Skip to main content Accessibility help
Carnap and Twentieth-Century Thought
  • Cited by 84
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Rudolf Carnap (1891–1970) is widely regarded as one of the most important philosophers of the twentieth century. Born in Germany and later a US citizen, he was a founder of the philosophical movement known as Logical Empiricism. He was strongly influenced by a number of different philosophical traditions (including the legacies of both Kant and Husserl), and also by the German Youth Movement, the First World War (in which he was wounded and decorated), and radical socialism. This book places his central ideas in a broad cultural, political and intellectual context, showing how he synthesised many different currents of thought to achieve a philosophical perspective that remains strikingly relevant in the twenty-first century. Its rich account of a philosopher's response to his times will appeal to all who are interested in the development of philosophy in the twentieth century.


'André Carus has provided a rich and thoroughly illuminating account of Carnap's development throughout the period, and with it a valuable corrective to the image of Carnap as a narrow, somewhat blinkered, logical technician.'

Source: British Journal for the History of Philosophy

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


d'Alembert, J. L. (1751) Preliminary Discourse to the Encyclopedia of Diderot, trans. by R. N. Schwab (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995).
Ash, M. G. (1998) Gestalt Psychology in German Culture 1890–1967: Holism and the Quest for Objectivity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Aufmuth, U. (1979) Die deutsche Wandervogelbewegung unter soziologischem Aspekt (Göttingen: Vandenhoek und Ruprecht).
Awodey, S. and Carus, A. W. (2001) ‘Carnap, Completeness, and Categoricity: The Gabelbarkeitssatz of 1928’, Erkenntnis 54, pp. 145–72.
Awodey, S. and A. W. Carus (2003) ‘Carnap vs. Gödel on Syntax and Tolerance’, in Parrini, P., Salmon, W. C., and Salmon, M. H., eds., Logical Empiricism: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press), pp. 57–64.
Awodey, S. and A. W. Carus (2004) ‘How Carnap Could Have Replied to Gödel’, in Awodey and Klein (2004), pp. 199–220.
Awodey, S. and A. W. Carus (2007) ‘The Turning Point: Philosophy of Mathematics in Logical Empiricism from the Tractatus to Logical Syntax ’, in Richardson, A. and Uebel, T., eds., The Cambridge Companion to Logical Empiricism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 165–92.
Awodey, S. and Carus, A. W. (forthcoming) ‘Carnap's Dream: Gödel, Wittgenstein, and Logical Syntax ’, in Synthese.
Awodey, S. and Klein, C., eds. (2004) Carnap Brought Home: The View from Jena (LaSalle, IL: Open Court).
Awodey, S. and Reck, E. (2002) ‘Completeness and Categoricity. Part I: Nineteenth-century Axiomatics to Twentieth-Century Metalogic’, History and Philosophy of Logic 23, pp. 1–30.
Ayer, A. J. (1937) ‘Verification and Experience’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 37, pp. 137–56.
Ayer, A. J. (1982) Philosophy in the Twentieth Century (New York: Random House).
Bachelard, G. (1934) Le Nouvel Esprit scientifique (Paris: Alcan).
Bachelard, G. (1938) La Formation de l'esprit scientifique: Contribution à une psychanalyse de la connaissance objective (Paris: Vrin).
Baker, K. M. (1975) Condorcet: From Natural Philosophy to Social Mathematics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).
Banks, E. C. (2005) ‘Kant, Herbart, and Riemann’, Kant-Studien 96, pp. 208–34.
Bauch, B. (1911) Studien zur Philosophie der exakten Wissenschaften (Heidelberg: Winter).
Beaney, M. (1996) Frege: Making Sense (London: Duckworth).
Beaney, M. (2004) ‘Carnap's Conception of Explication: From Frege to Husserl?’ in Awodey and Klein (2004), pp. 117–50.
Beeck, K.-H. (1975) Friedrich Wilhelm Dörpfeld: Anpassung im Zwiespalt (Neuwied: Luchterhand).
Bereiter, C. and Scardamalia, M. (1993) Surpassing Ourselves: An Inquiry into the Nature and Implications of Expertise (LaSalle, IL: Open Court).
Berlin, I. (1973) ‘J. L. Austin and the Early Beginnings of Oxford Philosophy’, repr. in Personal Impressions, 2nd edn (London: Pimlico, 1998), pp. 130–45.
Beth, E. W. (1963) ‘Carnap's Views on the Advantages of Constructed Systems over Natural Languages in the Philosophy of Science’, in Schilpp (1963), pp. 469–502.
Bias-Engels, S. (1988) Zwischen Wandervogel und Wissenschaft: Zur Geschichte von Jugendbewegung und Studentenschaft 1896–1920 (Cologne: Verlag Wissenschaft und Politik).
Bird, G. H. (1995) ‘Carnap and Quine: Internal and External Questions’, Erkenntnis 42, pp. 41–64.
Bird, G. H. (2006) The Revolutionary Kant: A Commentary on the Critique of Pure Reason (LaSalle, IL: Open Court).
Blakeslee, S. (2003) ‘Moved by Thought’, The New York Times, Science Pages, (13 October 2003).
Blaug, M. (1980) The Methodology of Economics, or How Economists Explain (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Bloor, D. (1976) Knowledge and Social Imagery (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul).
Bloor, D. (1996) Wittgenstein, Rules, and Institutions (London: Routledge).
Bohnert, H. G. (1975a) ‘Homage to Rudolf Carnap, 10’, in Hintikka, J., ed., Rudolf Carnap, Logical Empiricist (Dordrecht: Reidel), pp. XXⅪ–XⅬIV.
Bohnert, H. G. (1975b) ‘Carnap's Logicism’, in Hintikka, J., ed., Rudolf Carnap, Logical Empiricist (Dordrecht: Reidel), pp. 183–216.
Boltzmann, L. (1896) ‘Ein Wort der Mathematik an die Energetik’, Annalen der Physik und Chemie 57, pp. 39–71.
Bonner, J. T. (1983) The Evolution of Culture in Animals (Princeton: Princeton University Press).
Boyd, R. and Richerson, P. J. (1985) Culture and the Evolutionary Process (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).
Brandom, R. B. (1994) Making It Explicit: Reasoning, Representing, and Discursive Commitment (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).
Brandom, R. B. (1999) Articulating Reasons: An Introduction to Inferentialism (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).
Bruford, W. H. (1975) The German Tradition of Self-Cultivation: Bildung from Humboldt to Thomas Mann (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Burge, T. (1992) ‘Philosophy of Language and Mind: 1950–1990’, Philosophical Review 101, pp. 3–52.
Burling, R. (2006) The Talking Ape: How Language Evolved (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
Carnap, R. (1922) Der Raum: Ein Beitrag zur Wissenschaftslehre, Kant-Studien Ergänzungshefte, Nr. 56 (Berlin: Reuther & Reichard).
Carnap, R. (1923) ‘Über die Aufgabe der Physik und die Anwendung des Grundsatzes der Einfachstheit’, Kant-Studien 28, pp. 90–107.
Carnap, R. (1924) ‘Dreidimensionalität des Raumes und Kausalität: Eine Untersuchung über den logischen Zusammenhang zweier Fiktionen’, Annalen der Philosophie und philosophischen Kritik 4, pp. 105–30.
Carnap, R. (1926) Physikalische Begriffsbildung (Karlsruhe: Braun).
Carnap, R. (1927) ‘Eigentliche und uneigentliche Begriffe’, Symposion 1, pp. 355–74.
Carnap, R. ([Box 4, CM 13, item 5 ‘Welchen Sinn hat die Wahrscheinlichkeitsaussage über ein künftiges Ereignis? [zu. S. 26]’ (typed table), 20 November [1928]. This table appears to have been enclosed in a letter to Kaila of 28 January 1929.) Der logische Aufbau der Welt (Berlin: Weltkreis).
Carnap, R. (1928b) Scheinprobleme in der Philosophie (Berlin: Weltkreis).
Carnap, R. (1929) Abriß der Logistik, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Relationstheorie und ihrer Anwendungen (Vienna: Springer).
Carnap, R. ([Box 4, CM 13, item 7] ‘Über die Naturgesetze als Operationsvorschriften (Kon-stitutionsregeln) [Gespräch mit Feigl]’, 2 August 1930.) ‘Die alte und die neue Logik’, Erkenntnis 1, pp. 12–26.
Carnap, R. ([Box 4, CM 13, item 1] ‘Plan für Kaila-Aufsatz: Über die Erkenntnis des sog. “Nicht-Gegebenen”’ (shorthand), 2 November 1930; also an outline headed ‘Kaila-Aufsatz’ on a separate sheet dated 29 October 1930.) Review of Kaufmann (1930), Deutsche Literaturzeitung 51, cols. 1674–8.
Carnap, R. ([Box 3, CM 10, loose sheet] ‘Einführung in die wissenschaftliche Philosophie: [alter] Plan’ (shorthand), 18 November 1930.) ‘Bericht über Untersuchungen zur allgemeinen Axiomatik’, Erkenntnis 1, pp. 303–7.
Carnap, R. (1930d) Review of Kaila (1930), Erkenntnis 2, pp. 75–7.
Carnap, R. (1931) ‘Die logizistische Grundlegung der Mathematik’, Erkenntnis 2, pp. 91–105.
Carnap, R. (1932a) ‘Überwindung der Metaphysik durch logische Analyse der Sprache’, Erkenntnis 2, pp. 219–41.
Carnap, R. (1932b) ‘Die physikalische Sprache als Universalsprache der Wissenschaft’, Erkenntnis 2, pp. 432–65, trans. M. Black as Unity of Science (London: Routledge, 1934).
Carnap, R. (1932c) ‘Psychologie in physikalischer Sprache’, Erkenntnis 3, pp. 107–42.
Carnap, R. (1932d) ‘Erwiderung auf die vorstehenden Aufsätze von E. Zilsel und K. Duncker’, Erkenntnis 3, pp. 177–88.
Carnap, R. (1932e) ‘Über Protokollsätze’, Erkenntnis 3, pp. 215–28; trans. R. Creath and R. Nollan as ‘On Protocol Sentences’, Nous 21 (1987), pp. 457–70.
Carnap, R. (1934a) Logische Syntax der Sprache (Vienna: Springer), trans. Amethe Smeaton as The Logical Syntax of Language (London: Routledge, 1937).
Carnap, R. (1934b) ‘Theoretische Fragen und praktische Entscheidungen’, Natur und Geist 2, pp. 257–60.
Carnap, R. (1934c) Die Aufgabe der Wissenschaftslogik (Vienna: Gerold), trans. H. Kaal as ‘The Task of the Logic of Science’, in McGuinness, B., ed., Unified Science: The Vienna Circle Monograph Series (Dordrecht: Reidel, 1987), pp. 46–66.
Carnap, R. (1934d) ‘On the Character of Philosophical Problems’, Philosophy of Science 1, pp. 5–19; German original ‘Über den Charakter philosophischer Probleme’ published in Carnap, R., Scheinprobleme in der Philosophie und andere metaphysikkritische Schriften, ed. Mormann, T. (Hamburg: Meiner, 2004), pp. 111–27.
Carnap, R. (1935a) Philosophy and Logical Syntax (London: Routledge).
Carnap, R. (1935b) Review of Popper (1935), Erkenntnis 5, pp. 290–4.
Carnap, R. (1936) ‘Wahrheit und Bewährung’, in Actes du Congrès international de philosophie scientifique, Sorbonne, Paris 1935, fasc. 4. Unité de la science (Paris: Hermann), pp. 18–23.
Carnap, R. (1936–7) ‘Testability and Meaning’, Philosophy of Science 3, pp. 419–71 and 4, pp. 1–40.
Carnap, R. (1939) Foundations of Logic and Mathematics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).
Carnap, R. (1942) Introduction to Semantics (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).
Carnap, R. (1945) ‘The Two Concepts of Probability’, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 5, pp. 513–32.
Carnap, R. (1950a) ‘Empiricism, Semantics, and Ontology’, repr. in his Meaning and Necessity, 2nd edn (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956), pp. 205–21.
Carnap, R. (1950b) Logical Foundations of Probability (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).
Carnap, R. (1955) ‘On Some Concepts of Pragmatics’, Philosophical Studies 6 (1955), pp. 89–91, repr. in Meaning and Necessity, 2nd edn (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956), pp. 249–51.
Carnap, R. (1956) ‘The Methodological Character of Theoretical Concepts’, in Feigl, H. and Scriven, M., eds., The Foundations of Science and the Concepts of Psychology and Psychoanalysis (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press), pp. 38–76.
Carnap, R. (1961) ‘Vorwort zur Zweiten Auflage’, in Carnap (1928), 2nd edn (Hamburg: Meiner), pp. X–XV.
Carnap, R. (1963) ‘Carnap's Intellectual Autobiography’ and ‘The Philosopher Replies’, in Schilpp (1963), pp. 3–84, 859–1013.
Carnap, R. (1966) Philosophical Foundations of Physics: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science (New York: Basic Books).
Carnap, R. (1968) ‘Inductive Logic and Inductive Intuition’, in Lakatos, I., ed., The Problem of Inductive Logic (Amsterdam: North Holland).
Carnap, R. (2000) Untersuchungen zur allgemeinen Axiomatik, ed. Bonk, T. and Mosterin, J. (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft).
Cartwright, N. (2004) ‘Causation: One Word, Many Things’, Philosophy of Science 71, pp. 805–19.
Cartwright, N., Cat, J., Fleck, L., and Uebel, T. E. (1996) Otto Neurath: Philosophy between Science and Politics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Carus, A. W. (1999) ‘Carnap, Syntax, and Truth’, in Peregrin, J., ed., Truth and its Nature (If Any) (Dordrecht: Kluwer), pp. 15–35.
Carus, A. W. (2001) ‘The Philosopher without Qualities’, review article of T. Mormann (1999) and R. Carnap (2000), in Heidelberger, M. and Stadler, F., eds., History of Philosophy and Science (Dordrecht: Kluwer), pp. 369–77.
Carus, A. W. (2002) ‘Moral Expertise’, in Smith, B., ed., Liberal Education in a Knowledge Society (Chicago and LaSalle, IL: Open Court), pp. 175–222.
Carus, A. W. (2004) ‘Sellars, Carnap, and the Logical Space of Reasons’, in Awodey and Klein (2004), pp. 313–52.
Carus, A. W. (forthcoming) ‘On Carnap's Logic of Normative Statements’.
Carus, A. W. and Ogilvie, S. C. (forthcoming) ‘Turning Qualitative into Quantitative Evidence: A Well-Used Method Made Explicit’, Economic History Review (longer version available online as Cambridge Working Paper in Economics 0512, Faculty of Economics and Politics, University of Cambridge).
Cassirer, E. (1907) ‘Kant und die moderne Mathematik’, Kant-Studien 12, pp. 1–49.
Cassirer, E. (1910) Substanzbegriff und Funktionsbegriff: Untersuchungen über die Grundfragen der Erkenntniskritik (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1994), trans. W. C. and M. C. Swabey as Substance and Function and Einstein's Theory of Relativity (LaSalle, IL: Open Court, 1923).
Cassirer, E. (1912) ‘Hermann Cohen und die Erneuerung der Kantischen Philosophie’, Kant-Studien 17, pp. 252–73.
Cassirer, E. (1922) Das Erkenntnisproblem in der Philosophie und Wissenschaft der neueren Zeit, vol. 2, 3rd edn (repr. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft 1994).
Cassirer, E. (1927) ‘Erkenntnistheorie nebst den Grenzfragen der Logik und Denkpsychologie’, repr. in Cassirer, E., Erkenntnis, Begriff, Kultur (Hamburg: Meiner, 1993) pp. 77–154.
Cassirer, E. (1929) ‘Formen und Formwandlungen des philosophischen Wahrheitsbegriffs’, inaugural lecture at the University of Hamburg on 7 November 1929, repr. in Cassirer, E., Geist und Leben: Schriften zu den Lebensordnungen von Natur und Kunst, Geschichte und Sprache (Leipzig: Reclam, 1993) pp. 193–217.
Ceynowa, K. (1993) Zwischen Pragmatismus und Fiktionalismus: Hans Vaihingers ‘Philosophie des Als Ob’ (Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann).
Coffa, A. (1991) The Semantic Tradition from Kant to Carnap: To the Vienna Station (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Cohen, H. (1871) Kants Theorie der Erfahrung (Berlin: Dümmler).
Cohen, H. (1885) Kants Theorie der Erfahrung, 2nd edn (Berlin: Dümmler).
Coleman, D. C. (1977) The Economy of England, 1450–1750 (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
Comte, A. (1822) Plan des travaux scientifiques nécessaires pour réorganiser la société, trans. ed. Ostwald, W. as Entwurf der wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten, welche für eine Reorganisation der Gesellschaft erforderlich sind (Leipzig: Unesma, 1914).
Creath, R. (1996) ‘The Unity of Science: Carnap, Neurath, and Beyond’, in Galison and Stump (1996).
Dahms, H.-J. (1994) Positivismusstreit: Die Auseinandersetzungen der Frankfurter Schule mit dem logischen Positivismus, dem amerikanischen Pragmatismus und dem kritischen Realismus (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp).
Dahms, H.-J. (2004) ‘Neue Sachlichkeit in the Architecture and Philosophy of the 1920s’, in Awodey and Klein (2004), pp. 353–72.
Danto, A. (1995) ‘The Decline and Fall of the Analytical Philosophy of History’, in Ankersmit, F. A. and Kellner, H., eds., A New Philosophy of History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press), pp. 71–85.
Dedekind, R. (1887) Was sind und was sollen die Zahlen? (Braunschweig: Vieweg).
Deltete, R. (1999) ‘Helm and Boltzmann: Energetics at the Lübeck Naturforscherversammlung’, Synthese 119, pp. 45–68.
Denker, A., ed. (2002) M. Heidegger and Rickert, H., Briefe 1912–1933 and andere Dokumente (Frankfurt am Main: Klostermann).
Dingler, H. (1919) Die Grundlagen der Physik: Synthetische Prinzipien der mathematischen Naturphilosophie (Berlin and Leipzig: Vereinigung wissenschaftlicher Verleger).
DiSalle, R. (1992) ‘Helmholtz's Empiricist Philosophy of Mathematics: Between Laws of Perception and Laws of Nature’, in Cahan, D., ed., Hermann von Helmholtz and the Foundations of Nineteenth-Century Science (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press), pp. 461–97.
DiSalle, R. (2006) Understanding Space-Time: The Philosophical Development of Physics from Newton to Einstein (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Dörpfeld, F. W. (1963) Ausgewählte pädagogische Schriften, ed. Albert, Reble (Paderborn: Schöningh).
Dray, W. (2000) ‘Explanation in History’, in Fetzer, J. H., ed., Science, Explanation, and Rationality: The Philosophy of C. G. Hempel (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 217–42.
Driesch, H. (1913) Die Logik als Aufgabe (Tübingen: Mohr-Siebeck).
Dubois-Reymond, E. (1872) ‘Über die Grenzen des Naturerkennens’, repr. in Reden von Emil Dubois-Reymond, 2nd edn (Leipzig: Veit, 1912), vol. 1, pp. 441–72.
Dubois-Reymond, E. (1880) ‘Die sieben Welträtsel’, repr. in Reden von Emil Dubois-Reymond, 2nd edn (Leipzig: Veit, 1912), vol. 2, pp. 65–98.
Dummett, M. (1963) ‘Realism’, repr. in Truth and other Enigmas (London: Duckworth, 1978), pp. 145–65.
Dummett, M. (1973) ‘The Significance of Quine's Indeterminacy Thesis’, repr. in Truth and other Enigmas (London: Duckworth, 1978), pp. 375–416.
Dummett, M. (1981) Frege: Philosophy of Language, 2nd edn (London: Duckworth).
Dummett, M. (1991) Frege: Philosophy of Mathematics (London: Duckworth).
Dummett, M. (1993) ‘Realism and Anti-Realism’, in The Seas of Language (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 462–78.
Dupré, J. (1993) The Disorder of Things: Metaphysical Foundations of the Disunity of Science (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).
Earman, J. (1992) ‘Carnap, Kuhn, and the Philosophy of Scientific Methodology’, in Horwich, P., ed., World Changes: Thomas Kuhn and the Nature of Science (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 9–36.
Ebbs, G. (1997) Rule-Following and Realism (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).
Einstein, A. (1916) ‘Die Grundlage der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie’, Annalen der Physik 49, pp. 769–822.
Einstein, A. (1921) Geometrie und Erfahrung (Berlin: Springer).
Eisler, R. (1910) Geschichte des Monismus (Leipzig: Kröner).
Elias, N. (1939) Über den Prozess der Zivilisation: Soziogenetische und phylogenetische Untersuchungen (repr. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1997).
Elias, N. (1989) Studien über die Deutschen: Machtkämpfe und Habitusentwicklung im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp).
Erdmann, B. (1921) Die Philosophischen Grundlagen von Helmholtz' Wahrnehmungstheorie (Berlin: Verlag Akademie der Wissenschaften).
Ewald, O. (1912) ‘Die deutsche Philosophie im Jahre 1911’, Kant-Studien 17, pp. 382–420.
Feigl, H. (1929) Theorie und Erfahrung in der Physik (Karlsruhe: Braun).
Feigl, H. (1943) ‘Logical Empiricism’, in Runes, D. D., ed., Twentieth-Century Philosophy (New York: Philosophical Library), repr. in Feigl, H. and Sellars, W., eds., Readings in Philosophical Analysis (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1949), pp. 3–26.
Feigl, H. (1963) ‘Physicalism, Unity of Science, and the Foundations of Psychology’, in Schilpp (1963), pp. 227–68.
Feynman, R. (1985) QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter (Princeton: Princeton University Press).
Flitner, A. and Wittig, J., eds. (2000) Optik – Technik – Soziale Kultur: Siegfried Czapski, Weggefährte und Nachfolger Ernst Abbes (Rudolstadt: Hain).
Flitner, W. (1986) Erinnerungen, 1889–1945 (Paderborn: Schoeningh).
Frank, P. (1907) ‘Kausalgesetz und Erfahrung’, Annalen der Naturphilosophie 6, pp. 443–50.
Frank, P. (1949) Modern Science and Its Philosophy (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).
Franklin, A. (1986) The Neglect of Experiment (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Franklin, A. (2002) Selectivity and Discord: Two Problems of Experiment (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press).
Frawley, W. (1997) Vygotsky and Cognitive Science: Language and the Unification of the Social and Computational Mind (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).
Frege, G. (1879) Begriffsschrift; Eine der arithmetischen nachgebildete Formelsprache des reinen Denkens (Halle: Nebert), repr. in G. Frege Begriffsschrift und andere Aufsätze (Hildesheim: Olms, 1964).
Frege, G. (1881) ‘Booles rechnende Logik und die Begriffsschrift’, in G. Frege, Nachgelassene Schriften, ed. Hermes, H., Kambartel, F., and Kaulbach, F. (Hamburg: Felix Meiner, 1969).
Frege, G. (1882) ‘Über die wissenschaftliche Berechtigung einer Begriffsschrift’, Zeitschrift für Philosophie und philosophische Kritik 81, repr. in Frege, G., Begriffsschrift und andere Aufsätze (Hildesheim: Olms, 1964).
Frege, G. (1884) Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik: Eine logisch-mathematische Untersuchung über den Begriff der Zahl, repr. 1986 (Hamburg: Meiner), pp. 9–52.
Frege, G. (1918) ‘Der Gedanke’, repr. in Frege, G., Logische Untersuchungen, ed. Patzig, G. (Göttingen: Vandenhoek und Ruprecht, 1966), pp. 30–53.
Frege, G. (1924/5) ‘Erkenntnisquellen der Mathematik und der mathematischen Naturwissenschaften’, in Frege, G., Nachgelassene Schriften, ed. Hermes, H., Kambartel, F., and Kaulbach, F. (Hamburg: Felix Meiner, 1969), pp. 286–94.
Friedman, M. (1992) Kant and the Exact Sciences (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).
Friedman, M. (1996) ‘Exorcising the Philosophical Tradition: Comments on John McDowell's Mind and World ’, Philosophical Review 105, pp. 427–67.
Friedman, M. (1997) ‘Helmholtz's Zeichentheorie and Schlick's Allgemeine Erkenntnislehre : Early Logical Empiricism and its Nineteenth-Century Background’, Philosophical Topics 25, pp. 19–50.
Friedman, M. (1999) Reconsidering Logical Positivism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Friedman, M. (2000) A Parting of the Ways: Carnap, Cassirer, Heidegger (LaSalle, IL: Open Court).
Friedman, M. (2001) Dynamics of Reason: The 1999 Kant Lectures at Stanford University (Palo Alto, CA: CSLI Publications).
Friedman, M. (2002) ‘Geometry as a Branch of Physics: Background and Context for Einstein's “Geometry and Experience”’, in Malament, D., ed., Reading Natural Philosophy: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Science and Mathematics (LaSalle, IL: Open Court), pp. 193–229.
Friedman, M. (2003) ‘Kuhn and Logical Empiricism’, in T. Nickels, ed., Thomas Kuhn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 19–44.
Friedman, M. (2006) ‘Kant – Naturphilosophie – Electromagnetism’, in Friedman, M. and Nordman, A., eds., The Kantian Legacy in Nineteenth-Century Science (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 51–79.
Friedman, M. (2007) ‘The Aufbau and the Rejection of Metaphysics’, in R. Creath and M. Friedman, eds. The Cambridge Companion to Carnap (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Friedman, M. (forthcoming) ‘Carnap and Quine: Twentieth-Century Echoes of Kant and Hume’, Howard Stein Lecture at the University of Chicago (2006). To be published in Philosophical Topics .
Gabriel, G. (2001) ‘Existenz- und Zahlaussage: Herbart und Frege’, in Hoeschen, A. and Schneider, L., eds., Herbarts Kultursystem: Perspektiven der Transdisziplinarität im 19. Jahrhundert (Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann), pp. 149–62, trans. Erich Reck as ‘Existential and Number Statements: Herbart and Frege’, in Beaney, M. and Reck, E., eds., Gottlob Frege: Critical Assessment of Leading Philosophers, vol. 1 (London: Routledge, 2005), pp. 109–23.
Gabriel, G. (2004) ‘Introduction: Carnap Brought Home’, in Awodey and Klein (2004), pp. 1–21.
Galilei, G. (1644) The Assayer, in Drake, S., ed., Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo (New York: Doubleday, 1957).
Galison, P. (1996) ‘Constructing Modernism: The Cultural Location of Aufbau ’, in Giere, R. N. and Richardson, A. W., eds., Origins of Logical Empiricism (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press), pp. 17–44.
Galison, P. and Stump, D. J., eds. (1996) The Disunity of Science: Boundaries, Contexts, and Power (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press).
Gay, P. (1968) Weimar Culture: The Outsider as Insider (London: Penguin).
Geach, P. (1983) ‘Wittgenstein's Operator N ’, Analysis 41, pp. 573–89.
Giere, R. N. (1999) Science Without Laws (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).
Giere, R. N. and Richardson, A. W., eds. (1996) The Origins of Logical Empiricism (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press).
Gillispie, C. G. (2004) Science and Polity in France: The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Years (Princeton: Princeton University Press).
Gödel, K. (1930) ‘Vortrag über die Vollständigkeit des Funktionenkalküls’, in Gödel, K., Collected Works, vol. 3 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), pp. 16–23.
Gödel, K. (1953/9) ‘Is Mathematics Syntax of Language?’ in Gödel, K., Collected Works, vol. 3 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), pp. 334–63.
Gödel, K. (2003) Collected Works, vol. 4: Correspondence A-G (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
Goessler, P. (1951) Wilhelm Dörpfeld: Ein Leben im Dienst der Antike (Stuttgart: Kohlhammer).
Goldfarb, W. (1979) ‘Logic in the Twenties: The Nature of the Quantifier’, Journal of Symbolic Logic 44, pp. 351–68.
Goldfarb, W. (1988) ‘Poincaré against the Logicists’, in Aspray, W. and Kitcher, P., eds., History and Philosophy of Modern Mathematics (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press), pp. 61–81.
Goldfarb, W. (1996) ‘The Philosophy of Mathematics in Early Positivism’, in Giere, R. N. and Richarson, A. W., eds., Origins of Logical Empiricism (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press), pp. 213–30.
Goldfarb, W. (1997) ‘Semantics in Carnap: A Rejoinder to Alberto Coffa’, Philosophical Topics 25, pp. 51–66.
Goldfarb, W. (2003) ‘Introduction’ to Gödel's Correspondence with Carnap, in Gödel (2003).
Goldfarb, W. (2005) ‘On Gödel's Way In’, Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 11, pp. 185–93.
Gregory, R. L. (1998) Eye and Brain: The Psychology of Seeing, 5th edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
Habermas, J. (1968a) Erkenntnis und Interesse (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp).
Habermas, J. (1968b) Technik und Wissenschaft als ‘Ideologie’ (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp).
Habermas, J. (1981) Theorie des Kommunikativen Handelns, 2 vols. (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp).
Habermas, J. (1985) Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne: Zwölf Vorlesungen (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp).
Habermas, J. (1988) Nachmetaphysisches Denken: Philosophische Aufsätze (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp).
Habermas, J. (1995) ‘Reconciliation through the Public Use of Reason: Remarks on John Rawls's Political Liberalism’, Journal of Philosophy 92, pp. 109–31.
Habermas, J. (1996) ‘“Vernünftig” versus “Wahr” oder die Moral der Weltbilder’, in J. Habermas Die Einbeziehung des Anderen: Studien zur politischen Theorie (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp), pp. 95–127.
Habermas, J. (1999) Wahrheit und Rechtfertigung: Philosophische Aufsätze (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp).
Habermas, J. (2000) ‘Nach dreißig Jahren: Bemerkungen zu Erkenntnis und Interesse ’, in Müller-Dohm, S., ed., Das Interesse der Vernunft: Rückblicke auf das Werk von Jürgen Habermas seit ‘Erkenntnis und Interesse’ (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp), pp. 12–20.
Haeckel, E. (1899) Die Welträtsel (Leipzig: Kröner), trans. J. McCabe as The Riddle of the Universe at the Close of the Nineteenth Century (New York: Harper 1902).
Hahn, H. (1929) ‘Empirismus, Mathematik, Logik’, repr. in Hahn, H., Empirismus, Logik, Mathematik (Frankfurt am M: Suhrkamp), pp. 55–8, trans. H. Kaal as ‘Empiricism, Mathematics, and Logic’, in McGuinness, B., ed., Empiricism, Logic, and Mathematics: Philosophical Papers (Dordrecht: Reidel 1980), pp. 39–42.
Hahn, H., R. Carnap, and O. Neurath (1929) Wissenschaftliche Weltauffassung: Der Wiener Kreis (Vienna), repr. in Neurath, O., Wissenschaftliche Weltauffassung, Sozialismus und logischer Empirismus, ed. Hegselmann, R. (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp), pp. 81–101; trans. P. Foulkes and M. Neurath as ‘Wissenschaftliche Weltauffassung: Der Wiener Kreis’, in Neurath, O., Empiricism and Sociology, ed. Neurath, M. and Cohen, R. S. (Dordrecht: Reidel 1973), pp. 299–318.
Hahn, al . (1931) ‘Diskussion zur Grundlegung der Mathematik’, Erkenntnis 2, pp. 135–49.
Haller, R. (1993) Neopositivismus: Eine historische Einführung in die Philosophie des Wiener Kreises (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft).
Hands, W. (2001) (Reflection) without Rules: Economic Methodology and Contemporary Science Theory (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Hanfling, O. (1996) ‘Logical Positivism’, in Shanker, S., ed., Philosophy of Science, Logic, and Mathematics in the Twentieth Century, Routledge History of Philosophy, vol. 9 (London: Routledge), pp. 193–213.
Hatfield, G. (1990) The Natural and the Normative: Theories of Spatial Perception from Kant to Helmholtz (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press).
Hayek, F. (1952) The Counter-Revolution of Science: Studies on the Abuse of Reason (Glencoe, IL: Free Press).
Heijenoort, J. (1967) ‘Logic as Calculus and Logic as Language’, Synthese 17, pp. 324–30.
Heesch, M. (1999) Johann Friedrich Herbart zur Einführung (Hamburg: Junius).
Helmholtz, H. v. (1852) ‘Über die Natur der menschlichen Sinnesempfindungen’, repr. in Helmholtz, H. v.Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, vol. 2 (Leipzig 1883: Barth), pp. 591–609.
Helmholtz, H. v. (1853) ‘Über Goethes naturwissenschaftliche Arbeiten’, repr. in Helmholtz, H. v., Vorträge und Reden, vol. 1 (Braunschweig 1903: Vieweg), pp. 1–24; translated as ‘On Goethe's Scientific Researches’ in Helmholtz, H. v., Science and Culture: Popular and Philosophical Essays, ed. Cahan, D. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1995), pp. 1–17.
Helmholtz, H. v. (1855) ‘Über das Sehen des Menschen’, repr. in Helmholtz, H. v.Vorträge und Reden, vol. 1 (Braunschweig 1884: Vieweg), pp. 365–96.
Helmholtz, H. v. (1862) ‘Über das Verhältnis der Naturwissenschaften zur Gesamtheit der Wissenschaften’, repr. in Helmholtz, H. v., Vorträge und Reden, vol. 1 (Braunschweig 1903: Vieweg), pp. 117–46; translated as ‘On the Relation of Natural Science to Science in General’, in Helmholtz, H. v., Science and Culture: Popular and Philosophical Essays, ed. Cahan, D. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1995), pp. 76–95.
Helmholtz, H. v. (1870) ‘Über den Ursprung und die Bedeutung der geometrischen Axiome’, repr. in Helmholtz, H. v., Vorträge und Reden, vol. 2 (Braunschweig 1884: Vieweg), pp. 1–31; translated as ‘On the Origin and Significance of Geometrical Axioms’, in Helmholtz, H. v., Science and Culture: Popular and Philosophical Essays, ed. Cahan, D. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1995), pp. 226–48.
Helmholtz, H. v. (1878a) ‘Die Tatsachen in der Wahrnehmung’, repr. in Helmholtz, H. v., Vorträge und Reden, vol. 2 (Braunschweig 1884: Vieweg), pp. 217–51; translated as ‘The Facts in Perception’, in Helmholtz, H. v., Science and Culture: Popular and Philosophical Essays, ed. Cahan, D. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1995), pp. 342–80.
Helmholtz, H. v. (1878b) ‘Über den Ursprung und Sinn der geometrischen Sätze: Antwort gegen Herrn Professor Land’, repr. in Helmholtz, H. v., Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, vol. 2 (Leipzig 1883: Barth), pp. 640–62, translated as ‘The Origin and Meaning of Geometrical Axioms (II)’, in Mind 4 (1878), pp. 212–24.
Helmholtz, H. v. (1884) ‘Vorwort’ in Helmholtz, H. v., Vorträge und Reden, vol. 1 (Braunschweig 1884: Vieweg).
Helmholtz, H. v. (1887) ‘Zählen und Messen’, repr. in Helmholtz (1921), pp. 70–97.
Helmholtz, H. v. (1892) ‘Goethes Vorahnungen kommender naturwissenschaftlicher Ideen’, in Vorträge und Reden, vol. 2 (Braunschweig 1903: Vieweg), pp. 337–61; translated as ‘Goethe's Presentiments of Coming Scientific Ideas’, in Helmholtz, H. v., Science and Culture: Popular and Philosophical Essays, ed. Cahan, D. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press1995), pp. 393–412.
Helmholtz, H. v. (1896) Handbuch der physiologischen Optik, 2nd edn. (Hamburg: Voss).
Helmholtz, H. v. (1921) Schriften zur Erkenntnistheorie, ed. Hertz, P. and Schlick, M. (Berlin: Springer).
Hempel, C. G. (1963) ‘Implications of Carnap's Work for the Philosophy of Science’, in Schilpp (1963), pp. 685–710.
Hepp, C. (1987) Avantgarde: Moderne Kunst, Kulturkritik und Reformbewegungen nach der Jahrhundertwende (Munich: dtv).
Herbart, J. F. (1813) Lehrbuch zur Einleitung in die Philosophie (repr. Hamburg: Meiner, 1993).
Hiebert, E. N. (1971) ‘The Energetics Controversy and the New Thermodynamics’, in D. H. D. Roller, ed., Perspectives in the History of Science and Technology (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press), pp. 67–86.
Hilbert, D. (1917) ‘Axiomatisches Denken’, repr. in Hilbert, D., Gesammelte Abhandlungen, vol. 3 (Berlin: Springer, 1935), pp. 146–56.
Hilbert, D. (1924) ‘Die Grundlagen der Physik’, Mathematische Annalen 92, pp. 1–32, repr. in D. Hilbert, Gesammelte Abhandlungen, vol. 3 (Berlin: Springer, 1935), pp. 258–89.
Hilbert, D. and Ackermann, W. (1928) Grundzüge der theoretischen Logik (Berlin: Springer).
Hintikka, J. (1990) ‘Quine as a Member of the Tradition of the Universality of Language’, in Barrett, R. and Gibson, R., eds., Perspectives on Quine (Oxford: Blackwell), pp. 159–75.
Hönigswald, R. (1912) ‘Substanzbegriff und Funktionsbegriff: Kritische Betrachtungen zu Ernst Cassirers gleichnamigem Werk’, Deutsche Literaturzeitung 33, cols. 2821–43 and 2885–902.
Hofstedter, R. (1963) Anti-Intellectualism in American Life (New York: Knopf).
Horkheimer, M. and Adorno, T. W. (1947) Dialektik der Aufklärung: Philosophische Fragmente (Amsterdam: Querido) (repr. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1981).
Hübinger, G. (1996a) ‘Der Verlag Eugen Diederichs in Jena: Wissenschaftskritik, Lebensreform und völkische Bewegung’, Geschichte und Gesellschaft 22, pp. 31–45.
Hübinger, G., ed. (1996b) Versammlungsort moderner Geister: Der Eugen Diederichs Verlag – Aufbruch ins Jahrhundert der Extreme (Munich: Diederichs).
Husserl, E. (1900) Logische Untersuchungen, vol. 1: Prolegomena zur reinen Logik (Tübingen: Niemeyer).
Husserl, E. (1911) ‘Philosophie als strenge Wissenschaft’, Logos 1, pp. 289–341.
Husserl, E. (1913) Ideen zu einer reinen Phänomenologie und phänomenologischen Philosophie (The Hague: Nijhoff, 1976).
Husserl, E. (1936) Die Krisis der europäischen Wissenschaften und die transzendentale Phänomenologie, (The Hague: Nijhoff, 1954).
Hylton, P. (1990) ‘Logic in Russell's Logicism’, in Bell, D. and Cooper, N., The Analytic Tradition: Meaning, Thought, and Knowledge (Oxford: Blackwell), pp. 137–72.
Hylton, P. (1998) ‘Analysis and Analytic Philosophy’, in Biletzki, A. and Matar, A., eds., The Story of Analytic Philosophy (London: Routledge), pp. 209–28.
James, W. (1907) Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking, in James, W.Pragmatism and Other Writings (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 2000).
Janich, P., ed. (1984) Methodische Philosophie: Beiträge zum Begründungsproblem der exakten Wissenschaften in Auseinandersetzung mit Hugo Dingler (Mannheim: Bibliographisches Institut).
Jeffrey, R. (1994) ‘Carnap's Voluntarism’, in Prawitz, D., Skyrms, B., and Westerståhl, D., eds., Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science IX (Amsterdam: Elsevier), pp. 847–66.
Kaila, E. (1926) Die Prinzipien der Wahrscheinlichkeitslogik (Turku: Annales Universitatis Fennicae Aboensis).
Kaila, E. (1930) Der logische Neupositivismus: Eine kritische Studie (Turku: Annales Universitatis Fennicae Aboensis); trans. A. and P. Kirschenmann as Logistic Neopositivism. A Critical Study, in Kaila, E., Reality and Experience: Four Philosophical Essays, ed. Cohen, R. S. (Dordrecht: Reidel, 1979), pp. 1–58.
Kant, I. (1783) Prolegomena zu einer jeden künftigen Metaphysik, die als Wissenschaft wird auftreten können, ed. Vorländer, K., 5th edn (Hamburg: Meiner, 1913), trans. G. Hatfield as Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics That Will be Able to Come Forward as a Science, in Kant, I.Theoretical Philosophy after 1781, ed. Allison, H. and Heath, P. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), pp. 29–170.
Kant, I. (1786) Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft, in Kant, I.Schriften zur Naturphilosophie (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp 1977), trans. M. Friedman as Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science, in Kant, I.Theoretical Philosophy after 1781, ed. Allison, H. and Heath, P. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), pp. 171–270.
Kant, I. (1787) Kritik der reinen Vernunft, ed. Timmermann, J. (Hamburg 1998: Meiner); page references to 2nd (‘B’) edition according to pagination of Akademie-Ausgabe, trans. P. Guyer and A. W. Wood as Critique of Pure Reason (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).
Kant, I. (1796) Von einem neuerdings erhobenen vornehmen Ton in der Philosophie, ed. Weischedel, W. (Suhrkamp 1958/1977: Frankfurt am Main), vol. 6, pp. 377–97; trans. P. Heath as On a Recently Prominent Tone of Superiority in Philosophy in Kant, I., Theoretical Philosophy after 1781, ed. Allison, H. and Heath, P. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), pp. 425–46.
Kaufmann, A. (1940) ‘Freude und Bereicherung durch Onkel Wilhelm’, in Wilhelm Dörpfeld (Berlin: Wilhelm-Dörpfeld-Stiftung), pp. 57–65.
Kaufmann, F. (1930) Das Unendliche in der Mathematik und seine Ausschaltung: Eine Untersuchung über die Grundlagen der Mathematik (Vienna: Deuticke).
Kertzer, D. I. and Fricke, (1997) Anthropological Demography: Toward a New Synthesis (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).
Kintsch, W. (1998) Comprehension: A Paradigm for Cognition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Kitcher, P. (1989) ‘Explanatory Unification and the Causal Structure of the World’, in Kitcher, P. and Salmon, W. C., eds., Scientific Explanation (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press), pp. 410–505.
Klein, C. (2004) ‘Carnap on Categorical Concepts’, in Awodey and Klein (2004), pp. 291–312.
Köhnke, C. K. (1986) Entstehung und Aufstieg des Neukantianismus: Die deutsche Universitätsphilosophie zwischen Idealismus und Positivismus (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp); trans. R. J. Hollingdale as The Rise of Neo-Kantianism: German Academic Philosophy between Idealism and Positivism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).
Koenigsberger, L. (1895) Hermann v. Helmholtz's Untersuchungen über die Grundlagen der Mathematik und Mechanik (Heidelberg: Hörning).
Koenigsberger, L. (1902–3) Hermann von Helmholtz, 3 vols. (vol. 1, 1902; vols. 2 and 3, 1903) (Braunschweig: Vieweg).
Kripke, S. (1979) ‘A Puzzle about Belief’, in Margalit, A., ed., Meaning and Use (Dordrecht: Reidel).
Kronecker (1887) ‘Über den Zahlbegriff’, reworked and expanded in Hensel, K., ed., Werke, vol. 3 (Leipzig: Teubner, 1899), pp. 251–74.
Kuhn, T. S. (1962) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).
Kuhn, T. S. (1977) ‘Objectivity, Value Judgment, and Theory Choice’, in Kuhn, T. S., The Essential Tension (Chicago: University of Chicago Press), pp. 320–39.
Kuntze, F. (1912) ‘Zum Gedächtnis an Henri Poincaré’, Kant-Studien 17, pp. 337–48.
Lanier, J. (2006) ‘Digital Maoism: The Hazards of the New Online Collectivism’, Edge: The Third Culture, 30 June 2006 (
Langton, R. (1999) Kantian Humility: Our Ignorance of Things in Themselves (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
Laqueur, W. Z. (1962) Young Germany: A History of the German Youth Movement (New York: Basic Books).
Leitgeb, H. (2007) ‘A New Analysis of Quasi-Analysis’, Journal of Philosophical Logic: 36, pp. 181–226.
Leitgeb, H. forthcoming ‘New Life for Carnap's Aufbau?’
Lenoir, T. (2006) ‘Operationalizing Kant: Manifolds, Models, and Mathematics in Helmholtz's Theory of Perception’, in Friedman, M. and Nordmann, A., eds., The Kantian Legacy in Nineteenth-Century Science (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 142–210.
Levi, I. (1980) The Enterprise of Knowledge (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press).
Longino, H. (1995) ‘Gender, Politics, and the Theoretical Virtues’, Synthese 104, pp. 383–97.
Lowe, E. J. (2000) An Introduction to the Philosophy of Mind (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
McDowell, J. (1996) Mind and World, 2nd edn, with a new introduction (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).
Mach, E. (1905) Erkenntnis und Irrtum: Skizzen zur Psychologie der Forschung, repr. 1991 (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft).
Mach, E. (1912) Die Mechanik in ihrer Entwicklung: Historisch-kritisch dargestellt, 7th edn. (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1988).
Maher, P. forthcoming ‘Explication Defended’, Studia Logica.
Malament, D. (2002) ‘A No-Go Theorem about Rotation in Relativity Theory’, in Malament, D., ed., Reading Natural Philosophy: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Science and Mathematics in Honor of Howard Stein (LaSalle, IL: Open Court), pp. 267–93.
Mann, T. (1918) Betrachtungen eines Unpolitischen (Berlin: S. Fischer).
McLarty, C. (1997) ‘Poincaré: Mathematics & Logic & Intuition’, Philosophia Mathematica 5, pp. 97–115.
Marr, D. (1982) Vision: A Computational Investigation into the Human Representation and Processing of Visual Information (New York: Freeman).
Martin, R. (1959) Toward a Systematic Pragmatics (Amsterdam: North-Holland).
Messer, A. (1924) Die freideutsche Jugendbewegung: Ihr Verlauf von 1913 bis 1922 (Langensalza: Beyer).
Miles, M. (2006) ‘Kant's “Copernican Revolution”: Toward Rehabilitation of a Concept and Provision of a Framework for the Interpretation of the Critique of Pure Reason ’, Kant-Studien 97, pp. 1–32.
Mises, R. (1928) Wahrscheinlichkeit, Statistik und Wahrheit (Vienna: Springer).
Mises, R. (1939) Kleines Lehrbuch des Positivismus: Einführung in die empiristische Wissenschaftsauffassung (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1990).
Monk, R. (1990) Wittgenstein: The Duty of Genius (London: Cape).
Mormann, T. (2000) Rudolf Carnap (Munich: Beck).
Mormann, T. (2001) ‘Carnaps Philosophie als Möglichkeitswissenschaft’, Zeitschrift für philosophische Forschung 55, pp. 79–100.
Mormann, T. (2006) ‘Werte bei Carnap’, Zeitschrift für philosophische Forschung 60, pp. 169–89.
Morris, C. W. (1938) Foundation of the Theory of Signs (Chicago, University of Chicago Press).
Musil, R. (1912) ‘Profil eines Programms’, in Musil, R., Prosa und Stücke, Kleine Prosa, Aphorismen, Autobiographisches, Essays und Reden, Kritik (Hamburg: Rowohlt, 2000), pp. 1315–19.
Musil, R. (1913a) ‘Der mathematische Mensch’, repr. in Musil, R., Prosa und Stücke, Kleine Prosa, Aphorismen, Autobiographisches, Essays und Reden, Kritik (Hamburg: Rowohlt, 2000), pp. 1004–8.
Musil, R. (1913b) ‘Analyse und Synthese’, repr. in Musil, R., Prosa und Stücke, Kleine Prosa, Aphorismen, Autobiographisches, Essays und Reden, Kritik (Hamburg: Rowohlt, 2000), pp. 1008–9.
Musil, R. (1931) Der Mann ohne Eigenschaften (Hamburg: Rowohlt, new edn 1978); trans. S. Wilkins as The Man without Qualities (New York: Knopf, 1995).
Natorp, P. (1901a) ‘Zu den logischen Grundlagen der neueren Mathematik’, Archiv für systematische Philosophie 7, pp. 177–209 (Parts I and II), 372–84 (Part III).
Natorp, P. (1901b) ‘Zur Frage der logischen Methode’, Kant-Studien 6, pp. 270–83.
Natorp, P. (1904) Logik: Grundlegung und logischer Aufbau der Mathematik und mathematische Naturwissenschaft (Marburg: Elwert).
Natorp, P. (1909) ‘Über Philosophie und philosophisches Studium’, in Natorp, P., Philosophie und Pädagogik: Untersuchungen auf ihrem Grenzgebiet (Marburg: Elwert), pp. 209–96.
Natorp, P. (1910) Die logischen Grundlagen der exakten Wissenschaften (Leipzig: Teubner).
Natorp, P. (1912) Allgemeine Psychologie nach kritischer Methode (Tübingen: Mohr-Siebeck).
Natorp, P. (1921) Platos Ideenlehre: Eine Einführung in den Idealismus, 2nd edn (Hamburg: Meiner).
Neiman, S. (1994) The Unity of Reason: Rereading Kant (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
Nelson, K. (1996) Language in Cognitive Development (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Nelson, L. (1906) ‘Vorwort’, Abhandlungen der Fries'schen Schule, Neue Folge 1, pp. III–Ⅻ.
Netz, R. (1999) The Shaping of Deduction in Greek Mathematics: A Study in Cognitive History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Neurath, O. (1928) ‘Rezension: R. Carnap, Der logische Aufbau der Welt und Scheinprobleme in der Philosophie ’, Der Kampf 21, pp. 624–6.
Neurath, O. (1932) ‘Protokollsätze’, Erkenntnis 3, pp. 204–14.
Neurath, O. (1934) ‘Radikaler Physikalismus und “wirkliche Welt”’, Erkenntnis 4, pp. 346–62.
Newcombe, N. S. and Huttenlocher, J. (2000) Making Space: The Development of Spatial Representation and Reasoning (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press).
Newton, I. (1687) Principia Mathematica Philosophiae Naturalis, trans. A. Motte (repr. Amherst, NY: Prometheus, 1995).
Newton, I. (1717) Opticks, or a Treatise of the Reflections, Refractions, Inflections and Colours of Light (repr. New York: Dover, 1952).
Noll, R. (1994) The Jung Cult: Origins of a Charismatic Movement (Princeton: Princeton University Press).
Norton, J. (2003) ‘Causation as Folk Science’, Philosopher's Imprint, 3, no. 4.
Norton, J. (forthcoming) ‘Do the Causal Principles of Modern Physics Contradict Causal Anti-Fundamentalism?’, in Machamer, P. K. and Wolters, G., eds., Causality: Historical and Contemporary (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press).
O'Neill, J. and Uebel, (2004) ‘Horkheimer and Neurath: Restarting a Disrupted Debate’, European Journal of Philosophy 12, pp. 75–105.
Ostwald, W. (1895) Die Überwindung des wissenschaftlichen Materialismus (Leipzig: Veit).
Ostwald, W. (1905) ‘Zur Theorie der Wissenschaft’, Annalen der Naturphilosophie 4, 1–27.
Ostwald, W. (1908) Grundriß der Naturphilosophie (Leipzig: Reclam).
Ostwald, W. (1914a) Auguste Comte: Der Mann und sein Werk (Leipzig: Unesma).
Ostwald, W. (1914b) ‘Vorrede’, to Comte (1822), pp. VII–Ⅺ.
Ostwald, W. (1914c) Moderne Naturphilosophie: I. Die Ordnungswissenschaften (Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft).
Paetzold, H. (1995) Ernst Cassirer – Von Marburg nach New York: Eine philosophische Biographie (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft).
Parrini, P., Salmon, W. C. and Salmon, M. H., eds. (2003) Logical Empiricism: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press).
Pincock, C. (2002) ‘Russell's Influence on Carnap's Aufbau ’, Synthese 131, pp. 1–37.
Plato, J. von (1994) Creating Modern Probability: Its Mathematics, Physics and Philosophy in Historical Perspective (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Planck, M. (1896) ‘Gegen die Neuere Energetik’, Annalen der Physik und Chemie 57, pp. 72–8.
Poincaré, H. (1902) La Science et l'Hypothèse (repr. Paris: Flammarion, 1968).
Poincaré, H. (1904) Wissenschaft und Hypothese [German translation of Poincaré (1902)], trans. with commentary F. and L. Lindemann (Leipzig: Teubner).
Poincaré, H. (1913) The Value of Science, trans. G. B. Halstead (New York: Dover).
Poincaré, H. (1914) Science and Method, trans. F. Maitland, with a preface by B. Russell (repr. Bristol: Thoemmes, 1996).
Popper, K. R. (1935) Logik der Forschung (Vienna: Springer); trans. K. R. Popper as The Logic of Scientific Discovery (London: Hutchinson, 1959).
Popper, K. R. (1963) ‘The Demarcation between Science and Metaphysics’, in Schilpp (1963), pp. 183–226.
Proops, I. (2001a) ‘The New Wittgenstein: A Critique’, European Journal of Philosophy 9, pp. 375–404.
Proops, I. (2001b) ‘Logical Syntax in the Tractatus ’, in Gaskin, R., ed., Grammar in Early Twentieth-Century Philosophy (London: Routledge), pp. 163–81.
Putnam, H. (1981) Reason, Truth, and History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Quine, W. V. O. (1936) ‘Truth by Convention’, repr. in The Ways of Paradox and other Essays, rev. and enl. edn (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press), pp. 77–106.
Quine, W. V. O. (1951) ‘Two Dogmas of Empiricism’, repr. in W. V. O. Quine, From a Logical Point of View (New York: Harper, 1953), pp. 20–46.
Quine, W. V. O. (1960) Word and Object (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press).
Quine, W. V. O. (1963) ‘Carnap and Logical Truth’, repr. in Quine (1976), pp. 107–32.
Quine, W. V. O. (1969) Ontological Relativity and Other Essays (New York: Columbia University Press).
Quine, W. V. O. (1970) Philosophy of Logic (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall).
Quine, W. V. O. (1974) The Roots of Reference (LaSalle, IL: Open Court).
Quine, W. V.O (1976) The Ways of Paradox and Other Essays, 2nd edn (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).
Quine, W. V. O. (1978) ‘On the Nature of Moral Values’, repr. in Theories and Things (Cambridge, MA : Harvard University Press, 1981), pp. 55–66.
Quine, W. V. O. (1984) ‘Carnap's Positivistic Travail’, Fundamenta Scientiae 5, pp. 325–33.
Quine, W. V. O. (1987) Quiddities: An Intermittently Philosophical Dictionary (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).
Quine, W. V. O. (1990) ‘Comment on Hintikka’, in Barrett, R. and Gibson, R., eds., Perspectives on Quine (Oxford: Blackwell), p. 176.
Ram, A. and Moorman, (1999) Understanding Language Understanding: Computational Models of Reading (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press).
Rawls, J. (1995) ‘Political Liberalism: Reply to Habermas’, Journal of Philosophy 92, pp. 132–80.
Rawls, J. (1996) Political Liberalism, 2nd edn (New York: Columbia University Press).
Reck, E. (1997) ‘Frege's Influence on Wittgenstein: Reversing Metaphysics via the Context Principle’, in Tait, W. W., ed., Early Analytic Philosophy: Frege, Russell, Wittgenstein: Essays in Honor of Leonard Linsky (LaSalle, IL: Open Court), pp. 123–86.
Reck, E. and Awodey, (2005) Frege's Lectures on Logic: Carnap's Jena Notes 1910–1914 (LaSalle, IL: Open Court).
Reichenbach, H. (1913) ‘Die Militarisierung der deutschen Jugend’, Die freie Schulgemeinde 3, pp. 97–110.
Reichenbach, H. (1916) Der Begriff der Wahrscheinlichkeit für die mathematische Darstellung der Wirklichkeit (Leipzig: Ambrosius Barth).
Reichenbach, H. (1920) Relativitätstheorie und Erkenntnis Apriori (Berlin: Springer).
Reichenbach, H. (1925) Axiomatik der relativistischen Raum-Zeit-Lehre (Braunschweig: Vieweg).
Reichenbach, H. (1928) Philosophie der Raum-Zeit-Lehre (Berlin: de Gruyter).
Reichenbach, H. (1929) ‘Ziele und Wege der physikalischen Erkenntnis’, in Handbuch der Physik, vol. 4: Allgemeine Grundlagen der Physik (Berlin: Springer), pp. 1–80.
Reichenbach, H. (1930) ‘Kausalität und Wahrscheinlichkeit’, Erkenntnis 1, pp. 158–88.
Reichenbach, H. (1938) Experience and Prediction: An Analysis of the Foundations and the Structure of Knowledge (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).
Reichenbach, H. (1951) The Rise of Scientific Philosophy (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press).
Reisch, G. (1991) ‘Did Kuhn Kill Logical Empiricism?’, Philosophy of Science 58, pp. 264–77.
Reisch, G. (2005) How the Cold War Transformed Philosophy of Science: To the Icy Slopes of Logic (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Richardson, A. W. (1998) Carnap's Construction of the World: The Aufbau and the Emergence of Logical Empiricism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Richardson, A. W. (2007) ‘Carnapian Pragmatism’, in Creath, R. and Friedman, M., eds., The Cambridge Companion to Carnap (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Rickert, H. (1921) System der Philosophie (Tübingen: Mohr).
Ricketts, T. (1994) ‘Carnap's Principle of Tolerance, Empiricism, and Conventionalism’, in Clark, P. and Hale, B., eds., Reading Putnam (Oxford: Blackwell), pp. 176–200.
Ricketts, T. (1996) ‘Pictures, Logic, and the Limits of Sense in Wittgenstein's Tractatus ’, in Sluga, H. and Stern, D., eds., The Cambridge Companion to Wittgenstein (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 59–99.
Ricketts, T. (2004a) ‘Languages and Calculi’, in Hardcastle, G. L. and Richardson, A. W., eds., Logical Empiricism in North America, Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, vol. 18 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press), pp. 257–80.
Ricketts, T. (2004b) ‘Frege, Carnap, and Quine: Continuities and Discontinuities’, in Awodey and Klein (2004), pp. 181–202.
Riehl, A. (1904) ‘Helmholtz in seinem Verhältnis zu Kant’, Kant-Studien 9, pp. 261–85.
Rohden, G. (1940) ‘Wilhelm Dörpfeld’, in Wilhelm Dörpfeld (Berlin: Wilhelm-Dörpfeld-Stiftung), pp. 27–30.
Rorty, R. (1967) ‘Introduction’, in Rorty, R., ed., The Linguistic Turn: Recent Essays in Philosophical Method (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).
Rorty, R. (1998) ‘Against Unity’, Wilson Quarterly, pp. 28–38.
Russell, B. (1897) An Essay on the Foundations of Geometry (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) (repr. London: Routledge, 1996).
Russell, B. (1903) The Principles of Mathematics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Russell, B. (1912) The Problems of Philosophy (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
Russell, B. (1914a) Our Knowledge of the External World as a Field for Scientific Method in Philosophy (LaSalle, IL: Open Court).
Russell, B. (1914b) ‘The Relation of Sense-Data to Physics’, Scientia, repr. in Mysticism and Logic (London: Longmans, 1918), pp. 145–79.
Russell, B. (1919) Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy (London: Allen and Unwin).
Russell, B. (1922) ‘Introduction’ to Wittgenstein's Tractatus, repr. in L. Wittgenstein, Logisch-philosophische Abhandlung, ed. M. McGuinness and J. Schulte (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1998), pp. 258–86.
Salmon, W. (1994) ‘Comment: Carnap on Realism’, in W. Salmon and G. Wolters, eds., Logic, Language, and the Structure of Scientific Theories: Proceedings of the Carnap-Reichenbach Centennial, University of Konstanz, 21–24 May 1991 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press), pp. 279–86.
Sanger, L. (2006) ‘The New Politics of Knowledge’Digital Universe Blog, 31 July 2006 (
Schilpp, P., ed. (1963) The Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap (LaSalle, IL: Open Court).
Schlick, M. (1911) Review of Natorp (1910), Vierteljahrsschrift für wissenschaftliche Philosophie und Soziologie 35, pp. 254–60.
Schlick, M. (1918) Allgemeine Erkenntnislehre (Berlin: Springer).
Schlotter, S. (2004) Die Totalität der Kultur: Philosophisches Denken und politisches Handeln bei Bruno Bauch (Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann).
Sengoopta, C. (2000) Otto Weininger: Sex, Science, and Self in Imperial Vienna (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).
Sher, G. (1999) ‘Is There a Place for Philosophy in Quine's Theory?’, Journal of Philosophy 96, pp. 491–524.
Smith, G. (2001) ‘The Newtonian Style in Book II of the Principia ’, in Buchwald, J. Z. and Cohen, I. B., eds., Isaac Newton's Natural Philosophy (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 249–98.
Smith, G. (2002a) ‘From the Phenomenon of the Ellipse to an Inverse-Square Force: Why Not?’, in Malament, D., ed., Reading Natural Philosophy: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Science and Mathematics (LaSalle, IL: Open Court), pp. 31–70.
Smith, G. (2002b) ‘The Methodology of the Principia ’, in Cohen, I. B. and Smith, G., eds., The Cambridge Companion to Newton (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 138–73.
Soames, S. (2003) Philosophical Analysis in the Twentieth Century, Vol. 1: The Dawn of Analysis (Princeton: Princeton University Press).
Stadler, F. (1997) Studien zum Wiener Kreis: Ursprung, Entwicklung und Wirkung des logischen Empirismus im Kontext (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp), trans. Camilla Nielson et al. as The Vienna Circle: Studies in the Origins, Development, and Influence of Logical Empiricism (Vienna: Springer, 2001).
Staiger, E. (1949) Goethe, vol. 1 (Zurich: Atlantis).
Stein, H. (1958) ‘An Examination of Some Aspects of Natural Science’ diss. University of Chicago.
Stein, H. (1967) ‘Newtonian Space-Time’, The Texas Quarterly 10, pp. 174–200, repr. in Palter, R., ed., The Annus Mirabilis of Sir Isaac Newton (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1970), pp. 258–84.
Stein, H. (1988) ‘Logos, Logic, and Logistiké : Some Philosophical Remarks on the Nineteenth-Century Transformation of Mathematics’, in Asprey, W. and Kitcher, P., eds., History and Philosophy of Modern Mathematics (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press), pp. 238–59.
Stein, H. (1989) ‘Yes, but … Some Skeptical Remarks on Realism and Anti-Realism’, Dialectica 43, pp. 47–65.
Stein, H. (1990) ‘On Locke, “the Great Huygenius, and the incomparable Mr. Newton”’, in Bricker, P. and Hughes, R. I. G., eds., Philosophical Perspectives on Newtonian Science (Cambridge, MA.: MIT Press), pp. 17–48.
Stein, H. (1992) ‘Was Carnap Entirely Wrong, After All?’, Synthese 93, pp. 275–95.
Stein, H. (1993) ‘On Philosophy and Natural Philosophy in the Seventeenth Century’, in French, P. A., Uehling, T. E., and Wettstein, H. K., eds., Midwest Studies in Philosophy XVIII: Philosophy of Science (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press), pp. 177–201.
Stein, H. (1994) ‘Some Reflections on the Structure of Our Knowledge in Physics’, in Prawitz, D., Skyrms, B., and Westerståhl, D., eds., Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science IX (Amsterdam: Elsevier), pp. 633–55.
Stein, H. (2002) ‘Newton's Metaphysics’, in Cohen, I. B. and Smith, G. E., eds., The Cambridge Companion to Newton (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 256–307.
Stein, H. (2004) ‘The Enterprise of Understanding and the Enterprise of Knowledge’, Synthese 140, pp. 135–76.
Stich, S. (1983) From Folk Psychology to Cognitive Science: The Case against Belief (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press).
Stich, S. (1996) Deconstructing the Mind (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
Sterelny, K. (2003) Thought in a Hostile World: The Evolution of Human Cognition (Oxford: Blackwell).
Strong, T. B. and F. A. Sposito (1995) ‘Habermas's Significant Other’, in White, S. K., ed., The Cambridge Companion to Habermas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 263–88.
Surowiecki, J. (2004) The Wisdom of Crowds: Why the Many are Smarter than the Few and How Collective Wisdom Shapes Business, Economies, Societies, and Nations (New York: Doubleday).
Tait, W. W. (1986) ‘Truth and Proof: The Platonism of Mathematics’, Synthese 69, pp. 341–70.
Tait, W. W. (1997) ‘Frege versus Cantor and Dedekind: On the Concept of Number’, in Tait, W. W., ed., Early Analytic Philosophy: Frege, Russell, Wittgenstein, Essays in Honor of Leonard Linsky (LaSalle, IL: Open Court), pp. 213–48.
Tait, W. W. (2001) ‘Beyond the Axioms: The Question of Objectivity in Mathematics’, Philosophia Mathematica 9, pp. 21–36.
Tappenden, J. (2006) ‘The Riemannian Background to Frege's Philosophy’, in Gray, J. and Ferreirós, J., eds., The Architecture of Modern Mathematics: Essays in History and Philosophy (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
Tenorth, H.-E. (2003) ‘Schulmänner, Volkslehrer und Unterrichtsbeamte: Friedrich Adolph Wilhelm Diesterweg, Friedrich Wilhelm Dörpfeld, Friedrich Dittes’, in Tenorth, H.-E., ed., Klassiker der Pädagogik, vol. 1: Von Erasmus bis Helene Lange (Munich: Beck), pp. 224–45.
Tomasello, M. (1999) The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).
Toretti, R. (1978) ‘Hugo Dingler's Philosophy of Geometry’, Dialogos 32, pp. 85–128.
Tyson, K. (1995) New Foundations for Scientific Social and Behavioral Research: The Heuristic Paradigm (Boston: Allyn & Bacon).
Uebel, T. E. (1992a) Overcoming Logical Positivism from Within: The Emergence of Neurath's Naturalism in the Vienna Circle's Protocol Sentence Debate (Amsterdam: Rodopi).
Uebel, T. E. (1992b) ‘Rational Reconstruction as Elucidation? Carnap in the Early Protocol Sentence Debate’, Synthese 93, pp. 107–40.
Uebel, T. E. (1998) ‘Enlightenment and the Vienna Circle's Scientific World-Conception’, in Rorty, A. O., ed., Philosophers on Education; Historical Perspectives (London: Routledge), pp. 418–38.
Uebel, T. E. (2001) ‘Carnap and Neurath in Exile: Can their Disputes Be Resolved?’, International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 15, pp. 211–20.
Uebel, T. E. (2004) ‘Carnap, the Left Vienna Circle, and Neopositivist Antimetaphysics’, in Awodey and Klein (2004), pp. 243–74.
Ulbricht, J. H. and Werner, , (1999) Romantik, Revolution and Reform: Der Eugen Diederichs Verlag im Epochenkontext 1900–1949 (Göttingen: Wallstein).
Urmson, J. O. (1956) Philosophical Analysis: Its Development between the Two World Wars (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
Vaihinger, H. (1922) Die Philosophie des Als Ob: System der theoretischen, praktischen und religiösen Fiktionen der Menschheit auf Grund eines idealistischen Positivismus, 8th edn (Leipzig: Meiner).
Verley, X. (2003) Carnap, le symbolique et la philosophie (Paris: L'Harmattan).
Jan, Vries (1976) The Economy of Europe in an Age of Crisis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978) Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).
Waismann, F. (1930) ‘Logische Analyse des Wahrscheinlichkeitsbegriffs’, Erkenntnis 1, pp. 228–48.
Waismann, F., ed. (1967) Wittgenstein und der Wiener Kreis (Oxford: Blackwell).
Wang, H. (1987) Reflections on Kurt Gödel (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press).
Werner, M. (1996) ‘Die Erfindung einer Tradition: Der Verleger Eugen Diederichs als “kultureller Reichsgründer”’, in Ehrlich, L. and John, J., eds., Weimar 1930: Politik und Kultur im Vorfeld der NS -Diktatur (Weimer: Böhlau 1998), pp. 261–74.
Werner, M. (2003) Moderne in der Provinz: Kulturelle Experimente im Fin de Siècle Jena (Göttingen: Wallstein).
Wertsch, J. (1985) Vygotsky and the Social Formation of Mind (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).
Weyl, H. (1926) Philosophie der Mathematik und Naturwissenschaft (Munich: Oldenbourg).
Wilson, C. H. (1984) England's Apprenticeship, 1603–1763 (London: Longmans).
Wilson, E. O. (1998) ‘Resuming the Enlightenment Quest’, Wilson Quarterly 22, pp. 16–27.
Windelband, W. (1894) ‘Geschichte und Naturwissenschaft’, repr. in Präludien: Aufsätze und Reden zur Philosophie und ihrer Geschichte, 6th edn (Tübingen: Mohr, 1919, pp. 137–60.
Wittgenstein, L. (1922) Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus repr. in L. Wittgenstein Logisch-philosophische Abhandlung, ed. B. McGuinness and J. Schulte (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1998), pp. 1–178.
Wittgenstein, L. (1980) Wittgenstein's Lectures, Cambridge 1930–32, from the notes of John, King and Desmond, Lee, ed. King, J. (Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Little-field).
Wolin, R. (2004) The Seduction of Unreason: The Intellectual Romance with Fascism from Nietzsche to Postmodernism (Princeton: Princeton University Press).
Wolters, G. (2004) ‘Styles in Philosophy: The Case of Carnap’, in Awodey and Klein (2004), pp. 25–39.
Zabell, S. L. (2005) Symmetry and its Discontents: Essays on the History of Inductive Probability (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).