1. , , , et al. Guidelines for the early management of patients with ischemic stroke: a scientific statement from the Stroke Council of the American Stroke Association. Stroke 2007; 38: 1655–711.
2. , , , et al. Expansion of the time window for treatment of acute ischemic stroke with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator: a science advisory from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke 2009; 40: 2945–8.
4. , , , et al. Perfusion CT improves diagnostic accuracy for hyperacute ischemic stroke in the 3-hour window: study of 100 patients with diffusion MRI confirmation. Cerebrovasc Dis 2009; 28: 72–9.
5. : a randomised trial of aspirin, subcutaneous heparin, both, or neither among 19435 patients with acute ischaemic stroke. International Stroke Trial Collaborative Group. Lancet 1997; 349: 1569–81.
6. : randomised placebo-controlled trial of early aspirin use in 20,000 patients with acute ischaemic stroke. CAST (Chinese Acute Stroke Trial) Collaborative Group. Lancet 1997; 349: 1641–9.
7. , , , . Low molecular-weight heparin versus aspirin in patients with acute ischaemic stroke and atrial fibrillation: a double-blind randomised study. HAEST Study Group. Heparin in Acute Embolic Stroke Trial. Lancet 2000; 355: 1205–10.
8. , , . Atrial fibrillation, stroke, and acute antithrombotic therapy: analysis of randomized clinical trials. Stroke 2002; 33: 2722–7.
9. , , , et al. Anticoagulation after cardioembolic stroke: to bridge or not to bridge? Arch Neurol 2008; 65: 1169–73.
10. , , , , . Antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapy for ischemic stroke: the Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy. Chest 2004; 126 (3 suppl): 483S–512S.
11. , , , et al. Classification of subtype of acute ischemic stroke. Definitions for use in a multicenter clinical trial. TOAST. Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment. Stroke 1993; 24: 35–41.
12. , , , et al. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography for carotid disease: diagnostic and potential clinical impact. Neurology 2004; 62: 1282–90.
13. , , , et al. Statin treatment withdrawal in ischemic stroke: a controlled randomized study. Neurology 2007; 69: 904–10.
14. , , , et al. Survival and recurrence after first cerebral infarction: a population-based study in Rochester, Minnesota, 1975 through 1989. Neurology 1998; 50: 208–16.
15. , , , et al. Mortality and causes of death after first ischemic stroke: the Northern Manhattan Stroke Study. Neurology 2001; 57: 2000–5.
16. , , , et al. Long-term mortality in cerebrovascular disease. Stroke 2003; 34: 699–704.
17. , , , et al. Incidence and outcome of subtypes of ischaemic stroke: initial results from the North East Melbourne stroke incidence study (NEMESIS). Cerebrovasc Dis 2003; 15: 133–9.
18. . Tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 1995; 333: 1581–7.
19. , , , et al.; ECASS Investigators. Thrombolysis with alteplase 3 to 4.5 hours after acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 2008; 359: 1317–29.
20. , , , et al. Early stroke treatment associated with better outcome: the NINDS rt-PA stroke study. Neurology 2000; 55: 1649–55.
21. . Subgroup analysis of the NINDS t-PA Stroke Trial. Stroke 1997; 28: 2119–25.
22. , , , et al. Lack of clinical significance of early ischemic changes on computed tomography in acute stroke. JAMA 2001; 286: 2830–8.
23. : the Interventional Management of Stroke Study. Stroke 2004; 35: 904–11.
24. , , , et al. Safety and efficacy of mechanical embolectomy in acute ischemic stroke: results of the MERCI trial. Stroke 2005; 36: 1432–8.
25. . The Penumbra Pivotal Stroke Trial: safety and effectiveness of a new generation of mechanical devices for clot removal in intracranial large vessel occlusive disease. Stroke 2009; 40: 2761–8.
26. , , , et al. Intra-arterial prourokinase for acute ischemic stroke. The PROACT II study: a randomized controlled trial. Prolyse in Acute Cerebral Thromboembolism. JAMA 1999; 282: 2003–11.
27. , , , et al.; MELT Japan Study Group. Randomized trial of intraarterial infusion of urokinase within 6 hours of middle cerebral artery stroke: the middle cerebral artery embolism local fibrinolytic intervention trial (MELT) Japan. Stroke 2007; 38: 2633–9.
28. , , , et al. Mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke: final results of the Multi MERCI trial. Stroke 2008; 39: 1205–12.
29. , , , et al.; Interventional Management of Stroke III Investigators. Methodology of the Interventional Management of Stroke III Trial. Int J Stroke 2008; 3: 130–7.
30. , , , et al. Aggressive mechanical clot disruption: a safe adjunct to thrombolytic therapy in acute stroke? Stroke 2005; 36: 292–6.
31. , , , et al. Factors predicting hemorrhagic complications after multimodal reperfusion therapy for acute ischemic stroke. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2007; 28: 1391–4.
32. , , , et al. Neither time to treatment nor the use of adjunctive intra-arterial thrombolytics increase the risk for symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage after endovascular treatment of CT perfusion or MRI-selected stroke patients treated at late time windows: analysis of the Pre-DAWN dataset. International Stroke Conference, 2010, San Antonio, TX.
33. , , , et al. Extensive brainstem ischemia on neuroimaging does not preclude meaningful recovery from locked-in syndrome: two cases of endovascularly managed basilar thrombosis. J Neuroimaging 2008; 18: 15–17.
34. , , , et al.; PROACT-II Investigators. Selection of acute ischemic stroke patients for intra-arterial thrombolysis with pro-urokinase by using ASPECTS. Stroke 2003; 34: 1925–31.
35. , , , et al. Perfusion-CT assessment of infarct core and penumbra: receiver operating characteristic curve analysis in 130 patients suspected of acute hemispheric stroke. Stroke 2006; 37: 979–85.
36. , , , , . Risk of early death and recurrent stroke and effect of heparin in 3169 patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation in the International Stroke Trial. Stroke 2001; 32: 2333–7.
37. , , , , . Early ischemic lesion recurrence within a week after acute ischemic stroke. Ann Neurol 2003; 54: 66–74.
38. , , . Early risk of recurrence by subtype of ischemic stroke in population-based incidence studies. Neurology 2004; 62: 569–73.
39. , , , et al. Early decompressive surgery in malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery: a pooled analysis of three randomised controlled trials. Lancet Neurol 2007; 6: 215–22.
40. , , , et al. Hemorrhagic transformation within 36 hours of a cerebral infarct: relationships with early clinical deterioration and 3-month outcome in the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study I (ECASS I) cohort. Stroke 1999; 30: 2280–4.
41. , , . Risk of death with atypical antipsychotic drug treatment for dementia: meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. JAMA 2005; 294: 1934–3.
42. , , , et al. Guidelines for prevention of stroke in patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Council on Stroke. Stroke 2006; 37: 577–617.
43. . Prevention of stroke by antihypertensive drug treatment in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension. Final results of the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP). JAMA 1991; 265: 3255–64.
44. , , , et al. Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 145–53.
45. . Randomised trial of a perindopril-based blood-pressure-lowering regimen among 6,105 individuals with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Lancet 2001; 358: 1033–41.
46. Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs diuretic. The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). JAMA 2002; 288: 2981–97.
47. MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin in 20,536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2002; 360: 7–22.
48. , , 3rd, et al.; Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) Investigators. High-dose atorvastatin after stroke or transient ischemic attack. N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 549–59.
49. , , , et al. Implications of recent clinical trials for the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Circulation 2004; 110: 227–39.
50. , , , et al. Lowering homocysteine in patients with ischemic stroke to prevent recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, and death: the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004; 291: 565–75.
51. , , , et al. A clinical trial of estrogen-replacement therapy after ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 1243–9.
52. , , , et al. Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004; 291: 1701–12.
53. , , , et al. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002; 288: 321–33.
54. . Collaborative overview of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy. I: Prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke by prolonged antiplatelet therapy in various categories of patients. BMJ 1994; 308: 81–106.
55. , , , et al. European Stroke Prevention Study. 2. Dipyridamole and acetylsalicylic acid in the secondary prevention of stroke. J Neurol Sci 1996; 143: 1–13.
56. . The European Stroke Prevention Study (ESPS): principal end-points. Lancet 1987; 2: 1351–4.
57. , , , et al.; PRoFESS Study Group. Aspirin and extended-release dipyridamole versus clopidogrel for recurrent stroke. N Engl J Med 2008; 359: 1238–51.
58. . A randomised, blinded, trial of clopidogrel versus aspirin in patients at risk of ischaemic events (CAPRIE). Lancet 1996; 348: 1329–39.
59. , , , et al. Aspirin and clopidogrel compared with clopidogrel alone after recent ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack in high-risk patients (MATCH): randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2004; 364: 331–7.
60. , , , et al. Clopidogrel and aspirin versus aspirin alone for the prevention of atherothrombotic events. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 1706–17.
61. , , , et al. Lessons from the Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation trials. Ann Intern Med 2003; 138: 831–8.
62. , . Anticoagulants versus antiplatelet therapy for preventing stroke in patients with nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation and a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004; (4): CD000187.
63. . Cardioembolic stroke: an update. Lancet Neurol 2003; 2: 177–88.
64. , , , et al. Atherosclerotic disease of the aortic arch and the risk of ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 1994; 331: 1474–9.
65. , , , et al. Warfarin safety and efficacy in patients with thoracic aortic plaque and atrial fibrillation. SPAF TEE Investigators. Stroke Prevention and Atrial Fibrillation. Transesophageal echocardiography. Am J Cardiol 1999; 83: 453–5, A9.
66. . Anticoagulation for stroke prevention: yes, no, maybe. Cleve Clin J Med 2004; 71 (Suppl 1): S52–6.
67. , , , , . Effect of medical treatment in stroke patients with patent foramen ovale: patent foramen ovale in Cryptogenic Stroke Study. Circulation 2002; 105: 2625–31.
68. , , , et al. Comparison of warfarin and aspirin for symptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis. N Engl J Med 2005; 352: 1305–16.
69. , , , et al. A comparison of warfarin and aspirin for the prevention of recurrent ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 1444–51.
70. , , , et al. Antiphospholipid antibodies and subsequent thrombo-occlusive events in patients with ischemic stroke. JAMA 2004; 291: 576–84.
71. , , , et al. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report. JAMA 2003; 289: 2560–72.
72. , , , et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study (LIFE): a randomised trial against atenolol. Lancet 2002; 359: 995–1003.
73. , , , et al. Health outcomes associated with various antihypertensive therapies used as first-line agents: a network meta-analysis. JAMA 2003; 289: 2534–4.
74. , , , et al.; PROTECT AF Investigators. Percutaneous closure of the left atrial appendage versus warfarin therapy for prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation: a randomised non-inferiority trial. Lancet 2009; 374: 534–42.
75. , , , et al. Percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion for patients in atrial fibrillation suboptimal for warfarin therapy: 5-year results of the PLAATO (Percutaneous Left Atrial Appendage Transcatheter Occlusion) Study. JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2009; 2: 594–600.
76. , , , et al.; RE-LY Steering Committee and Investigators. Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2009; 361: 1139–51.
77. . Effect of clopidogrel added to aspirin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2009; 360; 2066–78.
78. . Decision-making for carotid endarterectomy: the trials are only the start. Can J Neurol Sci 2002; 29: 302–4.
79. , , , et al. Benefit of carotid endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic moderate or severe stenosis. North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial Collaborators. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 1415–25.
80. . Endarterectomy for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. JAMA 1995; 273: 1421–8.
81. , , , et al. Prevention of disabling and fatal strokes by successful carotid endarterectomy in patients without recent neurological symptoms: randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2004; 363: 1491–502.
82. , , , et al. Protected carotid-artery stenting versus endarterectomy in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 1493–501.
83. , , , et al. Results of the Stent-Protected Angioplasty versus Carotid Endarterectomy (SPACE) study to treat symptomatic stenoses at 2 years: a multinational, prospective, randomised trial. Lancet Neurol 2008; 7: 893–902.
84. , , , et al. Endarterectomy Versus Angioplasty in Patients with Symptomatic Severe Carotid Stenosis (EVA-3S) trial: results up to 4 years from a randomised, multicentre trial. Lancet Neurol 2008; 7: 885–92.
85. , , , et al.; CREST Investigators. Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis. N Engl J Med 2010; 363: 11–23.
86. , , , , . Endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis in relation to clinical subgroups and timing of surgery. Lancet 2004; 363: 915–24.
87. , , , , . Sex difference in the effect of time from symptoms to surgery on benefit from carotid endarterectomy for transient ischemic attack and nondisabling stroke. Stroke 2004; 35: 2855–61.
88. , , . Systematic review of the risks of carotid endarterectomy in relation to the clinical indication for and timing of surgery. Stroke 2003; 34: 2290–301.
89. , . Systematic review of the operative risks of carotid endarterectomy for recently symptomatic stenosis in relation to the timing of surgery. Stroke 2009; 40: e564–72.
90. , , , , . The carotid occlusion surgery study. Neurosurg Focus 2003; 14 (3): e9.
91. , , , et al. Importance of hemodynamic factors in the prognosis of symptomatic carotid occlusion. JAMA 1998; 280: 1055–60.
92. , , , , . Outcome of carotid artery occlusion is predicted by cerebrovascular reactivity. Stroke 1999; 30: 593–8.
93. . Stenting of Symptomatic Atherosclerotic Lesions in the Vertebral or Intracranial Arteries (SSYLVIA): study results. Stroke 2004; 35: 1388–92.
94. , , , et al. The NIH registry on the use of the Wingspan stent for symptomatic 70–99% intracranial arterial stenosis. Neurology 2008; 70: 1518–24.
95. , , , , . Small centrum ovale infarcts on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Stroke 2002; 33: 1541–4.
96. . Clinical neuromythology VI. Au clair de lacune: holy, wholly, holey logic. Neurology 1989; 39: 725–30.
97. , , , et al. Effect of treating isolated systolic hypertension on the risk of developing various types and subtypes of stroke: the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP). JAMA 2000; 284: 465–71.
98. , , , , . Multisection CT angiography compared with catheter angiography in diagnosing vertebral artery dissection. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2004; 25: 769–74.
99. , , , et al. Risk of stroke and recurrent dissection after a cervical artery dissection: a multicenter study. Neurology 2003; 61: 1347–51.
100. , , . Interatrial septal abnormalities and stroke: a meta-analysis of case-control studies. Neurology 2000; 55: 1172–9.
101. , , , et al. Practice parameter: recurrent stroke with patent foramen ovale and atrial septal aneurysm. Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 2004; 62: 1042–50.
102. , , , et al. Transient ischemic attack: proposal for a new definition. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 1713–16.
103. , , , . Short-term prognosis after emergency department diagnosis of TIA. JAMA 2000; 284: 2901–6.
104. , , , et al. Validation and refinement of scores to predict very early stroke risk after transient ischaemic attack. Lancet 2007; 369: 283–92.
105. , , , et al. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. N Engl J Med 2001; 344: 1450–60.
106. , , , et al. Early surgery versus initial conservative treatment in patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral haematomas in the International Surgical Trial in Intracerebral Haemorrhage (STICH): a randomised trial. Lancet 2005; 365: 387–97.
107. , Jr, , et al. Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: a statement for healthcare professionals from a special writing group of the Stroke Council, American Heart Association. Stroke 1999; 30: 905–15.
108. , , , et al. Early hemorrhage growth in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke 1997; 28: 1–5.
109. , , , , et al. CT angiography “spot sign” predicts hematoma expansion in acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke 2007; 38: 1257–62.
110. , , , et al. Postcontrast CT extravasation is associated with hematoma expansion in CTA spot negative patients. Stroke 2009; 40: 1672–6.
111. , , Stone MJ, et al. Systematic characterization of the computed tomography angiography spot sign in primary intracerebral hemorrhage identifies patients at highest risk for hematoma expansion: the spot sign score. Stroke 2009; 40: 2994–3000.
112. , , , et al. Recombinant activated factor VII for acute intracerebral hemorrhage. N Engl J Med 2005; 352: 777–85.
113. , , , et al.; FAST Trial Investigators. Efficacy and safety of recombinant activated factor VII for acute intracerebral hemorrhage. N Engl J Med 2008; 358: 2127–37.
114. , , , et al. Treatment of warfarin-associated intracerebral hemorrhage: literature review and expert opinion. Mayo Clin Proc 2007; 82: 82–92.
115. , , , et al.; INTERACT Investigators. Effects of early intensive blood pressure-lowering treatment on the growth of hematoma and perihematomal edema in acute intracerebral hemorrhage: the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Haemorrhage Trial (INTERACT). Stroke 2010; 41: 307–12.
116. , , , et al.; VICTORIAh (Venous Intermittent Compression and Thrombosis Occurrence Related to Intra-cerebral Acute hemorrhage) Investigators. Prevention of venous thrombosis in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurology 2005; 65: 865–9.
117. , , , et al. Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in adults: 2007 update: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council, High Blood Pressure Research Council, and the Quality of Care and Outcomes in Research Interdisciplinary Working Group. Stroke 2007; 38: 2001–23.
118. , , , , . Volume of intracerebral hemorrhage: a powerful and easy-to-use predictor of 30-day mortality. Stroke 1993; 24: 987–93.
119. , , , , . The ICH score: a simple, reliable grading scale for intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke 2001; 32: 891–7.
120. , , , . Recurrent brain hemorrhage is more frequent than ischemic stroke after intracranial hemorrhage. Neurology 2001; 56: 773–7.
121. , , , . The risk of recurrent stroke after intracerebral haemorrhage. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2007; 78: 836–40.
122. , , , et al. Patterns of stroke recurrence according to subtype of first stroke event: the North East Melbourne Stroke Incidence Study (NEMESIS). Int J Stroke 2008; 3: 158–64.
123. , , , , . Three-year survival and stroke recurrence rates in patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke 2009; 40: 3567–73.
124. , , , , Hemorrhage burden predicts recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage after lobar hemorrhage. Stroke 2004; 35: 1415–20.
125. , , et al. Guidelines for the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A statement for healthcare professionals from a special writing group of the Stroke Council, American Heart Association. Stroke 1994; 25: 2315–28.
126. , , , et al. International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) of neurosurgical clipping versus endovascular coiling in 2143 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms: a randomised trial. Lancet 2002; 360: 1267–74.
127. , , , et al. Magnesium sulfate in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a randomized controlled trial. Stroke 2005; 36: 1011–15.
128. , , , . Clinical course of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage: a population-based study in King County, Washington. Neurology 1993; 43: 712–18.
129. , , , , . The International Cooperative Study on the Timing of Aneurysm Surgery. Part 2: surgical results. J Neurosurg 1990; 73: 37–47.
130. . Unruptured intracranial aneurysms: risk of rupture and risks of surgical intervention. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 1725–33.
131. , , , et al. Unruptured intracranial aneurysms: natural history, clinical outcome, and risks of surgical and endovascular treatment. Lancet 2003; 362: 103–10.
132. , , , et al. Organization of stroke care: education, referral, emergency management and imaging, stroke units and rehabilitation. European Stroke Initiative. Cerebrovasc Dis 2004; 17 (Suppl 2): 1–14.
133. , , , et al. European Stroke Initiative Recommendations for Stroke Management: update 2003. Cerebrovasc Dis 2003; 16: 311–37.
134. , , , et al. Recommendations for the establishment of stroke systems of care: recommendations from the American Stroke Association’s Task Force on the Development of Stroke Systems. Stroke 2005; 36: 690–703.
135. . Organised inpatient (stroke unit) care for stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Revs 2002; (1): CD000197.
136. , , , et al. Recommendations for the establishment of primary stroke centers. Brain Attack Coalition. JAMA 2000; 283: 3102–9.
137. , , , et al. Efficacy of site-independent telemedicine in the STRokE DOC trial: a randomised, blinded, prospective study. Lancet Neurol 2008; 7: 787–95.
138. , , , et al.. Management of adult stroke rehabilitation care: a clinical practice guideline. Stroke 2005; 36: e100–43.
139. , , , et al. Prevention of radiographic-contrast-agent-induced reductions in renal function by acetylcysteine. N Engl J Med 2000; 343: 180–4.
140. , , , et al. Acetylcysteine for prevention of acute deterioration of renal function following elective coronary angiography and intervention: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2003; 289: 553–8.
141. , , , et al. Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy with sodium bicarbonate: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004; 291: 2328–34.
142. , , , . Validity and reliability of a quantitative computed tomography score in predicting outcome of hyperacute stroke before thrombolytic therapy. ASPECTS Study Group. Alberta Stroke Programme Early CT Score. Lancet 2000; 355: 1670–4.
143. , , , , . Quantitative assessment of the time course of infarct signal intensity on diffusion-weighted images. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2003; 24: 680–7.
144. , , , et al. Intracranial hemorrhage: principles of CT and MRI interpretation. Eur Radiol 2001; 11: 1770–83.
145. . Cerebrovascular Ultrasound in Stroke Prevention, and Treatment. Elmsford, NY; Oxford: Blackwell/Futura, 2004.
146. , , , , . Transcranial Doppler in the diagnosis of cardiac patent foramen ovale. Neurol Sci 2001; 22: 353–6.
147. , . Detection of right-to-left shunt with ultrasound contrast agent and transcranial Doppler sonography. Cerebrovasc Dis 2000; 10: 490–6.
148. , . Validation of a weight-based nomogram for the use of intravenous heparin in transient ischemic attack or stroke. Stroke 2002; 33: 670–4.
149. , , , et al. Enoxaparin vs heparin for prevention of deep-vein thrombosis in acute ischaemic stroke: a randomized, double-blind study. Acta Neurol Scand 2002; 106: 84–92.
150. Report of the Ad Hoc Committee of the Harvard Medical School to Examine the Definition of Brain Death. A definition of irreversible coma. JAMA 1968; 205: 337–40.
151. , . Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness: a practical scale. Lancet 1974; 2: 81–4.
152. , . Surgical risk as related to time of intervention in the repair of intracranial aneurysms. J Neurosurg 1968; 28: 14–20.
153. , , , et al. A universal subarachnoid hemorrhage scale: report of a committee of the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1988; 51: 1457.
154. . Cerebral vascular accidents in patients over the age of 60. Scott Med J 1957; 2: 200–15.
155. , . Modification of Rankin scale: recovery of motor function after stroke. Stroke 1988; 19: 1497–500.
156. , , , , . Interobserver agreement for the assessment of handicap in stroke patients. Stroke 1988; 19: 604–7.
157. , , . Interrater reliability of the NIH stroke scale. Arch Neurol 1989; 46: 660–2.
158. , , , et al. NIHSS training and certification using a new digital video disk is reliable. Stroke 2005; 36: 2446–9.