Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Cited by 1
  • Print publication year: 2019
  • Online publication date: November 2019

15 - Long-term diet of the chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Taï National Park: interannual variations in consumption

Summary

After 40 years, four groups of chimpanzees of the Taï Chimpanzee Project have been habituated to human observers and are followed daily. Data collected on the different groups allow us to follow long-term trends in the socioecology of the Taï chimpanzees. Chimpanzees are ecologically ?exible omnivores with broad diets comprising mainly plant and animal foods. Like other ecologically ?exible non-human primates with broad diets, their diets vary across time and habitats. Strong interannual changes have been shown to exist in the food composition of the wild chimpanzee’s diet. Because of this, only data collected over time can reveal their diversified food selection. In this chapter we list all of the plant and animal foods consumed by the two oldest habituated chimpanzee groups in the Taï Forest. We document variation of use between groups and across years. We analyse the consumption variations of some key food species within the two communities, with a focus on plant components of the diet. As for plant foods, the chimpanzees have been seen to feed on 503 food items from 363 plant species. Fruit represents 73.76% of number of food species and 85% when one considers feeding time.

Altmann, J. (1974). Observational methods in the study of behaviour. Behaviour, 49, 227267.
Anderson, D. P. (2001). Tree phenology and distribution, and their relation to chimpanzee social ecology in the Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. PhD thesis (Zoology) thesis. University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Anderson, D. P., Nordheim, E. V., Moermond, T. C., Goné Bi, Z. B. & Boesch, C. (2005). Factors influencing tree phenology in Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. Biotropica, 37, 631640.
Basabose, K. (2002). Diet composition of chimpanzees inhabiting the montane forest of Kahuzi, Democratic Republic of Congo. International Journal of Primatology, 23, 121.
Boesch, C. & Boesch, H. (1983). Optimization of nut-cracking with natural hammers by wild chimpanzees. Behaviour, 83, 265286.
Boesch, C. & Boesch-Achermann, H. (2000). The Chimpanzees of the Taï Forest: Behavioural Ecology and Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gaulin, S. J. (1979). A Jarman/Bell model of primate feeding niches. Human Ecology, 7, 120.
Goné Bi, Z. B. (1999). Phénologie et distribution des plantes dont divers organes (principalement les fruits) sont consommés par les chimpanzés, dans le Parc national de Taï, Côte d’Ivoire. Mémoire DEA, Université Cocody.
Goné Bi, Z. B. (2007). Régime alimentaire des chimpanzés, Distribution spatiale et phénologie des plantes dont les fruits sont consommés par les chimpanzés, dans le Parc National de Taï en Côte d’Ivoire. Thèse de Doctorat Unique. Université de Cocody-Abidjan.
Goné Bi, Z. B., Vroh, B. T. A., Kouamé, D., Kpangui, K. B. & Adou Yao, C. Y. (2016). Woody species diversity and vegetation structure of chimpanzees’ territories in Taï National Park, south-west Côte d’Ivoire. International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies, 18, 749759.
Hladik, C. M. (1977). Chimpanzees of Gombe and the chimpanzeesof Gabon: Some comparative data on the diet. In Clutton-Brock, T. H. (ed.), Primate Ecology (pp. 481501). New York: Academic Press.
Hladik, C. M. & Viroben, G. (1974). L’alimentation protéique du Chimpanzé dans son environnement forestier naturel. Comptes rendus de l’Académie des Sciences Paris, série D, 279, 14751478.
Hoppe-Dominik, B. (1995). L’état actuel des effectifs des grands mammifères dans l’ensemble du Parc National de Taï Direction de la Protection de la Nature. Abidjan.
Isaac, G. (1978). Food sharing and human evolution: Archaeological evidence from the Plio-Pleistocene of East Africa. Journal of Anthropological Research, 34, 311325.
Itani, J. & Suzuki, A. (1967). The social unit of chimpanzees. Primates, 8, 355381.
Le Saout, S., Hoffmann, M., Shi, Y., Hughes, A., Bernard, C., Brooks, T. M., et al. (2013). Protected areas and effective biodiversity conservation. Science, 342, 803805.
McGrew, W. C. (1983). Animal foods in the diets of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Why cross-cultural variations? Journal of Ethology, 1, 4661.
McGrew, W. C., Baldwin, P. J. & Tutin, C. E. G. (1988). Diet of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Mt. Assirik, Senegal. I. Composition. American Journal of Primatology, 16, 213243
Newton-Fisher, N. E. (1999). The diet of chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest. African Journal of Ecology, 34, 344354.
Nishida, T. & Uehara, S. (1983). Natural diet of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii): Long-term records from the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. African Studies Monographs, 3, 109130.
Peters, C. R. & O’Brien, E. M. (1981). The early hominid plant-food niche: Insights from an analysis of plant exploitation by Homo, Pan, and Papio in eastern and southern Africa. Current Anthropology, 22, 127140.
Sabater-Pi, J. (1979). Feeding behaviour and diet of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in the Okorobiko Mountains of Rio Muni (West Africa). Zeitschrift fuer Tierpsychologie, 50, 265281.
Sugiyama, Y. & Koman, J. (1979). Tool-using and-making behavior in wild chimpanzees at Bossou, Guinea. Primates, 20, 513524.
Sugiyama, Y. & Koman, J. (1992). The flora of Bossou: Its utilization by chimpanzees and humans. African Study Monographs, 13, 127169.
Suzuki, A. (1969). An ecological study of chimpanzees in a savanna woodland. Primates, 10, 103148.
Tutin, C. E. G. & Fernandez, M. (1992). Insect-eating by sympatric lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla) and chimpanzees (Pan t. troglodytes) in the Lope Reserve, Gabon. American Journal of Primatology, 28, 2940
Tutin, C. E. G. & Fernandez, M. (1993). Fecal analysis as a method for describing diets of apes: Examples from sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees at Lope, Gabon. Tropics, 2, 189198.
van Schaik, C. P. & Brockman, D. K. (2005). Seasonality in primate ecology, reproduction, and life history: An overview. In Brockman, D. K. & van Schaik, C. P. (eds.), Seasonality in Primates: Studies of Living and Extinct Human and Non-human Primates (pp. 320). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Watts, D. P., Potts, K. B., Lwanga, J. S. & Mitani, J. C. (2012a). Diet of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda, 1. Diet composition and diversity. American Journal of Primatology, 74, 114129.
Watts, D. P., Potts, K. B., Lwanga, J. S. & Mitani, J. C. (2012b). Diet of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda, 2. Temporal variation and fallback foods. American Journal of Primatology, 74, 130144.
Wilson, M. L., Boesch, C., Fruth, B., Furuichi, T., Gilby, I. C., Hashimoto, C., et al. (2014). Lethal aggression in Pan is better explained by adaptive strategies than human impacts. Nature, 513, 414417.
Wittig, R. M. (2018). Taï chimpanzees. In Vonk, J. & Shackelford, T. (eds.), Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior. New York: Springer.
Wrangham, R. W. (1975). The Behavioural Ecology of Chimpanzees in Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wrangham, R. W. (1977). Feeding behaviour of chimpanzees in Gombe National park, Tanzania. In Clutton-Brock, T. H. (ed.), Primate Ecology (pp. 503538). New York: Academic Press.
Wrangham, R. W., Chapman, C. A., Clark-Arcadi, A. P. & Isabirye Basuta, G. (1996). Social ecology of Kanyawara chimpanzees: Implications for understanding the cost of great ape groups. In McGrew, W. C., Marchant, L. F. & Nishida, T. (eds.), Great Ape Societies (pp. 4557). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wrangham, R. W., Conklin, N. L., Chapman, C. A. & Hunt, K. A. (1991). The significance of fibrous foods for Kibale Forest chimpanzees. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 334, 171178.
Zihlman, A. (1978). Women and evolution, Part II: Subsistence and social organization among early hominids. Signs: Journal of Women, Culture, and Society, 4, 420.