourteen fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens and one pleural fluid specimen. Am J Clin Pathol 2000; 114(2): 210–19.
Iyer VK, Bandhu S, Verma K. An unusual mass lesion of the liver with distinctive cytology. Cytopathology 2004; 15(4): 233–6.
Jurczyk M, Zhu B, Laskin W, Lin X. Pitfalls in the diagnosis of hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma by FNA and needle core biopsy. Diagn Cytopathol 2014; 42(6): 516–20.
Kiani B, Ferrell LD, Qualman S, Frankel WL. Immunohistochemical analysis of embryonal sarcoma of the liver. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2006; 14(2): 193–7.
Krishnamurthy SC, Datta S, Jambhekar NA. Fine needle aspiration cytology of undifferentiated (embryonal) sarcoma of the liver: a case report. Acta Cytol 1996; 40(3): 567–70.
Liu K, Layfield LJ. Cytomorphologic features of angiosarcoma on fine needle aspiration biopsy. Acta Cytol 1999; 43(3): 407–15.
Nguyen GK, Husain M. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy cytology of angiosarcoma. Diagn Cytopathol 2000; 23(2): 143–5.
Nicol K, Savell V, Moore J, et al. Distinguishing undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver from biliary tract rhabdomyosarcoma: a Children’s Oncology Group study. Pediatr Dev Pathol 2007; 10(2): 89–97.

Lymphoma

Cohen J, Hariton E, Kothari D, Pihan GA, Robson SC. Hepatosplenic alpha/beta T-cell lymphoma masquerading as cirrhosis. J Gastrointest Oncol 2013; 4(2): 131–6.
Harris NL, Jaffe ES, Diebold J, et al. The World Health Organization classification of hematological malignancies report of the Clinical Advisory Committee Meeting, Airlie House, Virginia, November 1997. Mod Pathol 2000; 13(2): 193–207.
Kashimura M, Murayama K, Kojima M. Primary hepatic and hepatosplenic diffuse large B-cell lymphomas with intrasinusoidal and interstitial lymphomatous infiltration. Int J Surg Pathol 2013; 21(5): 531–4.
Mishra S, Shukla A, Tripathi AK, Kumar A. Primary T-cell lymphoma of liver. BMJ Case Rep 2013; pii: bcr2012008467.
Orucevic A, Reddy VB, Selvaggi SM, et al. Fine-needle aspiration of extranodal and extramedullary hematopoietic malignancies. Diagn Cytopathol 2000; 23(5): 318–21.

Metastatic malignant neoplasms

Metastatic small cell carcinoma
Cimino-Mathews A, Subhawong AP, Illei PB, et al. GATA3 expression in breast carcinoma: utility in triple-negative, sarcomatoid, and metastatic carcinomas. Hum Pathol 2013; 44(7): 1341–9.
Das DK. Cytodiagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in fine-needle aspirates of the liver: its differentiation from reactive hepatocytes and metastatic adenocarcinoma. Diagn Cytopathol 1999; 21(6): 370–7.
Gokden M, Shinde A. Recent immunohistochemical markers in the differential diagnosis of primary and metastatic carcinomas of the liver. Diagn Cytopathol 2005; 33(3): 166–72.
Granados R, Aramburu JA, Murillo N, et al. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of liver masses: diagnostic value and reproducibility of cytological criteria. Diagn Cytopathol 2001; 25(6): 365–75.
Khalbuss WE, Grigorian S, Bui MM, Elhosseiny A. Small-cell tumors of the liver: a cytological study of 91 cases and a review of the literature. Diagn Cytopathol 2005; 33(1): 8–14.
Parwani AV, Chan TY, Mathew S, Ali SZ. Metastatic malignant melanoma in liver aspirate: cytomorphologic distinction from hepatocellular carcinoma. Diagn Cytopathol 2004; 30(4): 247–50.
Reyes CV, Thompson KS, Jensen JD, Choudhury AM. Metastasis of unknown origin: the role of fine-needle aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol 1998; 18(5): 319–22.
Saad RS, Luckasevic TM, Noga CM, et al. Diagnostic value of HepPar1, pCEA, CD10, and CD34 expression in separating hepatocellular carcinoma from metastatic carcinoma in fine-needle aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol 2004; 30(1): 1–6.
Wu M, Szporn AH, Zhang D, et al. Cytology applications of p63 and TTF-1 immunostaining in differential diagnosis of lung cancers. Diagn Cytopathol 2005; 33(4): 223–7.

Metastatic small cell carcinoma

Cimino-Mathews A, Subhawong AP, Illei PB, et al. GATA3 expression in breast carcinoma: utility in triple-negative, sarcomatoid, and metastatic carcinomas. Hum Pathol 2013; 44(7): 1341–9.
Das DK. Cytodiagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in fine-needle aspirates of the liver: its differentiation from reactive hepatocytes and metastatic adenocarcinoma. Diagn Cytopathol 1999; 21(6): 370–7.
Gokden M, Shinde A. Recent immunohistochemical markers in the differential diagnosis of primary and metastatic carcinomas of the liver. Diagn Cytopathol 2005; 33(3): 166–72.
Granados R, Aramburu JA, Murillo N, et al. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of liver masses: diagnostic value and reproducibility of cytological criteria. Diagn Cytopathol 2001; 25(6): 365–75.
Khalbuss WE, Grigorian S, Bui MM, Elhosseiny A. Small-cell tumors of the liver: a cytological study of 91 cases and a review of the literature. Diagn Cytopathol 2005; 33(1): 8–14.
Parwani AV, Chan TY, Mathew S, Ali SZ. Metastatic malignant melanoma in liver aspirate: cytomorphologic distinction from hepatocellular carcinoma. Diagn Cytopathol 2004; 30(4): 247–50.
Reyes CV, Thompson KS, Jensen JD, Choudhury AM. Metastasis of unknown origin: the role of fine-needle aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol 1998; 18(5): 319–22.
Saad RS, Luckasevic TM, Noga CM, et al. Diagnostic value of HepPar1, pCEA, CD10, and CD34 expression in separating hepatocellular carcinoma from metastatic carcinoma in fine-needle aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol 2004; 30(1): 1–6.
Wu M, Szporn AH, Zhang D, et al. Cytology applications of p63 and TTF-1 immunostaining in differential diagnosis of lung cancers. Diagn Cytopathol 2005; 33(4): 223–7.