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Aquinas and the <I>Nicomachean Ethics</I>
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Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics is the text which had the single greatest influence on Aquinas's ethical writings, and the historical and philosophical value of Aquinas's appropriation of this text provokes lively debate. In this volume of new essays, thirteen distinguished scholars explore how Aquinas receives, expands on and transforms Aristotle's insights about the attainability of happiness, the scope of moral virtue, the foundation of morality and the nature of pleasure. They examine Aquinas's commentary on the Ethics and his theological writings, above all the Summa theologiae. Their essays show Aquinas to be a highly perceptive interpreter, but one who also brings certain presuppositions to the Ethics and alters key Aristotelian notions for his own purposes. The result is a rich and nuanced picture of Aquinas's relation to Aristotle that will be of interest to readers in moral philosophy, Aquinas studies, the history of theology and the history of philosophy.


'… ideal for readers who wish to know what distinctively philosophical contributions Aquinas made to ethics … the authors bring together many sources and insights, sorting out what had been a messy debate. The result is perhaps the best book in print on Aquinas the moral philosopher, as opposed to Aquinas the moral theologian.'

C. J. Wolfe Source: Claremont Review of Books

'Whether the reader has newly begun his study of Aquinas’s ethics, or is an established scholar in the field, both should find this collection a valuable addition to the current literature.'

Tina Baceski Source: International Philosophical Quarterly

'The group assembled here includes some outstanding scholars who write with commendable clarity. As a consequence, even readers who have studied Aquinas in detail are likely to benefit from new insights.'

Andrew Pinsent Source: Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews

'The volume is well-edited, well-conceived, and well-executed … It will be useful for scholars of Aquinas and Aristotle but the philosophical focus, in addition to the exegetical one, should rightly attract other scholars as well.'

W. Scott Cleveland Source: Journal of Moral Philosophy

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  • Chapter Ten - Prudence and practical principles
    pp 165-183
  • View abstract


    The ethics of Thomas Aquinas should be counted among the most fruitful and influential approaches to moral philosophy. It is often seen as the medieval counterpart to the towering achievements of ancient and modern ethics produced by thinkers like Aristotle and Immanuel Kant. This chapter provides a rough sketch of Aristotle's influence on Aquinas's ethics. It provides views on Aquinas's commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics (EN), the Sententia libri Ethicorum. Aquinas's views on the will imply that the systematic structure of his action theory and ethics differs from Aristotle's in an important respect. Aquinas does not merely assume that the will, as a rational appetite, is a distinct power of the soul. For Aquinas, the most fundamental action of a human being is the internal act of the will, which is completed when the will accepts one course of action proposed by reason (Perkams).
  • Chapter Eleven - Aquinas on incontinence and psychological weakness
    pp 184-202
  • View abstract


    Aquinas, as a good historian, reads the text of the Ethics closely and tries to work out Aristotle's intention, from the context and from other works. Aquinas's efforts to reconcile his interpretation of the chapter of the EN with his other views about Aristotle require us to understand "rational by participation" in two ways. Once we think more carefully about what historical accuracy might properly involve, we can see why it would be unreasonable to avoid philosophical judgments, and why it might be quite appropriate to rely on one's own philosophical judgment in the exposition of Aristotle. The question should not be about whether interpreters argue on the basis of their philosophical judgment, but about whether their judgment contributes to the understanding of Aristotle's intentions or of his achievement. If we want to reach a historically accurate account of Aristotle, we ought not to ignore Aquinas's contributions to this goal.
  • Chapter Twelve - Philia and Caritas
    pp 203-219
  • Some aspects of Aquinas's reception of Aristotle's theory of friendship
  • View abstract


    This chapter principally considers the scheme of the cardinal virtues in ST 2-2, which Aquinas developed in order to organize comprehensively the subject matter of ethics. It discusses key differences in ethical method between Aristotle and Aquinas Aquinas develops Aristotle's ethical theory in the EN by resolving difficulties inherent in the EN, drawing on principles taken from Aristotle to do so. He does so as part of a project that he regards as primarily speculative, accounting for the truth of things, and not merely practical, aiming at the good. Ethical theory, if it is true, must have a formal structure, consistent with the best contemporary accounts of the world, and that admits of being more deeply articulated as investigation proceeds and deepens. Aquinas's virtue ethics has a clever, deep, and compelling rational structure. Its claim to truth depends crucially on the claims to truth of Aristotelian natural philosophy and metaphysics.
  • Chapter Thirteen - Pleasure, a supervenient end
    pp 220-238
  • View abstract


    Without doubt happiness is the central concept on which ancient moral philosophy was found. Christian authors' approach to philosophy is very much shaped by their understanding of happiness. The author first sketches out the basic characteristics of Aristotelian happiness. Afterwards, he briefly examines Albert the Great's commentaries on the EN. Aquinas's interpretation of Aristotelian happiness in his own commentary, the Sententia Libri Ethicorum(SLE), can be understood at least partly as a critical reaction to the highly influential reading of his teacher. The author outlines Aquinas's understanding of happiness, starting from his commentary and proceeding to the theological works. This enable to finally evaluate the way in which Aquinas's theological background shaped his reading of Aristotelian eudaimonia. Aristotle generally sticks to the idea that virtuous activity is the essential and constitutive part of happiness.
  • Chapter Fourteen - Aristotle, Aquinas, Anscombe, and the new virtue ethics
    pp 239-257
  • View abstract


    Aquinas's interpretation of EN 3.1-5 reveals from the outset a special interest in "choice". He states explicitly that Aristotle's definition of virtue as a "habit issuing in choices" requires a special treatment. The other main concepts discussed in 3.1-5, "the voluntary" and "the will" are in Aquinas's view connected with choice. Since choice is an interior act of the will, it is free in the sense of not being necessitated by any factor outside human reason, and cannot be impeded from taking place. It is thus the act about whose freedom there can never be any doubt. Aquinas's concept of will is not confined to simply positing a "rational appetite". By integrating an Augustinian concept of interior freedom and Aristotelian philosophy of nature, Aquinas is able not only to affirm that the will is open to alternative courses of action but to interpret this as a natural phenomenon.
  • Bibliography
    pp 258-272
  • View abstract


    The author shows that Aquinas's commentary interprets Aristotle's remark about the destruction of virtue correctly. The author discusses Aquinas's concept of the will as a capacity for free choice: a notion central to his conviction that people can lose their virtue. The author considers two parts of his Ethics commentary where Aquinas clearly injects his own opinion: that virtues divide into principal and merely secondary virtues, and that disposition is something we exercise when we will. Aquinas's conviction that virtuous people can lose their virtue through moral backsliding carries with it a more cheering corollary: with enough time and effort, vicious people can improve. In both cases the individual's power of free choice gives her the capacity to change her character. As Aquinas's ethical theory denies that anyone on earth is infallibly virtuous, so it denies that anyone on earth is incurably vicious.


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