Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-8bbf57454-kb57s Total loading time: 0.617 Render date: 2022-01-23T22:33:33.365Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Chapter Two - The French Parity Reform

The Never-Ending Quest for A New Gender Equality Principle

from Part I - Gender Quotas As Transformative Equality Remedies

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 July 2018

Éléonore Lépinard
Université de Lausanne, Switzerland
Ruth Rubio-Marín
Universidad de Sevilla
Get access


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Transforming Gender Citizenship
The Irresistible Rise of Gender Quotas in Europe
, pp. 62 - 93
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2018

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Baudino, Claudie. 2005. “Gendering the Republican System: Debates on Women's Political Representation in France.” In State Feminism and Political Representation, edited by Lovenduski, Joni, 85105. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bender, Anne-Françoise, Dang, Rey, and Scotto, Marie José. 2016. “Les profils des femmes membres des conseils d'administration en France.” Travail, genre et sociétés 2016/1 (35): 6785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bereni, Laure. 2015. La bataille pour la parité. Mobilisations pour la féminisation du pouvoir. Paris: Economica.Google Scholar
Bereni, Laure, and Lépinard, Éléonore. 2004. “‘Les femmes ne sont pas une catégorie’: les stratégies de légitimation de la parité en France.” Revue française de science politique 54 (1): 7198.Google Scholar
Chaperon, Sylvie. 2012. “The Difficult Struggle for Women's Political Rights in France.” In The Struggle for Female Suffrage in Europe: Voting to Become Citizens, edited by Ruiz, Blanca Rodriguez, and Rubio-Marín, Ruth, 305–20. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
Commaille, Jacques. 1993. Les stratégies des femmes. Travail, famille et politique. Paris: La Découverte.Google Scholar
Dahlerup, Drude, and Freidenvall, Lenita. 2005. “Quotas as a ‘Fast Track’ to Equal Representation for Women: Why Scandinavia is No Longer the Model.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 7 (1): 2648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ducoulombier, Audrey. 2002. “Parity is About ‘Race’: French Republican Citizenship and the French Caribbean.” Modern & Contemporary France 10 (1): 7587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edel, Frédéric. 2013. “Les instruments juridiques de l’égal accès des femmes et des hommes aux emplois publics: depuis le droit à l’égalité jusqu'aux politiques d’égalité.” Revue française d'administration publique 145: 109–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fraisse, Geneviève. 2001. La controverse des sexes. Paris: PUF.Google Scholar
Gaspard, Françoise. 1996. “Parité: quelles stratégies politiques?Projets féministes 4–5: 231–37.Google Scholar
Gaspard, Françoise, Servan-Schreiber, Claude, and Le Gall, Anne. 1992. Au pouvoir citoyennes! Liberté, égalité, parité. Paris: Seuil.Google Scholar
Guillaume, Cécile, Pochic, Sophie, and Silvera, Rachel. 2015. “Dans les syndicats: du volontarisme à la contrainte légale.” Travail, genre et sociétés 2015/2 (34): 193–8.Google Scholar
Jacquemart, Alban, Le Mancq, Fanny, and Pochic, Sophie. 2016. “Femmes hautes fonctionnaires en France. L'avènement d'une égalité élitiste.” Travail, genre et sociétés 2016/1 (35): 2745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jenson, Jane. 1986. “Gender and Reproduction: Or, Babies and the State.” Studies in Political Economy. 20: 946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jenson, Jane, and Sineau, Mariette. 1994. “The Same or Different? An Unending Dilemma for French Women.” In Women and Politics Worldwide, edited by Nelson, B. J. and Chowdhury, N., 243–60. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Lemercier, Élise. 2015. “À l'université: les dessous d'un consensus apparent.” Travail, genre et sociétés 2015/2 (34): 175–80.Google Scholar
Lépinard, Éléonore. 2007. L’égalité introuvable. La parité, les féministes et la République. Paris: Presses de Sciences Po.Google Scholar
Lépinard, Eléonore. 2013. “For Women Only? Gender Quotas and Intersectionality in France.” Politics & Gender 9 (3): 276–98.Google Scholar
Lépinard, Eléonore. 2016. “From breaking the rule to making the rules: The adoption, entrenchment and diffusion of gender quotas in France.” Politics, Groups and Identities 4 (2): 231–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lépinard, Éléonore, and Mazur, Amy G.. 2009. “Republican Universalism Faces the Feminist Challenge: The Continuing Struggle for Gender Equality.” In The French Fifth Republic at Fifty. Beyond Stereotypes, edited by Brouard, Sylvain, Appleton, Andrew M., and Mazur, Amy G., 247–66. New York: Palgrave.Google Scholar
Mazur, Amy G. 1995. Gender Bias and the State: Symbolic Reform at Work in Fifth Republic France. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
Moniolle, Carole. 2014. “La représentativité des sexes dans les jurys de concours de la fonction publique.” In La loi et le genre, edited by Hennette-Vauchez, Stéphanie, Pichard, Marc, and Roman, Diane, 561–82. Paris: Editions du CNRS.Google Scholar
Murray, Rainbow. 2010. Parties, Gender Quotas and Candidate Selection in France. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Odoul-Asorey, Isabel. 2014. “Le Droit à l'assaut des effets de genre, dans le champ de la représentation collective des salaries.” In La loi et le genre, edited by Hennette-Vauchez, Stéphanie, Pichard, Marc, and Roman, Diane, 525–39. Paris: Editions du CNRS.Google Scholar
Opello, Katherine A.R. 2006. Gender Quotas, Parity Reform and Political Parties in France. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
Prat, Reine. 2015. “Art et culture … et que rien ne change!Travail, genre et sociétés 34: 187–91.Google Scholar
Rodriguez Ruiz, Blanca, and Rubio-Marín, Ruth. 2008. “The Gender of Representation. On Democracy, Equality and Parity.” International Journal of Constitutional Law 6 (2): 287316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rodriguez Ruiz, Blanca, and Rubio-Marín, Ruth 2009. “Constitutional Justification of Parity Democracy.” Alabama Law Review 60 (5): 1171–96.Google Scholar
Roman, Diane and Hennette-Vauchez, Stéphanie. 2013. “Note, sous Conseil d'État, Assemblée, 7 mai 2013.” Revue française de droit administratif 2013: 882.Google Scholar
Rosenblum, Darren. 2006. “Parity/Disparity. Electoral Gender Equality on the Tightrope of Liberal Constitutional Traditions.” University of California Davis Law Review 39: 1119–89.Google Scholar
Scott, Joan W. 2005. Parité! Sexual Equality and the Crisis of French Universalism. Chicago: Chicago University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Siim, Birte. 2000. Gender and Citizenship. Politics and Agency in France, Britain and Denmark. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Southwell, Priscilla L. 2013. “Gender parity thwarted? The effect of electoral reform on Senate and European Parliamentary elections in France, 1999–2011.” French Politics 11 (2): 169–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Southwell, Priscilla L. 2014. “How to become a députée – Lean to the Left: Party differences and gender parity in the 2012 National Assembly Elections.” French Politics 12 (4): 348–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Verge, Tània, and Troupel, Aurélia. 2011. “Unequals among equals: Party strategic discrimination and quota laws.” French Politics 9 (3): 260–81.Google Scholar
Viennot, Eliane. 1994. “Parité: les féministes entre défis politiques et révolution culturelle.” Nouvelles Questions Féministes 15 (4): 76–7.Google Scholar
Vogel-Polsky, Eliane. 1996. “Genre et droit, les enjeux de la parité.” Cahiers du GEDISST 17: 928.Google Scholar
Cited by

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats