Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Cited by 3
  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: December 2015

12 - Protecting apex predators



In recent years, there has arisen within the popular media a fascination with large, predatory freshwater fishes. Television shows, internet videos, blogs and magazine articles tell of adventures stalking ‘river monsters’, ‘megafish’ and ‘monster fish’. ‘Extreme fishing’ for giant freshwater fish in exotic locations has become somewhat of a fad. Even before this modern megafish fascination, large predatory fish species were icons of freshwater fish faunas. Today, many of these species also are among the most imperilled. Many features of their life histories and habitats combine to present particularly difficult management challenges (Chapter 2). This chapter presents an overview of the current understanding of the diversity, ecology and conservation status of freshwater fishes that are apex predators – fishes that occupy positions at the top of the food web. Large apex predators, arbitrarily defined here as fishes with the potential to achieve a total length of at least 1 m, tend to be strongly impacted by fisheries and other human actions.

Apex predators in freshwater ecosystems merit special attention from ecologists and conservationists for several reasons. First, they generally rank among the most valuable and heavily exploited fish stocks (Allan et al., 2005; Stone, 2007). Second, they play important roles in communities and ecosystems that can profoundly affect ecological structures and dynamics. Third, they often have life-history traits, such as migration or brood guarding, that make them highly vulnerable to impacts (Chapter 2). Given their position atop food webs, these large predators tend to have lower population densities than fishes at lower trophic levels, even within undisturbed ecosystems. Consequently, apex predators are particularly vulnerable to overexploitation and ecosystem alteration. In this regard, freshwater communities might not differ greatly from terrestrial and marine communities, and top predators oftentimes are the first species to be extirpated when humans begin to exploit renewable natural resources and to impact ecosystems (e.g. wolves in Europe and North America; lions, cheetahs and wild dogs in Africa; thylacines in Tasmania; sharks and groupers of coral reefs; sharks and billfishes in tropical oceans).

What qualifies a species to be categorised as an apex predator? The term implies that the species sits atop a trophic pyramid of population density, biomass, or energy. Some define apex predators as species having no natural enemies, but this of course is nonsense, because all species have predators, even if we exclude parasites from consideration.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Abell, R., Allan, J. D. & Lehner, B. (2007). Unlocking the potential of protected areas for freshwaters. Biological Conservation, 134, 48–63.
Agostinho, A. A., Pelicice, F. M. & Gomes, L. C. (2008). Dams and the fish fauna of the Neotropical region: impacts and management related to diversity and fisheries. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 68(Suppl. 4), 1119–1132.
Allan, J. D., Abell, R., Hogan, Z., et al. (2005). Overfishing of inland waters. BioScience, 55, 1041–1051.
Allen, G. R. (1991). Field Guide to the Freshwater Fishes of New Guinea. Publication No. 9. Madang, Papua New Guinea: Christensen Research Institute.
Arantes, C. C., Castello, L., Stewart, D. J., Cetra, M. & Queiroz, H. L. (2010). Population density, growth and reproduction of the arapaima in an Amazonian river-floodplain. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 19, 455–465.
Baird, I. G. & Flaherty, M. S. (2005). Mekong River fish conservation zones in southern Laos: assessing effectiveness using local ecological knowledge. Environmental Management, 36, 439–454.
Baran, E. & Myschowoda, C. (2009). Dams and fisheries in the Mekong Basin. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management, 12, 227–234.
Barbarino Duque, A. & Winemiller, K. O. (2003). Dietary segregation among large catfishes of the Apure and Arauca rivers, Venezuela. Journal of Fish Biology, 63, 410–427.
Barlow, C. G. & Lisle, A. (1987). Biology of the Nile perch Lates niloticus (Pisces: Centropomidae) with reference to its proposed role as a sport fish in Australia. Biological Conservation, 39, 269–289.
Barthem, R. & Goulding, M. (1997). The Catfish Connection. Ecology, Migration and Conservation of Amazon Predators. New York, NY:Columbia University Press.
Barthem, R. B., Ribeiro, M. C. L. B. & Petrere, M. (1991). Life strategies of some long-distance migratory catfish in relation to hydroelectric dams in the Amazon basin. Biological Conservation, 55, 339–345.
Baskin, J. N., Zaret, T. A. & Mago-Leccia, F. (1980). Feeding of reportedly parasitic catfishes (Trichomycteridae and Cetopsidae) in the Rio Portuguesa Basin, Venezuela. Biotropica, 12, 182–186.
Batista, V. S., Isaac, V. J., Fabré, N. N., et al. (2012). Peixes e Pesca no Solimões-Amazonas: Uma Avaliação Integrada. Brasília: Ibama/ProVárzea.
Belgrano, A. & Fowler, C. W. (2013). How fisheries affect evolution. Science, 342, 1176–1177.
Carpenter, S. R. & Kitchell, J. F. (1988). Consumer control of lake productivity. Bioscience, 38, 764–769.
Casini, M., Blenckner, T., Möllmann, C., et al. (2012). Predator transitory spillover induces trophic cascades in ecological sinks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 109, 8185–8189.
Castello, L. (2008). Nesting habitat of pirarucu Arapaima gigas in floodplains of the Amazon. Journal of Fish Biology, 72, 1520–1528.
Castello, L., Viana, J. P., Watkins, G., Pinedo-Vasquez, M. & Luzadis, V. A. (2009). Lessons from integrating fishers of arapaima in small-scale fisheries management at the Mamirauá Reserve, Amazon. Environmental Management, 43, 197–209.
Castello, L., Stewart, D. J. & Arantes, C. C. (2011). Modeling population dynamics and conservation of arapaima in the Amazon. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 21, 623–640.
Choi, Y. D. (2007). Restoration ecology to the future: a call for a new paradigm. Restoration Ecology, 15, 351–353.
Collette, B. B.Carpenter, K. E., Polidoro, B. A., et al. (2011). High value and long life – double jeopardy for tunas and billfishes. Science, 333, 291–292.
Cooke, S. J. & Cowx, I. G. (2004). The role of recreational fishing in global fish crises. BioScience, 54, 857–859.
Cooke, S. J. & Cowx, I. G. (2006). Contrasting recreational and commercial fishing: searching for common issues to promote unified conservation of fisheries resources and aquatic environments. Biological Conservation, 128, 93–108.
Cooke, S. J. & Schramm, H. L. (2007). Catch-and-release science and its application to conservation and management of recreational fisheries. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 14, 73–79.
Cooke, S. J., Paukert, C. & Hogan, Z. (2012). Endangered river fish: factors hindering conservation and restoration. Endangered Species Research, 17, 179–191.
Copp, G. H., Britton, J. R., Cucherousset, J., et al. (2009). Voracious invader or benign feline? A review of the environmental biology of European catfish Silurus glanis in its native and introduced ranges. Fish and Fisheries, 10, 252–282.
Dakin, W. J. & Kesteven, G. L. (1937). The Murray cod (Maccullochella macquariensis [Cuv. et Val.]). New South Wales State Fisheries Bulletin, 1, 1–18.
Doukakis, P., Babcock, E. A., Pikitch, E. K., et al. (2010). Management and recovery options for Ural River beluga sturgeon. Conservation Biology, 24, 769–777.
Dudgeon, D. (2010). Prospects for sustaining freshwater biodiversity in the 21st century: linking ecosystem structure and function. Current Options in Environmental Sustainability, 2, 422–430.
Dudgeon, D. (2011). Asian river fishes in the Anthropocene: threats and conservation challenges in an era of rapid environmental change. Journal of Fish Biology, 79, 1487–1524.
Dugan, P. J., Barlow, C., Agostinho, A. A., et al. (2010). Fish migration, dams, and loss of ecosystem services in the Mekong Basin. Ambio, 39, 344–348.
Ebner, B. (2006). Murray cod, an apex predator in the Murray River, Australia. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 15, 510–520.
Finer, M. & Jenkins, C. N. (2012). Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes–Amazon connectivity. PLoS ONE, 7, e35126.
Frank, K. T., Petrie, B., Choi, J. S. & Leggett, W. C. (2005). Trophic cascades in a formerly cod-dominated ecosystem. Science, 308, 1621–1623.
Frazier, J. (2007). Sustainable use of wildlife: the view from archaeozoology. Journal for Nature Conservation, 15, 163–173.
Froese, R. (2004). Keep it simple: three indicators to deal with overfishing. Fish and Fisheries, 5, 86–91.
Fulton, W. (2011). Sustainability of Recreational Fisheries for Murray Cod in the Murray Darling Basin. Final Report to Fisheries Research & Development Corporation Project No. 2006/053. Department of Primary Industries, Queenscliff, Victoria.
Garcia de Leon, F. J., Gonzalez-Garcia, L., Herrera-Castillo, J. S., Winemiller, K. O. & Banda-Valdes, A. (2001). Ecology of the alligator gar, Atractosteus spatula, in the Vicente Guerrero Reservoir, Tamaulipas, Mexico. The Southwestern Naturalist, 46, 151–157.
Gende, S. M., Edwards, R. T., Willson, M. F. & Wipfli, M. S. (2002). Pacific salmon in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. BioScience, 52, 917–928.
Goldschmidt, T., Witte, F. & Wanink, J. H. (1993). Cascading effects of the introduced Nile perch on the detritivorous/phytoplanktivorous species in the sublittoral areas of Lake Victoria. Conservation Biology, 7, 686–700.
Goudswaard, P. C. & Witte, F. (1997). The catfish fauna of Lake Victoria after the Nile perch upsurge. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 49, 21–43.
Halliday, I., Ley, J., Tobin, A., et al. (2001). The Effects of Netfishing: Addressing Biodiversity and Bycatch Issues in Queensland Inshore Waters. Southern Fisheries Centre, Department of Fisheries, Deception Bay.
Heithaus, M. R., Frid, A., Wirsing, A. J. & Worm, B. (2007). Predicting ecological consequences of marine top predator declines. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 23, 202–210.
Hoeinghaus, D. J., Agostinho, A. A., Gomes, L. C., et al. (2009). River impoundment results in a mismatch between embodied energy and market value of a tropical artisanal fishery. Conservation Biology, 23, 1222–1231.
Hogan, Z. (2011). Imperiled Giant Fish and Mainstream Dams in the Lower Mekong Basin: Assessment of Current Status, Threats, and Mitigation. Unpublished report, University of Nevada, Reno, p. 13.
Hogan, Z. S., Moyle, P. B., May, B., Vander Zanden, M. J. & Baird, I. G. (2004). Imperiled giants of the Mekong: ecologists struggle to understand and protect Southeast Asia's large migratory catfish. American Scientist, 92, 228–237.
Holcík, J., Hensel, K., Nieslanik, J. & Skacel, L. (1988). The Eurasian Huchen, Hucho hucho, Largest Salmon of the World. Boston, MA:Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Hughes, N. F. (1992). Nile perch, Lates niloticus, predation on the freshwater prawn, Caridina nilotica, in the Nyanza Gulf, Lake Victoria, East Africa. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 33, 307–309.
Humphries, P. L. & Winemiller, K. O. (2009). Historical impacts on river fauna, shifting baselines and challenges for restoration. BioScience, 59, 673–684.
Jackson, D. A. (2002). Ecological effects of Micropterus introductions: the dark side of black bass. In Black Bass: Ecology, Conservation, and Management. American Fisheries Society Symposium 31. Bethesda, MD: American Fisheries Society, pp. 221–232.
Jensen, O. P., Gilroy, D. J., Hogan, Z., et al. (2009). Evaluating recreational fisheries for an endangered species: a case study of taimen, Hucho taimen, in Mongolia. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 66, 1707–1718.
Jepsen, D. B., Winemiller, K. O., Taphorn, D. C. & Rodriguéz-Olarte, D. (1999). Variation in age structure and growth of peacock cichlids from rivers and reservoirs of Venezuela. Journal of Fish Biology, 55, 433–450.
Kennard, M. J. (1995). Factors Influencing Freshwater Fish Assemblages in Floodplain Lagoons of the Normanby River, Cape York Peninsula: A Large Tropical River. MPhil thesis, Griffith University, Brisbane.
Khodorevskaya, R., Dovgopol, G., Zhuravleva, O. & Vlasenko, A. (1997). Present status of commercial stocks of sturgeon in the Caspian Sea Basin. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 48, 209–219.
Kingsford, R. T. & Nevill, J. (2005). Scientists urge expansion of freshwater protected areas. Ecological Management and Restoration, 6, 161–162.
Lawrence, D. J., Larson, E. R., Liermann, C. A. R., et al. (2011). National parks as protected areas for US freshwater fish diversity. Conservation Letters, 4, 364–371.
Layman, C. A., Winemiller, K. O. & Arrington, D. A. (2005). Describing a species-rich river food web using stable isotopes, stomach contents, and functional experiments. In Dynamic Food Webs: Multispecies Assemblages, Ecosystem Development and Environmental Change. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 395–406.
Leonardos, I. D., Tsikliras, A. C., Batzakas, I. & Liousia, V. (2009). Life-history characteristics of the endangered Aristotle's catfish (Silurus aristotelis Garman, 1890), Lake Pamvotis, north-west Greece. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 25, 746–751.
Lichter, J., Caron, H., Pasakarnis, T. S., et al. (2006). The ecological collapse and partial recovery of a freshwater tidal ecosystem. Northeastern Naturalist, 13, 153–178.
Lintermans, M. (2007). Fishes of the Murray–Darling Basin: An Introductory Guide. Canberra: Murray-Darling Basin Commission.
Lipsey, M. K. & Child, M. F. (2007). Combining the fields of reintroduction biology and restoration ecology. Conservation Biology, 21, 1387–1388.
Lyman, R. L. (2006). Paleozoology in the service of conservation biology. Evolutionary Anthropology, 15, 11–19.
McCarley, H. & Hill, L. G. (1979). Reproduction of Lepisosteus spatula (Lepisostedae) in Lake Texoma. The Southwestern Naturalist, 24, 694–695.
McIntyre, P. B., Jones, L. E., Flecker, A. S. & Vanni, M. J. (2007). Fish extinctions alter nutrient cycling in tropical freshwaters. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 104, 4461–4466.
Miller, J. A., Butler, V. L., Simenstad, C. A., Backus, D. H. & Kent, A. J. R. (2011). Life history variation in Upper Columbia River chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): a comparison using modern and ~500-year-old archaeological otoliths. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 68, 603–617.
Mims, M. C. & Olden, J. D. (2012). Life history theory predicts fish assemblage response to hydrologic regimes. Ecology, 93, 35–45.
Montaña, C. G., Layman, C. A. & Winemiller, K. O. (2011). Gape size influences seasonal patterns of piscivore diets in three Neotropical rivers. Neotropical Ichthyology, 9, 647–655.
Myers, R. A. & Worm, B. (2003). Rapid worldwide depletion of predatory fish communities. Nature, 423, 280–283.
Myers, R. A., Braum, J. K., Shepherd, T. D., Powers, S. P. & Peterson, C. H. (2007). Cascading effects of the loss of apex predatory sharks from a coastal ocean. Science, 315, 1846–1850.
Norfatimah, M. Y., Siti Azizah, M. N., Othman, A. S., Patimah, I. & Jamsari, A. F. I. (2009). Genetic variation of Lates calcarifer in Peninsular Malaysia based on the cytochrome b gene. Aquaculture Research, 40, 1742–1749.
O'Connell, M. T., Shepherd, T. D., O'Connell, A. M. U. & Myers, R. A. (2007). Long-term declines in two apex predators, bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) and alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula), in Lake Pontchartrain, an oligohaline estuary in southeastern Louisiana. Estuaries and Coasts, 30, 567–574.
Olden, J. D., Poff, N. L. & Bestgen, K. R. (2006). Life-history strategies predict fish invasions and extirpations in the Colorado River Basin. Ecological Monographs, 76, 25–40.
Olden, J. D., Hogan, Z. S. & Vander Zanden, M. J. (2007). Small fish, big fish, red fish, blue fish: size-biased extinction risk of the world's freshwater and marine fishes. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 16, 694–701.
Palmer, M. A., Bernhardt, E. S., Allan, J. D., et al. (2005). Standards for ecologically successful river restoration. Journal of Applied Ecology, 42, 208–217.
Palmer, M. A., Menninger, H. L. & Bernhardt, E. (2010). River restoration, habitat heterogeneity and biodiversity: a failure of theory or practice?Freshwater Biology, 55, 205–222.
Pauly, D. (1995). Anecdotes and the shifting baseline syndrome of fisheries. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 10, 430.
Persson, L., Amundsen, P. A., De Roos, A. M., et al. (2007). Culling prey promotes predator recovery-alternative states in a whole-lake experiment. Science, 316, 1743–1746.
Petrere, M. Jr, Barthem, R. B., Córdoba, E. A. & Gómez, B. C. (2004). Review of the large catfish fisheries in the upper Amazon and the stock depletion of piraíba (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum Lichtenstein). Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 14, 403–414.
Pikitch, E. K., Doukakis, P., Lauck, L., Chakrabarty, P. & Erickson, D. L. (2005). Status, trends and management of sturgeon and paddlefish fisheries. Fish and Fisheries, 6, 233–265.
Pinsky, M. L., Malin, L., Jensen, O. P., Ricard, D. & Palumbi, S. R. (2011). Unexpected patterns of fisheries collapse in the world's oceans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 108, 8317–8322.
Post, J. R., Sullivan, M., Cox, S., et al. (2002). Canada's recreational fisheries: the invisible collapse?Fisheries, 27, 6–17.
Power, M. E., Matthews, W. J. & Stewart, A. J. (1985). Grazing minnows, piscivorous bass and stream algae: dynamics of a strong interaction. Ecology, 66, 1448–1456.
Pringle, R. M. (2005). The origins of the Nile perch in Lake Victoria. BioScience, 55, 780–787.
Pusey, B. J., Kennard, M. J. & Arthington, A. H. (2004). Freshwater Fishes of North-eastern Australia. Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing.
Pusey, B., Burrows, D., Arthington, A. & Kennard, M. (2006). Translocation and spread of piscivorous fishes in the Burdekin River, north-eastern Australia. Biological Invasions, 8, 965–977.
Pusey, B., Kennard, M., Burrows, D., et al. (2011). Freshwater fish. In Aquatic Biodiversity of the Wet–Dry Tropics of Northern Australia: Patterns, Threats And Future. Darwin: Charles Darwin University Press, pp. 71–92.
Rainboth, W. (1996). Fishes of the Cambodian Mekong. Rome: MRC-FAO-DANIDA.
Revenga, C., Campbell, I., Abell, R., de Villiers, P. & Bryer, M. (2005). Prospects for monitoring freshwater ecosystems towards the 2010 targets. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 360, 397–413.
Rimmer, M. (2008). Production update – marine finfish aquaculture in the Asia-Pacific region. Aquaculture Asia, 13, 44–46.
Rimmer, M. & Russell, J. (2001). Stock enhancement of barramundi Lates calcarifer (Bloch) in Queensland, Australia. In: Aquaculture and Fisheries Resource Management. Conference Proceedings of the Joint Taiwan–Australia Aquaculture and Fisheries Resources and Management Forum, Keelung. Taiwan Fisheries Institute No. 4, pp. 185–192.
Roberts, T. R. (1990). Mimicry of prey by fin-eating fishes of the African characoid genus Eugnathichthys (Pisces: Distichodontidae). Ichthyological Explorations of Freshwaters, 1, 23–31.
Robins, J. B., Halliday, I. A. & Staunton-Smith, J. (2005). Freshwater-flow requirements of estuarine fisheries in tropical Australia: a review of the state of knowledge and application of a suggested approach. Marine and Freshwater Research, 56, 343–360.
Romme, W. H., Wiens, J. A. & Safford, H. D. (2012). Setting the stage: theoretical and conceptual background of historical range of variation. In Historical Environmental Variation in Conservation and Natural Resource Management. Hoboken, NJ:John Wiley & Sons, pp. 3–18.
Rowland, S. J. (1989). Aspects of the history and fishery of the Murray cod, Maccullochella peeli (Mitchell) (Percichthyidae). Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 111, 201–213.
Russell, D. J. (1987). Review of juvenile barramundi (Lates calcarifer) wildstocks in Australia. In Management of Wild and Cultured Seabass/Barramundi. Proceedings of an International Workshop, Darwin. Canberra: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, pp. 44–49.
Sakaris, P. C., Ferrara, A. M., Kleiner, K. J. & Irwin, E. R. (2003). Movements and home ranges of alligator gar in the Mobile–Tensaw Delta, Alabama. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, 57, 102–111.
Saunders, D. L., Meeuwig, J. J. & Vincent, A. C. J. (2002). Freshwater protected areas: strategies for conservation. Conservation Biology, 16, 30–41.
Sazima, I. (1983). Scale-eating in characoids and other fishes. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 9, 87–101.
Scarnecchia, D. L. (1992). A reappraisal of gars and bowfins in fishery management. Fisheries, 17, 6–12.
Seddon, P. J., Armstrong, D. P. & Maloney, R. F. (2007). Developing the science of reintroduction biology. Conservation Biology, 21, 303–312.
Sharpe, D. M. T., Wandera, S. B. & Chapman, L. J. (2012). Life history change in response to fishing and an introduced predator in the East African cyprinid, Rastrineobola argentea. Evolutionary Applications, 5, 677–693.
Skelton, P. H. (1993). A Complete Guide to the Freshwater Fishes of Southern Africa. Halfway House, South Africa: Southern Book Publishers.
Stewart, D. J. (2013). Re-description of Arapaima agassizii (Valenciennes), a rare fish from Brazil (Osteoglossomorpha, Osteoglossidae). Copeia, 2013, 38–51.
Stone, R. (2007). The last of the leviathans. Science, 316, 1684–1688.
Strong, D. R. & Frank, K. T. (2010). Human involvement in food webs. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 35, 1–23.
Suski, C. D. & Cooke, S. J. (2007). Conservation of aquatic resources through the use of freshwater protected areas: opportunities and challenges. Biodiversity and Conservation, 16, 2015–2029.
Tedesco, P. A., Hugueny, B., Oberdorff, T., et al. (2008). River hydrological seasonality influences life history strategies of tropical river fishes. Oecologia, 156, 691–702.
Trautman, M. B. (1981). The Fishes of Ohio, with Illustrated Keys. Columbus, OH:Ohio State University Press.
Vander Zanden, M. J., Joppa, L. N., Allen, B. C., et al. (2007). Modeling spawning dates of Hucho taimen in Mongolia to establish fishery management zones. Ecological Applications, 17, 2281–2289.
Vickers, D. (2004). Those dammed shad: would the river fisheries of New England have survived in the absence of industrialization?William and Mary Quarterly, 61, 685–712.
Wei, Q., Ke, F., Zhang, J., et al. (1997). Biology, fisheries and conservation of sturgeons and paddlefish in China. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 48, 241–255.
Welcomme, R. (2008). World prospects for floodplain fisheries. Ecohydrology and Hydrobiology, 8, 169–182.
Winemiller, K. O. (1989). Patterns of variation in life history among South American fishes in seasonal environments. Oecologia, 81, 225–241.
Winemiller, K. O. (1992). Life history strategies and the effectiveness of sexual selection. Oikos, 62, 318–327.
Winemiller, K. O. (2001). Ecology of peacock cichlids (Cichla spp.) in Venezuela. Journal of Aquariculture and Aquatic Sciences, 9, 93–112.
Winemiller, K. O. (2005). Life history strategies, population regulation, and their implications for fisheries management. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 62, 872–885.
Winemiller, K. O. & Jepsen, D. B. (2004). Migratory neotropical fish subsidize food webs of oligotrophic blackwater rivers. In Food Webs at the Landscape Level. Chicago, IL:University of Chicago Press, pp. 115–132.
Winemiller, K. O. & Rose, K. A. (1992). Patterns of life-history diversification in North American fishes: implications for population regulation. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 49, 2196–2218.
Winemiller, K. O. & Yan, H. Y. (1989). Obligate mucus feeding in a South American trichomycterid catfish. Copeia, 1989, 511–514.
Witte, F., Maku, B. S., Wanink, J. H., et al. (2000). Recovery of cichlid species in Lake Victoria: an examination of factors leading to differential extinction. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 10, 233–41.
Zaret, T. M. & Paine, R. T. (1973). Species introduction into a tropical lake. Science, 182(4111), 449–455.