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Index

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 April 2022

Lori Gruen
Affiliation:
Wesleyan University, Connecticut
Justin Marceau
Affiliation:
University of Denver Sturm College of Law
Type
Chapter
Information
Carceral Logics
Human Incarceration and Animal Captivity
, pp. 417 - 434
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2022

Index

AAT. See animal assisted therapy
Abilene, 266, 268
abolition
animal, 405407
forms of, 403407
abolition (prison), 236237, 316, 321322
care ethics of, 412416
critiques of, 324325
penal, 167168
reactions to, 407412
solitary confinement, 189
utopianism and, 410412
victim support in, 408410
abolition (slavery), 1823, 95, 98, 347, 403404
animal advocacy and, 19
abolition-democracy, 404
Abu-Jamal, Mumia, 312313
accelerated rehabilitation, 210211
ACE. See Animal Cruelty Enforcement Act
ACLU. See American Civil Liberties Union
Adam and Eve, 4546
AFDC, 175
Afleje, Gerilynn, 222
Africa, John, 394
Africa, Ramona, 302303, 313
African Americans
animal advocates, 1819, 22
animal liberation linked to liberation of, 406407
criminal law impacting, 1213, 26
disenfranchisement of, 336
after emancipation, 28
humanity of, 3334
incarceration rates of, 137
mass incarceration of, 130131
police violence against, 164165
prison agribusiness and, 284286
Reed on, 3233
WHS on, 28
Age of Revolutions, 2021
Ag-Gag laws, 329330
AHA. See American Humane Association
Ahmed, Sarah, 415
Albence, Matthew, 122126
ALDF. See Animal Legal Defense Fund
Alexander, Michelle, 136
Alloway, Richard, 161162
Alouette Correctional Centre for Women, 253254
Amar, Vik, 315
Amazon Global Security Operations Center, 397
American Bar Association, 222, 326
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), 137, 175176, 217218, 331332
Gazzola on, 388389
National Prison Project, 321322
American exceptionalism, whiteness and, 2829
American Humane Association (AHA), 1819, 3031
conferences of, 1925
American imperialism, 2829
American Indian Movement, 299, 302
American Kennel Club, 182183
American Law Institute, 368
American Social Science Association, 30
American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA), 1819, 140141
American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA), 82
America’s Most Wanted, 173174, 177
amicus briefs, 7576
Anderson, Virginia, 264, 270271
Andrews, Thomas, 22
Angel Moms, 171
Angell, George, 30
animal abuse
accountability for, 55
by police, 153
criminal justice reform for, 3941
defining, 162
DV and, 153
institutionalized, 7778
intentional, 810
prevalence of, 7678
Animal Abuse & Family Violence Prevention Project, 81
animal advocacy, 324
abolitionism and, 19
African American involvement with, 1819, 22
after Civil War, 2122
slavery and, 23
white supremacy and, 2122
animal assisted therapy (AAT), 292293
animal cruelty, 12, 179. See also anticruelty laws
accountability for, 55
APA on, 76
arrests for, 2627
attitudes toward, 58
carceral logics replicated in context of, 4
criminal law and, 2
defining, 56
DV and, 180181
enforcement gap, 212
incarceration for, 6667
investigations, 5859, 61
Marceau on, 180
mens rea in, 56, 6566
social theories of, 2728
victims of, 53
Animal Cruelty Enforcement Act (ACE), 8283
Animal Cruelty Prosecution Unit, 212213
Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act, 389
animal fighting, 162
animal husbandry, 89
animal impounding, in Colorado animal cruelty laws, 5657
animal incarceration, 230, 237, 257. See also captivity
harms from, 233
animal law, 13, 68, 101, 364365. See also anticruelty laws; carceral animal law
carceral logics in, 3
evaluation criteria, 208209
evolution of, 7276
incarceration in, 204205
messaging in, 343
police bias and, 1112
racism and, 1112
rhetoric of, 102103
state rankings, 208209
tough on crime turn, 210
War on Drugs and, 102
whiteness and, 1516
Animal Legal Defense Fund (ALDF), 2, 72, 81, 140141, 329330, 341
APA and, 76
on Desmond’s Law, 212213
on factory farms, 208
goals of, 323324
litigation of, 366
slogan of, 334
state rankings of, 128
animal legal personhood, 3839, 4648, 5152
animal liberation, 298299
Black liberation linked to, 406407
harsh sentencing for activists, 299
terrorist branding of, 301
Animal Liberation Front, 391392
Animal Machines (Harrison), 234
animal models, 306
animal nationalism, 2829
animal neglect, 8384, 208209, 220221, 366
animal policing, 221223
animal protection movement
carceral logics in, 206213, 335
founding of, 333334
goals of, 322323
prisoners’ rights movement and, 330, 334
Animal Rescue League, 140141
animal rights, 52
animal welfare contrasted with, 323324
cognitive capacities arguments, 4651
defining, 39
disenfranchisement and, 338340
fundamental, 48
human rights linked to, 4648
intersectionality in, 3738, 4652
legal, 323324
Marceau on, 40, 42, 4849
moral claims for, 332333
public opinion on, 330
animal rights activism
absence of human in, 392393
civil rights and, 387390
co-option of, 156
exceptionalism for, 390392
FBI on, 393
on mandatory arrests, 147
Meeropol on, 385
misanthropic stereotype of, 43, 4849
racism in, 4849
solitary confinement and, 396398
animal subjectivity, 1718
animal suffering, 12
animal testing, of pepper spray, 304
animal torture, 9
animal victims, 8586
data collection on, 8185
progress for, 8185
sentimentalism and, 182
separate victims, 8081
speech of, 184
vulnerability of, 9395
animal violence, human violence linked to, 68, 82, 153. See also the Link
animal welfare, 236
animal rights contrasted with, 323324
institutionalized, 2021
science, 235
Animal Welfare Act (AWA), 190192, 329330
amendments to, 192
enactment of, 341
animality, race and, 1617, 277
animals, 229230. See also specific topics
autonomy of, 362
in carceral archipelago, 270275
climate change impacting, 311312
consciousness of, 374
false imprisonment of, 372379
freedom of, 381382
habeas corpus and, 354357
higher order needs of, 230
in historical narratives, 272273
human child and animal nexus, 255258
human prisoners compared with, 188189
ownership of, 54
in prison industry, 281282
in prison life, 278
prisons as harmful to, 307312
as property, 37, 7071, 74, 281282, 405406
restorative justice for, 223224
as social marker, 393
subjective desires of, 185186
as victims, 55
anthropocentrism, 184186, 271272
anthropomorphic projection, 179
anticarceral veganism, 2
anticarceralism, 8788
anticruelty laws, 72, 74, 279
crime reduction and, 209
defining, 323324
enforcement of, 212
enhancement of, 7678
evolution of, 7276
felony level provisions in, 73, 8586
in Iowa, 207208
Oregon, 7583, 366367
scope of, 7475
state, 201202
under Trump, 207
anti–domestic violence movement, 144145
changes in, 156157
criminalization strategy of, 145, 157
definitions by, 155
racism and, 145, 157
reforms of, 146
anti–sex offender legislation, 176
anti-war movement, 304305
APA. See Association of Prosecuting Attorneys
aquaria, 188189, 240246
critiques of, 241
Arbery, Ahmaud, 164165, 327
argument from marginal cases, 47
Arizona Correctional Industries, 285286
Arizona Corrections Industry, 285
Arizona Victims’ Rights Amendment, 168
Arkow, Phil, 81
arson, 6263
Ascione, Frank, 81
ASPCA. See American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
Association of Prosecuting Attorneys (APA), 75
ALDF and, 76
on animal cruelty, 76
district attorney relationship with, 76
The Atlantic, 152
attachment theory, 257258
autonomy, 153154, 360363, 372, 379380
of animals, 362
false imprisonment and, 370371
AVMA. See American Veterinary Medical Association
AWA. See Animal Welfare Act
Balcombe, Jonathan, 195196
Ball, David W., 133
The Ballad of Buster Scruggs, 261262
Bands of Mercy, 2223
barbed wire, 268269, 273274
bargaining power, worker, 108
Bari, Judi, 300301
Battered Women’s Movement, 144, 153154
Bauerlein, Monika, 173174
Bean Station raid, 121
bears, 202
Beck, Ashley, 11
beef industry, 263264
emergence of, 267
Beers, Diane, 2324
Bekoff, Marc, 225226, 258
Bell, Derrick, 90, 376
Bella’s law, 205, 211
bench probation, 73
Berenstein, Robin, 1718
Berlant, Lauren, 169171, 181182
Beyond Cages (Marceau), 3742, 46, 181
Biden, Joe, 398
on Chauvin, 401
biotechnology, 264
birdwatching, 12
Birmingham Humane Society, 34
bison, 270
Black Codes, 404
Black liberation, animal liberation linked to, 406407
Black Liberation Army, 299
Black Lives Matter, 164165, 299, 327
repression against, 397
Black Panther Party, 299, 312313, 391
BlackFish, 245246
blackness
Kim on, 277
Blake, Jacob, 164165, 327
Block, Kitty, 96
PACT Act on, 129
Blumenthal, Richard, 82
bogeymen, 67
Boonin, David, 414415
boundary maintenance, 255256
Bracero program, 110
Brambell Report, 234235
branding, 272274
Braverman, Irus, 241242
Breder, Rebeka, 6
Brennan, Sarah, 251252
Brennan Center, 164
Brooks, Rayshard, 164165, 327
Brown, Michael, 164165
brown-collar work, Latinx Americans in, 113114
Brown v. Board of Education, 339340
Buck, Carrie, 50
Buck v. Bell, 50
Buller, Henry, 272
Bully Breed Rescue, 179180
Bureau of Justice Statistics, 136137, 176177
Bush, George W., 118119
butchering, 107
Butler, Paul, 222223
California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR), 308
California Prison Industry Authority (CALPIA), 308
CALPIA. See California Prison Industry Authority
CALS. See Center for Animal Law Studies
Camayd-Freixas, Erik, 118119, 122
Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness, 373
Campaign for Smart Justice, 331332
Campbell, Brittany, 89
Canine Behavior Modification, 292
Cannamela, Robin, 402
capital punishment, 322
capitalism, 78, 8889
Capitol riots, 398
captivity
effects, 230231, 236, 257
Gruen on, 377
habeas corpus and harms of, 359363
harms from, 377
harms of, 230234
solitary confinement of wildlife in, 200201
Caraballo-Ocasio, Eliezer, 163
Carbone, Larry, 372
carceral animal law, 1114, 204. See also progressive carceralism
Maerz on, 183184
rationales for, 2829
Sullivan on, 219
carceral archipelago, 262
animal experiences in, 270275
colonial, 264267
rural, 262263
carceral feminism, 45, 145
carceral logics, 23, 205206, 262, 315. See also humane carceral logics
animal cruelty and replication of, 4
in animal law, 3
in animal protection movement, 206213, 335
carceral spaces shaped by, 225
children evoked by, 255258
defining, 45
disavowal of, 206207
in political imagination, 315316
social change and, 23
social movements and, 396398
the state using, 399
strategies of, 6
types of, 4
undoing of, 35
white innocence and, 18
white supremacy in, 20
carceral progressivism. See progressive carceralism
Carceral Space, Prisoners and Animals (Morin), 262
carceral spaces, 262
carceral logics shaping, 225
of cattle trails, 267270
children and, 238239
humanization of, 239
public inaccessibility of, 239
social credibility of, 227
carceral state, 9093, 137138
causes of, 9899
in United States, 137138
care ethics of abolition, 412416
Carter, Stephen, 172
cattle barons, 263, 267268
hegemony of, 265
cattle trails, 261262, 266, 275
carceral infrastructure of, 267270
19th century growth of, 264265
railroads and, 268
as sites of violence, 263
cause lawyering, 319, 341342
invisibility countered by, 326330
moral suasion in, 330335
power imbalances in, 325
for reenfranchisement, 338339
roles of, 320325
in social movements, 320325
strategic litigation of, 325
CCi. See Colorado Correctional Industries
CDCR. See California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation
Center for Animal Law Studies (CALS), 7879
Center for Constitutional Rights, 390
Central American workers, 110
Chaplin, Joyce, 185
Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Canada, 254
Chauvin, Derek, 400401, 408409
Biden on, 401
guilty verdict of, 401
chemical warfare
defining, 303304
in prisons, 303307
Chen, Alan, 315
Child Protective Services, 175176
child welfare system, 9
children
carceral spaces and, 238239
child-invoking carceral discourses, 255258
conservation education of, 240246
human child and animal nexus, 255258
human exceptionalism inculcated through, 256257
immigration detention humanized by, 247249
incarceration of, 257258
innocence of, as policy driver, 255256
naturalization of, 255256
prisons humanized by, 249254
chimpanzees, 43, 196, 343
in invasive experiments, 188
Chinese immigrants, 116117
Chipman, Justin, 2
chlorpromazine, 305306
Christian theology, 1920
citations, 221223
civic death, 165
civil rights, 357358, 395
animal rights activists and, 387390
Civil War, 1823
animal advocacy after, 2122
CJP. See Criminal Justice Program
CJRC. See Criminal Justice Reform Clinic
climate change, animal life impacted by, 311312
Clinton, Bill, 172173
Coffield Unit, 289
Coleman, Sydney, 1820, 22
on emancipation, 18
Collard, Rosemary-Claire, 290291
colonialism, 185, 277
carceral archipelago, 264267
immigration and, 264
silent history of, 271272
Colorado animal cruelty laws, 5558, 66
animal impounding in, 5657
Colorado Correctional Industries (CCi), 286287, 292294
Comis, Bob, 191192
common law, 354357
on liberty, 356
Wise on, 357
Commonwealth v. Duncan, 140141
companionship, 189190
Confederacy, 19
confinement. See also captivity
conceptions of, 374
consciousness of, 369, 371372, 374375
continuum of, 372
fulfillment and, 380381
habeas corpus and, 354355
harms from, 369, 376377
indignity of, 379383
power and, 380
in zoos, 377378
Connecticut Humane Society, 2425
consciousness, 373374, 378379
of animals, 374
of confinement, 369, 371372, 374375
Constitution, US
Article III, 324
Eighth Amendment, 320321, 332
Fifth Amendment, 351352
First Amendment, 328330
Fourteenth Amendment, 340
Fourth Amendment, 102, 139140
Thirteenth Amendment, 281282
continuity of care, 60
Controlled Substances Act (CSA), 135136
Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), 248249, 253254
convict leasing, 404
in prison agribusiness, 285286
Copenhagen zoo, 243244
CORCAN, 282284
Correctional Service Canada (CSC), 251252
Coulter, Kendra, 89
Court of Appeals, 324, 337
Cousins, Samuel, 16
Coutin, Susan Bibler, 114
COVID-19, 123, 246, 258
The Cow with Ear Tag #1 (Gillespie), 270271
Cox, Lisa, 273
Coyle, Michael, 410411
CRC. See Convention on the Rights of the Child
Creating Choices Report, 251252
Crenshaw, Kimberle, 38
Crime and Community (Tannenbaum), 404405
crime data, racism and, 26
crime logics, 145
criminal behavior, 4445
free will and, 44
Criminal Justice Program (CJP), 72, 7576
criminal justice reform, 6869
for animal abuse, 3941
public opinion on, 331332
racism and, 40
Criminal Justice Reform Clinic (CJRC), 7879
criminal justice system, 87, 402403
DV and, 174
as proxy of societal values, 70
racism of, 176
reforms, 31
in United States, 133134
criminal law, 1
activist engagement with, 186
African Americans impacted by, 1213, 26
animal cruelty and, 2
DV and, 154156
expressive force of, 97
racism of, 12
unintentional harm in, 182
criminal liability, 207209
criminalization, 9091, 9596, 279
anti–domestic violence movement on, 145, 157
of DV, 150, 155
in United States, 134
critical race theory, 359
Critical Resistance, 405
Cronin, J. Keri, 17
CSA. See Controlled Substances Act
CSC. See Correctional Service Canada
Daily Picayune, 3031
Dallas Animal Services (DAS), 217
dangerous few, 412
DAS. See Dallas Animal Services
data collection, on animal victims, 8185
Davis, Angela, 305306, 405, 411
Davis, Janet, 2021, 2829
Davis, Jefferson, 32
death penalty, 131132
decarceration, 9495, 166167
Decka, Maneesha, 2829
decriminalization, Natapoff on, 142143
defendants, costs to, 176
dehumanization, 181182
Dellinger, Dave, 397398
democracy, 2021, 91
Denver Animal Protection, 58
deportability, 111112
in immigration enforcement, 111115
racialized, 123126
racism and, 113
deportation
defining, 111
poverty and, 216219
Desert Land Act, 270
Desmond, Jane, 244245
Desmond, Matthew, 149150
Desmond’s Army, 179180
Desmond’s Law, 78, 180181, 210211, 402
ALDF on, 212213
Rubin on, 211
detention, 344, 353354
habeas corpus on, 347348
slavery and, 346347
deterrence, 4445
Dick Gregory’s Natural Diet for Folks Who Eat (Gregory), 395
Dilulio, John, 7
disability rights advocacy, 4748
Discipline and Punish (Foucault), 266267
disenfranchisement, 214215, 320
of African Americans, 336
animal rights and, 338340
combating, 339
incarceration and, 336
overcoming, 341342
race and, 336
district attorneys, 5657, 96, 160
ALDF relationship with, 76
divorce, 175
DNA analysis, 7576
dogs
human relation with, 293294
socialization of, 198199
solitary confinement of, 198200
USDA on, 198200
Dole, Robert, 198
dolphins, 197
domestic disturbances, 152
domestic violence (DV), 102, 174. See also anti–domestic violence movement
animal abuse and, 153
animal cruelty and, 180181
arrest data, 175
civil remedies for, 146148
codification of, 154155
criminal justice system and, 174
criminal law and, 149150, 154156
criminalization of, 150, 155
crowding out of solutions to, 149150
defining, 153156
legal intervention for, 148
mandatory arrest statutes for, 146, 150152, 175
police as perpetrators of, 152153
race and, 174
shelters, 144
social norms around, 160
VAWA on, 154155
violent resistance, 151152
domestication, 268
Donaldson, Sue, 279280
Donley, Lori, 89
double jeopardy, 80
Dreamnight, 239240
driver’s license suspension, 215
dual arrest, 152
Dubber, Markus, 170171
Dubois, W. E. B., 404
Due Process Clause, 351352
Durham, Debra, 195196
DuVernay, Ava, 404
DV. See domestic violence
Earth First, 300301, 388389
earth liberation, 298299
terrorist branding of, 301
Earth Liberation Front, 300301
eco-terrorism, 385
Edmonton Valley Zoo, 239242
educational programming, 243244
Eighth Amendment, US Constitution, 320321, 332
Eisen, Jessica, 367
elephants, 362363
Ellison, Keith, 400401
emancipation, 18, 2122, 2526
African Americans after, 28
Coleman on, 18
empathy, vegetarianism and veganism linked to, 48
Endangered Species Act (ESA)
civil enforcement of, 201
solitary confinement and, 200201
English language skills, 113114
environmental justice movements, harsh sentencing for activists, 299
Equal Justice Alliance, 388389
Equal Protection clause, 338
ESA. See Endangered Species Act
Essay Concerning Human Understanding (Locke), 380
essentialism, 185
ethics, 236
of care, 412416
eugenics movement, 4950
euthanasia, 216, 222
Evans, Joshua, 403404
evil, 4445
of humanity, 4142, 4546, 179
incarceration and belief in, 46
Evolve Our Prison Farms, 283284
expressivism, 97
factory farms, 208
ALDF on, 208
Fairfield, Five, 179180
fake freedoms, 234236
false imprisonment tort, 367372
animals and, 372379
autonomy and, 370371
doctrinal elements of, 368
identification of, 383
indignity of confinement and, 379383
rationale behind, 368
Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Committee, 234235
fascism, 398399
Fassel, Raphael, 3738
FBI, 7980, 8485, 137138, 302, 398399
on animal rights activism, 393
databases, 219
Gazzola wiretapped by, 388
social movements and, 386387
Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, 324
federalism, 353354
Feeley, Malcolm, 214
felonies and felony laws, 3, 4041, 56, 5859, 6667, 102103, 206
anticruelty law provisions, 73, 8586
disenfranchisement from conviction of, 214215
laws, 209213
ramification of convictions, 214215
sentencing for, 73
in United States, 276
feminism, 359
relational, 360
fence cutting wars, 263, 269270
Ferdowsian, Hope, 195196
Fifth Amendment, US Constitution, Due Process Clause, 351352
Filippi, Massimo, 48
fines and fees
economic pressure from, 216
nonpayment of, 214215
in United States, 221223
First Amendment rights, US Constitution, 328330
First Nations, 278
First Step Act, 164, 340341
Five Freedoms, 234237
impact of, 235
Flores, Maria, 217
Floyd, George, 45, 164165, 327, 400403, 408409
food
in prison, 307309
transparency in production of, 329330
forced cohabitation, 200201
forced labor, 322
Foreman, James, Jr., 411412
Forensic Animal Maltreatment Evaluation, 66
forensic veterinarians, 60
Foucault, Michel, 266267
Fourteenth Amendment, US Constitution, 340
Fourth Amendment, US Constitution, 102, 139140
Francione, Gary, 376, 405406
Franz, Marie-Louise von, 181182
free market, 168169
free prey, 382383
free will, 4345
criminal behavior and, 44
Marceau on, 44
skepticism about, 44
freedom, 229
of animals, 229230, 381382
fake, 234236
Freeman, Eldridge, Jr., 101
Friedersdorf, Connor, 152153
Friends of the Kangaroo Rat, 310
Fudge, Erica, 271273
Gandhi, 330331
Garland, Merrick, 398
Garner, Eric, 164165
Gazzola, Lauren, 390
on ACLU, 388389
FBI wiretaps of, 388
gender, in victim narratives, 172
Genova, Nicolas de, 111112
George, Taylor, 165166
Gillespie, Kathryn, 270271
Gilligan, James, 188189
Gilmore, Ruthie, 405
Gingrich-Philbrook, Craig, 244
giraffes, 243244
Glidden, Joseph, 268269
Goodlett, Meriwether, 2122
Goodmark, Leigh, 149
Goodnight, Charles, 269
Gottschalk, Marie, 168, 321
Graves, Henry, 16
Great Depression, 106107
Great Writ of Liberty, 344349, 357, 364, 367
history of, 346347
Wise on, 346347
Green Is the New Red (Potter), 385
Gregory, Dick, 395396
grey bats, 310
Gruber, Aya, 89
Gruen, Lori, 381382
on captivity, 377
Guantánamo Bay, 349
habeas corpus and, 351353
Guenther, Lisa, 189190
Guido, Janine, 158160, 163
habeas corpus, 345, 349. See also Great Writ of Liberty
animal confinement and, 354355
animals and, 354357
captivity harms and, 359363
critique of rights and, 357359
on detention, 347348
Guantánamo Bay and, 351353
history of, 344, 349350
incarceration linked to, 350351
liberty and, 359360
limits of, 349354
scientistic approach to, 361
Supreme Court on, 349352, 355356
transformation of, 355
in United States, 349350
Wise on, 346, 357
Halliday, Paul, 347348
Hampton Institutes, 2223
Haney, Craig, 187191
Harlow, Harry, 187
harm, defining, 200
Harper, Josh, 297298, 307308
Harris, Angela, 348349
Harrison, Ruth, 234
Hawkes, John, 261262
Hawkins, Gordon, 133
Heal Food Alliance, 285
Henderson, Lynne, 167
on victims’ rights, 172
Herrera v. Collins, 351
Hickman’s Family Farms, 285
higher-order needs, of animals, 230
Hing, Bill Ong, 119
History According to Cattle, 272
HLS. See Huntingdon Life Sciences
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 50
Homestead Act, 270
Horowitz, Alexandra, 293294
horses, 29, 32, 366
human exceptionalism, 256257, 393
human moral distinctiveness, 4146
human rights, 5051, 229
animal rights linked to, 4648
Human Rights Quarterly, 392
Human Rights Watch, 215, 222
human violence, animal violence linked to, 68, 82, 153. See also the Link
human/animal boundary, 1617
racism maintained by, 3435
Humane Action Pittsburgh, 161162
humane carceral logics, 2334
development of, 2425
of SPCAs, 2425
white supremacy in, 34
Humane PA PAC, 161162
Humane Rescue Alliance, 94
humane sentiment, proslavery and anti-slavery roots of, 1823
Humane Slaughter Act, 263
Humane Society of the United States, 96, 161162
humanity
of African Americans, 3334
construction of, through racial difference, 31, 35
evil of, 4142, 4546, 179
humanized animals, 178186
Huntingdon Life Sciences (HLS), 297
Hurst, Michael, 123124
ICE. See Immigration and Customs Enforcement
illegalization, 113
immigration
in American colonial project, 264
Chinese, 116117
of Latinx Americans, 109110
nonhuman, 264
securitization of, 114
Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), 115, 119, 121124, 217
Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, 247248
immigration detention, children humanizing, 247249
immigration enforcement, 106111
deportability in, 111115
in meatpacking and poultry industries, 114122
race in, 116
at slaughterhouses, 115122
spectacular, 105106, 115122
under Trump, 120121
in United States, 105
in workforce, 105
Immigration Holding Centres, 247248
Immigration Reform and Control Act, 115117
Improta, Nicola, 180
incarceration, 7, 40, 7576, 295296. See also animal incarceration; mass incarceration
African American rates of, 137
alternatives to, 216, 407408
for animal cruelty, 6667
in animal law, 204205
belief in evil as justification for, 46
of children, 257258
considerations beyond, 214216
damage to families from, 214215
disenfranchisement and, 336
habeas corpus linked to, 350351
maximization of, 210211
moral attitudes toward, 213214
as punishment, 230
recidivism and, 205
sentencing ranges and duration of, 211212
indigenous populations, 250251
industrial agriculture, 208
Industrial Workers of the World, 300301
industrialization, 2526
inequality, 2728
informed consent, 372
Inglis v. British Columbia, 253254
INS v. Delgado, 116117
Instead of Prisoners (Knopp), 404405
Institute for Crime and Justice Policy Research, 131132
intentional animal abuse, 810
intersectionality, 4243
in animal rights, 3738, 4652
defining, 38
intimate partner violence (IPV), 150152, 156. See also domestic violence
intimidation, 151
invisibility
cause lawyering countering, 326330
insularity and, 326
power in, 326
Iowa, 207208
IPV. See intimate partner violence
Jackson, George, 404405
Jim Crow, 23, 32
Joh, Elizabeth, 171172
Jung, Moon-Kie, 113
The Jungle (Sinclair), 106107
justice. See also criminal justice system
courtroom pursuit of, 6465
defining, 54
understandings of, 402403
for victims, 408409
Kaba, Mariame, 408409, 412
Kanka, Megan, 176
Kennedy (Justice), 326
Kern Valley State Prison, 310
Kim, Claire Jean, 1617, 43, 348349, 406
on blackness, 277
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 330331, 390
Kjonas, Kevin, 298299
Klaas, Polly, 176
Klein, Naomi, 384, 386
Knopp, Fay Honey, 404405
Ko, Aph, on white supremacy, 3435
Ku Klux Klan, 34
Kymlicka, Will, 279280
LaBahn, David, 76
labor unions, 107
decline of, 108
racism as tool against, 109
Lake, Nick, 165166
Lancaster County Animal Coalition, 166
Landseer, Edwin, 1516
Latinx Americans, 106, 108
in brown-collar work, 113114
immigration of, 109110
Lee, Brandy, 188189
leftists, 385
Legal Defense Fund, 9192
Letcher County, 310
Letterman, David, 138
Levasseur, Ray Luc, 304305
Levenson, Laurie, 174
liberalism, 22, 31
sentimentalism and, 1920
liberty, 344345, 353354. See also Great Writ of Liberty
common law on, 356
habeas corpus and, 359360
Libre, 158161, 178179, 182183
treatment for, 163
viral videos of, 159160
Libre’s Law, 102103, 158, 165167, 178181
Alloway on, 161162
bipartisan support for, 163164
changes under, 162
enactment of, 163164
prosecutions under, 163
Wolf on, 158159
Limerick, Patricia Nelson, 265266
liminal animals, 279281, 295296
Linder, Michael, 173174
the Link, 8186
lions, 200201
litigation, 325
ALDF, 366
NhRP, 356357, 364365
in prisoners’ rights movement, 328
for reenfranchisement, 340
visibility from, 327328
lively communities, 290295
Lochner era, 106107
Locke, John, 380
Lockwood, Randall, 81
locomotory stereotypies, 231232
Lorde, Audre, 9798
Lost Cause mythology, 2122
Louisiana State Penitentiary, 285
low level drug offenders, 136137
Lueders, Heidi, 179181
Lundblad, Michael, 2728
lynchings, 2728
Maerz, Mary, 183186
malfeasance, 213
mandatory arrest statutes, 7071, 208209
animal rights activism on, 147
for DV, 146, 150152, 175
mandatory reporting, 208209, 218
mange, 160161, 182183
Marceau, Justin, 3741, 46, 49, 52, 9192, 138, 181, 188189, 335
on animal cruelty, 180
on animal rights, 40, 42, 4849
on free will, 44
on strict liability, 182
on volunteer attorneys, 41
marijuana, 140
legalization of, 136
in War on Drugs, 135
marine mammals, 196198
USDA on, 196198
Marius, 243244
Martin, Angela, 381382
Martin, Susan, 160161
Maryland, 202
Mason, Marius, 300301
paintings of, 301302
mass incarceration, 67, 13, 9293, 186
of African Americans, 130131
beginning of, 405
causes of, 9899
critiques of, 95
facts and myths about, 129134
growth of, 130, 405
measurement of, 130
opposition to, 164
probation and, 215
Prohibition as cause of, 142
public opinion on, 332
reduction of, 137
treadmill of, 311312
in United States, 89, 129134
Masur, Kate, 28
Matsuda, Mari, 357358
Matthews, Anette, 179180
mavericking, 267
maximum sentences, 209210
McCain, John, 138
McCann, Michael, 329
McCarthyism, 384
McCleod, Allegra, 412413
McCoy, Joseph, 268
McDonald, Laquan, 164165
McGowan, Daniel, 391
McKittrick, Katherine, 278
MCP. See Mother-Child Program
McSally, Martha, 82
McVeigh, Timothy, 183
meat processing, 106
meatpacking industry. See also beef industry; poultry industry
growth of, 108
history of, 106111
immigration enforcement in, 114122
market share in, 107
race in, 111115
undocumented workers in, 110111
media images, 364
Meeropol, Robert, 384385, 390391, 393, 397398
on animal rights activism, 385
Meiner, Erica, 411
Melcher, John, 192
Melossi, Dario, 9596
Méndez, Juan E., 188
mens rea, in animal cruelty, 56, 6566
Mexican independence, 264265
Mexican repatriation, 116117
Miami Seaquarium, 197198
Miccio, G. Kristian, 147
mice, solitary confinement of, 190191
Minow, Martha, 171172
misanthropy, of animal rights activists, 43, 4849
misdemeanors, 5556, 5859, 6667, 73
Monchlin, Lisa, 278
Monroe Correctional Complex, 309310
moral legitimacy, of the state, 89, 97
moral suasion, 319
for animal rights, 332333
in cause lawyering, 330335
in prisoners’ rights movement, 331332, 334335
Moran, Dominique, 281, 293294
Morin, Karen M., 187188, 262, 281282, 287, 290291
Mother-Child Program (MCP), 250254
MOVE, 302303, 312313, 394395
bomb attack on, 394395
Muhammad, Khalil, 26
Muste, A. J., 397398
mutual avowal, 43
NAAP, 310
Natapoff, Alexandra, 214215
on decriminalization, 142143
National Cowboy Hall of Fame, 273274
The National Humane Review, 1819
National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), 7980
National Lawyers Guild, 390
National Link Coalition, 81
National Primate Research Center, 195196
National Prison Project, 321322
Native Americans, 177, 299
"Nature’s Dumb Nobility," 3031
neglect, 162, 207, 219
animal, 8384, 208209, 220221, 366
poverty and, 220221
the Negro question, 22
neoliberalism, 8890, 220
Neo-Nazis, 398
Netz, Reviel, 268, 273274
New Jim Crow, 8889
New South, 31
SPCAs in, 19
New York Times, 152153
NhRP. See Nonhuman Rights Project
NIBRS. See National Incident-Based Reporting System
Nichols, Terry, 183
Nields, Jennifer, 166
nineteenth century
policing in, 2425
sentimentalism in, 1718
Nixon, Richard, 135
No Life for a Child law, 247249
nonhuman immigration, 264
nonhuman primates. See primates
Nonhuman Rights Project (NhRP), 344345, 354355, 360363
litigation of, 356357, 364365
Non-Humans First Declaration, 4849, 51
nonreformist reforms, 407408
North Carolina, 202
Nussbaum, Martha, 42
Obama, Barack, 119120, 168169, 352353
Oklahoma City bombing, 183
oleoresin capsicum. See pepper spray
Oliver, Tommy, 395
Operation Wetback, 116
oral stereotypies, 232233
orca, 197
Oregon animal cruelty laws, 7583, 366367
Oregon Court of Appeals, 81
Oregon Revised Statute, 7374, 83
Orme, Dextin, 160161
Our Dumb Animals, 30
overcriminalization, 113114
PACFA, 58
Pachirat, Tim, 114
PACT-Act. See Preventing Animal Cruelty and Torture Act
Palin, Sarah, 138
Palmer raids, 116
Paris, William, 410411
Park, Yon Soo, 392
parole, 215. See also probation
paternalism, 1920, 3133
race addressed through, 32
slavery apologists and, 2122
pathbreaking cases, 339340
Patronek, Gary, 89
Patterson-Kane, Emily, 84
PCI, 287
Pearson, Susan, on sentimentalism, 1718
Peltier, Leonard, 302
Pence, Ellen, 155
People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), 323324, 329330
attacks on, 390391
People v. Kovacich, 77
People v. Zuniga, 140
pepper spray, 303304
animal testing of, 304
Perdue, 108109
personhood, 364
pests, 281
pet ownership, 54
pet shops, 77
PETA. See People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals
Petri, Tom, 389
Pets for Life Program, 223224
Pfaff, John, 136
physical confinement, 225226
physical violence, 151
PIC. See prison industrial complex
Pierce, Jessica, 225226, 258
pigs, social deprivation of, 191192
Pilgrim’s, 108109
plea-bargaining, 6567
police and policing, 223
animal, 221223
animal abuse by, 153
critiques of, 222223
defining, 213214
DV perpetrated by, 152153
in 19th century, 2425
violence, 164165
police bias, 26, 7071
animal law and, 1112
political repression, prisons as sites of, 303307
state repression, 300303
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 187191
Postville raid, 118120
Potter, Will, 385, 395
poultry industry, 114
immigration enforcement in, 114122
market shares in, 106
race in, 111115
undocumented workers in, 110111
poverty
deportation and, 216219
neglect and, 220221
President’s Task Force on Victims of Crime, 170
Preventing Animal Cruelty and Torture Act (PACT Act), 92, 94, 9697, 128, 205
Block on, 129
convictions under, 276
enactment of, 276
primates, 192196, 355
psychological well-being of, 195196
social deprivation of, 192193, 195196
in solitary confinement, 193
USDA on, 194195
prison agribusiness
African Americans and, 284286
in Canada, 282284
convict leasing in, 285286
solitary confinement in, 289290
in Texas, 288289
undocumented workers in, 284
in United States, 284290
white supremacy maintained by, 284
prison-industrial complex (PIC), 405
prison industry, animals in, 281282
Prison Litigation Reform Act, 328
prison reform, 321322
Prison Trained K-9 Companion Program, 292
prison-animal programs, 278, 290291
benefits of, 292293
prisoners
animals compared with, 188189
female, 249250
psychological, 226
prisoners’ rights movement, 322
animal protection movement and, 330, 334
litigation in, 328
moral suasion in, 331332, 334335
prisons, 226227, 259. See also incarceration
animals harmed by, 307312
animals in life at, 278
chemical warfare in, 303307
children humanizing, 249254
climate injustice and, 311312
ecological habitats impacted by, 309310
food in, 307309
harms caused by, 408
ideological functions of, 296
as political repression sites, 303307
as violence, 312
probation, 5859, 6768
bench, 73
mass incarceration system and, 215
problem behaviors, 233
The Process Is the Punishment (Feeley), 214
progression thesis, 82
progressive carceralism, 12, 13, 8891, 204205
harm to nonhuman animals, 9597
messages sent by, 9597
Progressive Era, 2526
Prohibition, 139142
mass incarceration caused by, 142
property, animals as, 37, 7071, 74, 281282, 405406
prosecutors, 5457, 59, 7576, 9495, 133
case studies for, 6465
courtroom justice pursued by, 6465
protection from, 168
resource constraints of, 5861
roles of, 54
sentencing considerations for, 6568
on strict liability crimes, 182
victim relationship with, 172
Prosser, William, 369
PTSD. See post-traumatic stress disorder
public land, 270
public opinion
on animal rights, 330
on criminal justice reform, 331332
on mass incarceration, 332
Puerto Rican Independentistas, 299
puppy programs, 278
puppy-dog eyes, 179
Quakers, 403404
race
animality and, 1617, 277
construction of, 18, 2829, 113
construction of humanity through, 31, 35
deportability and, 123126
disenfranchisement and, 336
DV and, 174
in immigration enforcement, 116
in meatpacking and poultry industries, 111115
paternalistic solutions to problem of, 32
racism, 7879, 8586
animal law and, 1112
in animal rights activism, 4849
anti–domestic violence movement and, 145, 157
crime data and, 26
criminal justice reform and, 40
of criminal justice system, 176
of criminal law, 12
defining, 113
deportability and, 113
human/animal boundary maintaining, 3435
labor unions thwarted by, 109
systemic, 7172
in victim narratives, 172174
of War on Drugs, 135
Raemish, Rick, 294295
railroads, 266, 270
cattle trails and, 268
Rainforest Action Network, 310
Rapping, Elayne, 169170, 181182
Reagan, Ronald
sentimentality of, 169170
war on crime under, 168169
recidivism, incarceration and, 205
Reconstruction, 19, 28, 30, 404
Red River, 261262, 272273
Red Scare, 384
Reed, Richard Forman, 32
on African Americans, 3233
reenfranchisement, 337
cause lawyering for, 338339
litigation for, 340
Regan, Lauren, 388389
Regan, Tom, 333334
rehabilitated animals, 290295
rehabilitation, 66
relational dignity, 381382
relational feminists, 360
Reno, Janet, 171
respectability politics, 2223
Restatement (Second) of Torts, 369370
Restatement (Third) of Torts, 368370, 379383
restorative justice, 167168
for animals, 223224
Rice, Tamir, 164165
RICO, 209210
rights, critique of
habeas corpus and, 357359 (See also specific topics)
as sites of power, 359
rights-based approaches, 323324
right-to-work laws, 109110
ring-tailed lemurs, 201
Rizzo, Frank, 394
Roberts, Anna, 88
Roberts, Dorothy, 9, 213214
Rock, Chris, 138
Roe v. Wade, 339340
Roper, Amos A., 2627
Roper v. Simmons, 332
Rosenberg, Ethel, 384
Rosenberg, Julius, 384
Rosenberg Fund for Children, 384, 387, 390, 397398
Rosengard, David, 2
Royle, Camilla, 272
Rubashkin, Sholom, 120121
Rubin, Jessica, 78, 210211
on Desmond’s Law, 211
Rutherford, Stephanie, 273
San Diego Zoo, 242
San Joaquin Valley kit fox, 310
Sanderson Farms, 108109
Sandin v. Conner, 320321
Sapolsky, Robert, 4445
Save Our Prison Farms, 283284