Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2009
  • Online publication date: March 2010

Chapter 8 - Prolonged second stage of labour including difficult decision-making on operative vaginal delivery and caesarean section

References

1. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists . Operative vaginal delivery use of forceps and vacuum extractors for operative vaginal delivery. ACOG Practice Bulletin 2000; 17: 1–6.
2. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists . Operative Vaginal Delivery. Green-top Guideline No. 26. London: RCOG, 2005.
3. NICE . Intrapartum Care; Care of Healthy Women and their Babies during Childbirth. NICE clinical guideline. London: NICE, 2007.
4. Cheng Y W , Hopkins L M , Caughey A B . How long is too long: does a prolonged second stage of labor in nulliparous women affect maternal and neonatal outcomes? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 194: 933–8.
5. Cheng Y W , Hopkins L M , Laros R K Jr , Caughey A B . Duration of the second stage of labour in multiparous women: Maternal and neonatal outcomes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007; 196: 585.e1–e6.
6. Janni W , Schlessl B , Poschers U , et al. The prognostic impact of a prolonged second stage of labor on maternal and fetal outcome. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2002; 81: 214–21.
7. Saunders N S , Pearson C M , Wadsworth J . Neonatal and maternal morbidity in relation to the length of the second stage of labour. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1992; 99: 381–5.
8. Ponkey S E , Cohen A P , Heffner L J , Liberman E . Persistent fetal occiput posterior position: obstetric outcome. Obstet Gynecol 2003; 101: 915–20.
9. Howell C W . Epidural versus non-epidural analgesia for pain relief in labour (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, Oxford; 2000.
10. Hodnett E D , Gates S , Hofmeyr G J , Sakala C . Continuous support for women during childbirth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003; 3: CD003766. Review.
11. Gupta J K , Hofmeyr G J . Position for women during second stage of labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003; 3. Art. No.: CD002006.pub2. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002006.pub2.
12. Roberts C L , Torvaldsen S , Cameron C A , Olive E . Delayed versus early pushing in women with epidural analgesia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 2004; 111: 1333–40.
13. Bloom S L , Casey B M , Schaffer J I , et al. A randomized trial of coached versus uncoached maternal pushing during the second stage of labor. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006; 194: 10–3.
14. Schaffer J I , Bloom S L , Casey B M , et al. A randomized trial of coached versus uncoached maternal pushing during the second stage of labor on postpartum pelvic floor structure and function. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005; 192: 1692–6.
15. Carroli G , Belizan J . Episiotomy for vaginal birth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003; 1: CD000081(1).
16. Andrews V , Sultan A H , Thakar R , et al. Risk factors for obstetric anal sphincter injury: a prospective study. Birth 2006; 33: 117–22.
17. Murphy D J , Liebling R E , Patel R , Verity L , Swingler R . Cohort study of operative delivery in the second stage of labour and standard of obstetric care. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 2003; 110: 610–5.
18. Murphy D J , Liebling R E , Verity L , Swingler R , Patel R . Cohort study of the early maternal and neonatal morbidity associated with operative delivery in the second stage of labour. Lancet 2001; 358: 1203–7.
19. Ben-Haroush A , Melamed N , Kaplan B , Yogev Y . Predictors of failed operative vaginal delivery: a single-center experience. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007; 197: 308.e5–47.
20. Olah K S . Reversal of the decision for Caesarean section in the second stage of labour on the basis of consultant vaginal assessment. J Obstet Gynecol 2005; 25: 115–6.
21. Sau A , Sau M , Ahmed H , Brown R . Vacuum extraction: is there any need to improve the current training in the UK? Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2004; 83: 466–70.
22. Johanson R B , Menon B K . Vacuum extraction versus forceps for assisted vaginal delivery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; 2: CD000224.
23. Attilakos G , Sibanda T , Winter C , Johnson N , Draycott T . A randomised controlled trial of a new handheld vacuum extraction device. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 2005; 112: 1510–5.
24. Groom K M , Jones B A , Miller N , Paterson-Brown S . A prospective randomised controlled trial of the Kiwi Omnicup versus conventional ventouse cups for vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 2006; 113: 183–9.
25. Bhide A , Guven M , Prefumo F , et al. Maternal and neonatal outcome after failed ventouse delivery: comparison of forceps versus cesarean section. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2007; 20: 541–5.
26. Damron D P , Capeless E L . Operative vaginal delivery: a comparison of forceps and vacuum for success rate and risk of rectal sphincter injury. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 907–10.
27. MacArthur C , Glazener C M A , Wilson P D , et al. Obstetric practice and faecal incontinence three months after delivery. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 2001; 108: 678–83.
28. De Leeuw J W , Struijk P C , Vierhout M E , Wallenburg H C S . Risk factors for third degree perineal ruptures during delivery. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 2001; 108: 383–7.
29. Fitzpatrick M , Behan M , O'Connell P R , O'Herlihy C. Randomised clinical trial to assess anal sphincter function following forceps or vacuum assisted vaginal delivery. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 2003; 110: 424–9.
30. Johanson R B , Heycock E , Carter J , et al. Maternal and child health after assisted vaginal delivery: five-year follow up of a randomised controlled study comparing forceps and ventouse. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1999; 106: 544–9.
31. Liebling R E , Swingler R , Patel R R , et al. Pelvic floor morbidity up to one year after difficult instrumental delivery and cesarean section in the second stage of labor: a cohort study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 4–10.
32. Bahl R , Strachan B , Murphy D J . Pelvic floor morbidity at three years after instrumental delivery and caesarean section in the second stage of labor and the impact of a subsequent delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005; 192: 789–94.
33. Badawi N , Kurinczuk J J , Keogh J M , et al. Intrapartum risk factors for newborn encephalopathy: the Western Australian case-control study. Br Med J 1998; 317: 1554–8.
34. Towner D , Castro M A , Eby-Wilkens E , Gilbert W M . Effect of mode of delivery in nulliparaous women on neonatal intracranial injury. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 1709–14.
35. Bahl R , Patel R R , Swingler R , Ellis N , Murphy D J . Neurodevelopmental outcome at 5 years after operative delivery in the second stage of labor: a cohort study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007; 197: 147e1–6.
36. Rodriguez A I , Porter K B , O'Brien W F . Blunt versus sharp expansion of the uterine incision in low-segment transverse cesarean section. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994; 171: 1022–5.
37. Revah A , Ezra Y , Farine D , Ritchie K . Failed trial of vacuum or forceps – maternal and fetal outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997; 176: 200–4.
38. Demissie K , Rhoads G G , Smulian J C , et al. Operative vaginal delivery and neonatal and infant adverse outcomes: population based retrospective analysis. Br Med J 2004; 329: 24–9.
39. Jolly J , Walker J , Bhabra K . Subsequent obstetric performance related to primary mode of delivery. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1999; 106: 227–32.
40. Murphy D J , Liebling R . Cohort study of maternal views on future mode of delivery following operative delivery in the second stage of labour. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003; 188: 542–8.
41. Bahl R , Strachan B , Murphy D J . Outcome of subsequent pregnancy three years after previous operative delivery in the second stage of labour – cohort study. Br Med J 2004; 328: 311–4.