Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-684899dbb8-v9xhf Total loading time: 0.666 Render date: 2022-05-18T15:27:05.015Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

11 - Saudi Nationalism, Wahhabi Daʿwā, and Western Power

from Part VI - Saudi Arabia and Wahhabism

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 June 2021

Nadim N. Rouhana
Affiliation:
Tufts University, Massachusetts
Nadera Shalhoub-Kevorkian
Affiliation:
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Queen Mary University of London
Get access

Summary

This chapter examines how the rise of populist nationalism in Saudi Arabia interacts with Wahhabism and the role of Western power in controlling the outcome of this interaction. As a result of its founding agreement, the Saudi ruling family needs the support of Wahhabi clerks for internal legitimacy and of the West, mainly the US, for technological help and defense and security backing. These Saudi rulers have instrumentalized Wahhabism to advance a pan-Islamic ideology (da?wa) in an effort to fight rivals at home and combat Arab nationalism and liberal, socialist, and Marxist trends in the Arab region and Islamic societies. This ideology was also used to achieve global influence. The chapter explains that Saudi Arabia is a case in which an extreme interpretation of religious doctrine was needed to legitimize an authoritarian regime and ultimately became a tool of domestic governance and foreign policy.

Type
Chapter
Information
When Politics are Sacralized
Comparative Perspectives on Religious Claims and Nationalism
, pp. 275 - 306
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Abou Zahab, Mariam. 2009. “Salafism in Pakistan: The Ahl-e Hadith Movement.” In Global Salafism: Islam’s New Religious Movement, edited by Meijer, Roel, 126–42. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Abū al-ʿŪlā, Rāshid. 2004. Ḍawābit takfīr al-muaʿyyan ʿinda shaykhay al-islām Ibn Taymiyya wa Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb wa-ʿulamāʾ al-daʿwat al-iṣlāhiyya. Edited by Ibn Fawzān, Ṣāliḥ. Riyadh: Maktabat al-Rushd.Google Scholar
Abū Samra, Muhammad. 2009. “Liberal Critics, ʿUlamaʾ and the Debate on Islam in the Contemporary Arab World.” In Guardians of Faith in Modern Times: ʿUlamaʾ in the Middle East, edited by Hatina, Meir, 265–89. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. 2009. “Salafism in France: Ideology, Practices and Contradictions.” In Global Salafism: Islam’s New Religious Movement, edited by Meijer, Roel, 364–73. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
An-Na’im, Abdullahi Ahmed. 1986. “The Islamic Law of Apostasy and Its Modern Applicability: A Case from the Sudan.” Religion 16: 197224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ansary, Abdullah F. 2018. “Combating Extremism: A Brief Overview of Saudi Arabia’s Approach.” Middle East Policy 15, no. 2: 433–54.Google Scholar
Atawneh, Muhammad al-. 2016. “Is Saudi Arabia a Theocracy? Religion and Governance in Contemporary Saudi Arabia.” In vol. 2 of Wahhabism: Doctrine and Development, edited by Peskes, Esther, 271–88. Berlin: Gerlach Press.Google Scholar
Arab News. 2017. “Arab-Islamic-American Summit Fosters Global Peace, Stability.” May 22. www.arabnews.com/node/1103126/saudi-arabia.Google Scholar
Basbous, Antoine. 2002. L’Arabie Saoudite en Question: du Wahhabisme à Bin Laden, aux Origines de la Tourmente. Paris: Perrin.Google Scholar
Benjamin, Daniel, and Simon, Steven. 2002. The Age of Sacred Terror. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
Birt, Jonathan. 2005. “Wahhabism in the United Kingdom: Manifestations and Reactions.” In Transnational Connections and the Arab Gulf, edited by al-Rasheed, Madawi, 168–84. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Bonnefoy, Laurent. 2009. “How Transnational Is Salafism in Yemen.” In Global Salafism: Islam’s New Religious Movement, edited by Meijer, Roel, 321–41. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Böwering, Gerhard. 2008. “Reconstructing the Qur’an.” In The Qur’an in Its Historical Context, edited by Reynolds, Gabriel, 7087. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Commins, David. 2009. The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia. Ithaca: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
Dallal, Ahmad S. 2016. “The Origins and Early Development of Islamic Reform.” In vol. 1 of Wahhabism: Doctrine and Development, edited by Peskes, Esther, 3360. Berlin: Gerlach Press.Google Scholar
Damir-Geilsdorf, Sabine, and Menzfeld, Mira. 2016. “‘Looking at the Life of the Prophet and How He Dealt with All These Issues’: Self-Positioning, Demarcations and Belongingness of German Salafis from an Emic Perspective.” Contemporary Islam 10, no. 3: 433–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dar-us-Salam Publications. n.d. “About Dar-us-Salam Publications.” https://dar-us-salam.com/about_us.htm.Google Scholar
Davis, Gregory M. 2006. Religion of Peace? Islam’s War against the World. Los Angeles: World Ahead Publishing.Google Scholar
De Bel Air, Francoise. 2014. “Demography, Migration, and Labour Market in Saudi Arabia.” Explanatory Note, no. 1/2014. Gulf Labour Markets and Migration. https://gulfmigration.eu/media/pubs/exno/GLMM_EN_2014_01.pdf.Google Scholar
Dekmejian, R. Hrair. 2016. “The Rise of Political Islamism in Saudi Arabia.” In vol. 2 of Wahhabism: Doctrine and Development, edited by Peskes, Esther, 338–53. Berlin: Gerlach Press.Google Scholar
de Konig, Martijn. 2009. “Changing Worldviews and Friendship: An Exploration of the Life Stories of Two Female Salafis in the Netherlands.” In Global Salafism: Islam’s New Religious Movement, edited by Meijer, Roel, 404–23. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Devji, Faisal. 2008. “The ‘Arab’ in Global Militancy.” In Kingdom without Borders: Saudi Political, Religious and Media Frontiers, edited by al-Rasheed, Madawi, 283–99. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Doumato, Eleanor Abdella. 2008. “Saudi Arabian Expansion in the United States: Half-Hearted Missionary Work Meets Rock-Solid Resistance.” In Kingdom without Borders: Saudi Political, Religious and Media Frontiers, edited by al-Rasheed, Madawi, 301–21. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Dubaykhīal-, Khālid ibn ʿAbdullāh, and ʿAbd al-Wahhāb, Muḥammad ibn. 2011–12. Minḥat al-ḥamīd fī taqrīb Kitāb al-Tawḥīd li-l-Imām Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb, 1115–1206H. Dammam, Saudi Arabia: Dār Ibn al-Jawzī.Google Scholar
Egerton, Frazer. 2011. Jihad in the West: The Rise of Militant Salafism. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ende, Werner. 2016. “Religion, Politik und Literatur in Saudi-Arabien: Der geistesgeschichtliche Hintergrund der heutigen religiösen und kulturpolitischen Situation.” In vol. 2 of Wahhabism: Doctrine and Development, edited by Peskes, Esther, 230–47. Berlin: Gerlach Press.Google Scholar
Fahad, Abulaziz H. al-. 2016. “From Exclusivism to Accommodation: Doctrinal and Legal Evolution of Wahhabism.” In vol. 2 of Wahhabism: Doctrine and Development, edited by Peskes, Esther, 110–39. Berlin: Gerlach Press.Google Scholar
Farquhar, Michael. 2015. “The Islamic University of Medina since 1961: The Politics of Religious Mission and the Making of a Modern Salafi Pedagogy.” In Shaping Global Islamic Discourses: The Role of Al-Azhar, Al-Medina and Al-Mustafa, edited by Bano, Masooda and Sakurai, Keiko, 2140. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
Farquhar, Michael 2016. Circuits of Faith: Migration, Education, and the Wahhabi Mission. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Fawzān, Sālih al-. n.d. “The Obligation to Ascribe to the Salafiya.” Translated by Maaz Qureshi. FatwaIslam.com. www.fatwaislam.com/fis/index.cfm?scn=fd&ID=565.Google Scholar
Hamid, Sadek. 2009. “The Attraction of ‘Authentic Islam’: Salafism and British Muslim Youth.” In Global Salafism: Islam’s New Religious Movement, edited by Meijer, Roel, 384403. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Hasan, Noorhaidi. 2007. “The Salafi Movement in Indonesia: Transnational Dynamics and Local Development.” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 27, no. 1: 8394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hasan, Noorhaidi 2008. “Saudi Expansion, the Salafi Campaign and Arabised Islam in Indonesia.” In Kingdom without Borders: Saudi Political, Religious, and Media Frontiers, edited by al-Rasheed, Madawi, 263–81. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Hasan, Noorhaidi 2009. “Ambivalent Doctrines and Conflicts in the Salafi Movement in Indonesia.” In Global Salafism: Islam’s New Religious Movement, edited by Meijer, Roel, 169–88. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Hasan, Noorhaidi 2010. “The Failure of the Wahhabi Campaign: Transnational Islam and the Salafi Madrasa in Post-9/11 Indonesia.” South East Asia Research 18, no. 4: 675705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hasson, Isaac. 2006. “Les Šīʿites Vus Par Les Néo-Wahhābites.” Arabica 53, no. 3: 299330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heffelfinger, Christopher. 2011. Radical Islam in America Salafism’s Journey from Arabia to the West. Washington, DC: Potomac Books.Google Scholar
Hegghammer, Thomas. 2010. Jihad in Saudi Arabia: Violence and Pan-Islamism since 1979. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hegghammer, Thomas, and Lacroix, Stéphane. 2007. “Rejectionist Islamism in Saudi Arabia: The Story of Juhayman al-ʿUtaybi Revisited.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 39, no. 1: 103–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hilālī, Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din al-, and Muhsin Khān, Muhammad, trans. 1996. The Noble Qur’an: Interpretation of the Meanings of the Noble Qur’an in the English Language. Riyadh: Dar-us-Salam Publications.Google Scholar
Hilālī, Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din al-, and Muhsin Khān, Muhammad 1999. The Noble Qur’an: Interpretation of the Meanings of the Noble Qur’an in the English Language. Riyadh: Dar-us-Salam Publications.Google Scholar
Hroub, Khaled. 2009. “Salafi Formations in Palestine: The Limits of a De-Palestinised Milieu.” In Global Salafism: Islam’s New Religious Movement, edited by Meijer, Roel, 221–43. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb, Muḥammad. 1979. Majmūʿāt al-fatāwā wa-l-rasāʾil wa-l-ajwiba: Khamsūn risāla fī al-tawḥīd. Cairo: Dār al-Waḥy.Google Scholar
Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb, Muḥammad 2010a. Mufīd al-mustafīd fī kufr tārik al-tawḥīd. Edited by al-ʿAṣlānī, Ḥamad ibn Aḥmad. Riyadh: Maktabat al-Rushd Nāshirūn.Google Scholar
Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb, Muḥammad 2010b. Majmūʿ muʿallafāt al-Shaykh Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb: Mawsūʿa tataḍammanu jamīʿ muʾallafāt wa-rasāʾil wa-khuṭab al-Shaykh Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb. Edited by Ṣabrī, Rāʾid ibn and ʿAlfa, Ibn Abī. 2 vols. Beirut: Milyār li-l-Istithmār.Google Scholar
Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb, Muḥammad et al. 1926. Majmūʿāt al-tawḥīd: al-Maʿrūf bi-majmuʿāt al-tawḥīd al-Najdiyya: Majmūʿāt kutub wa-rasāʾil. Edited by Riḍā, Rashīd. Riyadh: al-Amāna al-ʿĀmma li-l-Iḥtifāl bi-Murūr Miʾa ʿĀm ʿalā Taʾsīs al-Mamlaka.Google Scholar
Ibn Bāz, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn ʿAbdullāh. 1999. The Ideological Attack. Translated by Abu Aaliyah Surkheel ibn Anwar Sharif. Hounslow, UK: Message of Islam.Google Scholar
Ibn Bāz, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn ʿAbdullāh 2011. Subul al-salām sharḥ Nawāqiḍ al-Islām. Edited by Fihrī, Muḥammad ibn Nāṣir and ʿAlī ʿAbd al-Laṭīf, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Muḥammad ibn. Cairo: al-Muʾassa al-Saʿūdiyya.Google Scholar
Ibn Bāz, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, al-ʿUthaymīn, Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ, Ibn Jibrin, ʿAbdullāh, and al-Lajna al-Dāʾima, . 1988. Fatāwā Islāmiyya. Beirut: Dār al-Arqam.Google Scholar
Ibn Ḥammad al-ʿUmar, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān. 1991. The Religion of Truth. Riyadh: Maktaba Dar-us-Salam.Google Scholar
Ibn Ḥumayd, ʿAbdullāh ibn Muḥammad. 1995. Jihad in the Qur’an and Sunna. Riyadh: Maktaba Dar-us-Salam.Google Scholar
Ibn Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Wahhāb al-Tamīmī, ʿAbdullāh. 1996. Al-Kalimāt al-nāfiʿa fī al-mukaffirāt al-wāqiʿa. Amman: Dār al-Bashīr.Google Scholar
Ibn Qāsim, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad. 1997. Kitāb al-Durar al-saniyya fī al-ajwiba al-Najdiyya: Majmūʿ rasāʾil wa-masāʾil ʿulamāʾ Najd al-aʿlām. Mecca: Maṭbaʿa Umm al-Qurā.Google Scholar
International Crisis Group. 2004. “Saudi Arabia Backgrounder: Who are the Islamists?” Middle East Report, no. 31. https://bit.ly/36HyVtL.Google Scholar
International Crisis Group 2008. “Azerbaijan: Independent Islam and the State.” Europe Report, no. 191. www.crisisgroup.org/europe-central-asia/caucasus/azerbaijan/azerbaijan-independent-islam-and-state.Google Scholar
Islamic State. 2014. “A Photo Report on the Destruction of Shirk [idolatry or polytheism].” Dabiq Magazine 2. July 27.Google Scholar
IslamQA. n.d. “Ruling on Having Intercourse with a Slave Woman When One Has a Wife.” No. 10382. http://web.archive.org/web/20160106101656/http://islamqa.info/en/10382.Google Scholar
IslamQA 1998. “Ruling on Photographs.” May 15. https://islamqa.info/en/answers/365/ruling-on-photographs.Google Scholar
IslamQA 2003a. “Obligation to Destroy Idols.” No. 20894. April 22. https://islamqa.info/en/answers/20894/obligation-to-destroy-idols.Google Scholar
IslamQA 2003b. “Wujūb Taksīr al-Aṣnam.” No. 20894. April 22. https://islamqa.info/ar/answers/20894/وجوب-تكسير-الاصنام.Google Scholar
IslamQA 2010. “Why Is the Apostate to be Executed in Islam?” No. 20327. February 1. https://islamqa.info/en/answers/20327/why-is-the-apostate-to-be-executed-in-islam.Google Scholar
IslamQA 2015. “Li-mādhā lam yaqum ʿAmr ibn al-ʿĀṣ bi-taṭḥīm al-tamāthīl al-firʿawniyya?” No. 129769. March 10. https://bit.ly/32OAR2w.Google Scholar
IslamWeb. 2002. “Destruction of Buddhist Statues, Pyramids, Sphinx, etc.” Fatwa 84193. May 18. www.islamweb.net/en/fatwa/84193/?Option=FatwaId.Google Scholar
IslamWeb 2004. “Islam and Culture.” Fatwa 88060. June 21. www.islamweb.net/en/fatwa/88060/?Option=FatwaId.Google Scholar
IslamWeb 2005. “Death as a Punishment for Apostasy.” Fatwa 90878. December 12. www.islamweb.net/en/fatwa/90878/death-as-a-punishment-for-apostasy.Google Scholar
IslamWeb 2008. “The Punishment for Apostasy Was Applicable and Still Applies.” Fatwa 107875. May 8. www.islamweb.net/en/fatwa/107875/the-punishment-for-apostasy-was-applicable-and-still-applies.Google Scholar
IslamWeb 2011. “Buddha Statue Destroyed by Taliban.” Fatwa 7447. May 8. http://islamweb.net/en/fatwa/7447/?Option=FatwaId.Google Scholar
IslamWeb 2012. “Ḥukm hadam al-athār allatī ʿalā shakl al-aṣnam.” Fatwa 193021. December 6, 2012. https://bit.ly/38RfYHR.Google Scholar
IslamWeb 2014. “Ruling on Sexual Intercourse with One’s Polytheistic Slave-Woman.” Fatwa 272452. November 14. www.islamweb.net/en/fatwa/272452/?Option=FatwaId.Google Scholar
IslamWeb 2015. “Ruling on Killing an Apostate without the Ruler’s permission.” Fatwa 17707. August 17. www.islamweb.net/en/fatwa/17707/ruling-on-killing-an-apostate-without-the-rulers-permission.Google Scholar
Jablawi, Hosam al-. 2016. “A Closer Look at the Educational System of ISIS.” Atlantic Council. www.atlanticcouncil.org/blogs/syriasource/a-closer-look-at-isis-s-educational-system.Google Scholar
Kéchichian, Joseph A. 1986. “The Role of the Ulama in the Politics of an Islamic State: The Case of Saudi Arabia.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 18, no. 1: 5371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kéchichian, Joseph A. 1990. “Islamic Revivalism and Change in Saudi Arabia: Juhayman Al-ʿUtaybi’s ‘Letters’ to the Saudi People.” Muslim World 18, no. 1: 116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kéchichian, Joseph A. 2008. Faysal: Saudi Arabia’s King for All Seasons. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
Kramer, Martin. 1990. “Khomeini’s Messengers: The Disputed Pilgrimage of Islam.” In Religious Radicalism and Politics in the Middle East, edited by Sivan, Emmanuel and Friedman, Menachem, 161–87. Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
Lacroix, Stéphane. 2009. “Between Religion and Apoliticism: Nasir Al-Din Al-Albani and His Impact on the Shaping of Contemporary Salafism.” In Global Salafism: Islam’s New Religious Movement, edited by Meijer, Roel, 5880. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Lacroix, Stéphane 2011. Awakening Islam the Politics of Religious Dissent in Contemporary Saudi Arabia. Translated by George Holoch. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lauzière, Henri. 2016. The Making of Salafism: Islamic Reform in the Twentieth Century. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Maqdisī, Abū Muḥammad al-. n.d. Millat Ibrāhīm – The Religion of Abraham. Translated by al-Ṭibyān Publications. Al-Ṭibyān Publications.Google Scholar
Maqdisī, Abū Muḥammad 1994. Millat Ibrāhīm. www.tawhed.ws.Google Scholar
Meijer, Roel, ed. 2009. Global Salafism: Islam’s New Religious Movement. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Mouline, Nabil. 2016. “Les Oulémas du Palais: Parcours des Membres du Comité des Grands Oulémas.” In vol. 2 of Wahhabism: Doctrine and Development, edited by Peskes, Esther, 206–29. Berlin: Gerlach Press.Google Scholar
Nordbruch, Götz, Müller, Jochen, and Ünlü, Deniz. 2014. “Salafismus als Ausweg? Zur Attracktivität des Salafismus unter Jugenlichen.” In Salafismus in Deutschland: Ursprünge und Gefahren einer islamisch-fundamentalistischen Bewegung, edited by Schneiders, Thorsten Gerald, 363–70. Bielefeld, Germany: Transcript Verlag.Google Scholar
Obaid, Nawaf, and al-Sarhan, Saud. 2014. “The Saudis Can Crush ISIS.” The New York Times, September 8. www.nytimes.com/2014/09/09/opinion/the-saudis-can-crush-isis.html.Google Scholar
Pall, Zoltan. 2014. “Kuwaiti Salafism and Its Growing Influence in the Levant.” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. May. http://carnegieendowment.org/2014/05/07/kuwaiti-salafism-and-its-growing-influence-in-levant.Google Scholar
Peskes, Esther. 2016a. “Introduction to Wahhabism: Doctrine and Development.” In vol. 1 of Wahhabism: Doctrine and Development, edited by Peskes, Esther, 132. Berlin: Gerlach Press.Google Scholar
Peskes, Esther, ed. 2016b. Wahhabism: Doctrine and Development. 2 vols. Berlin: Gerlach Press.Google Scholar
Piscatori, James. 2016. “Managing God’s Guests: The Pilgrimage, Saudi Arabia, and the Politics of Legitimacy.” In vol. 2 of Wahhabism: Doctrine and Development, edited by Peskes, Esther, 140–77. Berlin: Gerlach Press.Google Scholar
Rabil, Robert G. 2014. Salafism in Lebanon: From Apoliticism to Transnational Jihadism. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
Rasheed, Madawi al-. 2002. A History of Saudi Arabia. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Rasheed, Madawi 2005b. “Saudi Religious Transnationalism in London.” In Transnational Connections and the Arab Gulf, edited by al-Rasheed, Madawi, 149–67. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Rasheed, Madawi 2007. Contesting the Saudi State: Islamic Voices from a New Generation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Rasheed, Madawi 2008a. “The Minaret and the Palace: Obedience at Home and Rebellion Abroad.” In Kingdom without Borders: Saudi Political, Religious and Media Frontiers, edited by al-Rasheed, Madawi, 199219. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Rasheed, Madawi al-, ed. 2005a. Transnational Connections and the Arab Gulf. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Rasheed, Madawi 2008b. Kingdom without Borders: Saudi Political, Religious and Media Frontiers. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Sardar, Ziauddin. 2014. “The Destruction of Mecca.” The New York Times, September 30. www.nytimes.com/2014/10/01/opinion/the-destruction-of-mecca.html.Google Scholar
Schneiders, Thorsten Gerald, ed. 2014. Salafismus in Deutschland: Ursprünge und Gefahren einer islamisch-fundamentalistischen Bewegung. Bielefeld, Germany: Transcript Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sells, Michael A. 2006. “War as Worship, Worship as War.” Religion and Culture Forum. December. https://divinity.uchicago.edu/sites/default/files/imce/pdfs/webforum/122006/war_as_worship.pdf.Google Scholar
Sells, Michael A. 2013. “‘Armageddon’ in Christian, Sunni, and Shia Traditions.” In The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Violence, edited by Juergensmeyer, Mark, Kitts, Margo, and Jerryson, Michael K, 467–95. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Shaheed, Shah Ismail. 1995. Taqwiyat-Ul-Iman [The strengthening of the faith]. Riyadh: Dar-us-Salam Publications.Google Scholar
Shehabi, Saeed. 2008. “The Role of Religious Ideology in the Expansionist Policies of Saudi Arabia.” In Kingdom without Borders: Saudi Political, Religious and Media Frontiers, edited by al-Rasheed, Madawi, 183–97. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Syrian Observatory for Human Rights. 2015. “IS Distributes Its Own New Curriculum in the City of Mayadin.” www.syriahr.com/en/2015/02/is-distributes-its-own-new-curriculum-in-the-city-of-al-mayadin/.Google Scholar
Trofimov, Yaroslav. 2007. The Siege of Mecca: The Forgotten Uprising at Islam’s Holiest Shrine and the Birth of Al-Qaeda. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
US Department of Treasury. 2008. “Kuwaiti Charity Designated for Bankrolling Al Qaida Network.” June 13. www.treasury.gov/press-center/press-releases/Pages/hp1023.aspx.Google Scholar
ʿUthaymīn, ʿAbdullāh al-Ṣāliḥ al-. 2009. Muhammad Ibn ʻAbd al-Wahhab: The Man and His Works. London: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
ʿUthaymīn, Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ al-. 2010. Commentary on the Three Fundamentals of Muhammad Bin ʿAbdul-Wahhab = Sharḥ Thalāthat al-uṣūl. Riyadh: Darussalam.Google Scholar
Wagemakers, Joas. 2009. “The Transformation of a Radical Concept: al-Wala’ wa-l-Bara’ in the Ideology of Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi.” In Global Salafism: Islam’s New Religious Movement, edited by Meijer, Roel, 81106. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Wagemakers, Joas 2012. A Quietist Jihadi: The Ideology and Influence of Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wagemakers, Joas 2015. “‘The Kāfir Religion of the West’: Tafkīr of Democracy and Democrats by Radical Islamists.” In Accusations of Unbelief in Islam: A Diachronic Perspective on Tafkīr, edited by Adang, Camilla, Ansari, Hassan, Fierro, Maribel, and Schmidtke, Sabine, 327–53. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
Wiktorowicz, Quintan. 2001. The Management of Islamic Activism: Salafis, the Muslim Brotherhood, and State Power in Jordan. Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
Wilts, Alexandra. 2017. “Donald Trump Signs $110bn Arms Deal Hours after Landing in Saudi Arabia.” The Independent, May 20. www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/us-politics/donald-trump-latest-saudi-arabia-billions-arms-deal-military-sales-a7746601.html.Google Scholar
Zaman, Muhammad Qasim. 2007. The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×