Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-7ccbd9845f-hcslb Total loading time: 0.604 Render date: 2023-01-31T07:50:52.540Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Chapter Five - Rethinking the Prestige Economy and Its Role in Trade and Exchange

The Dominance Economy in Contact-Era New Guinea

from Part I - Exchange and Social Evolution: Forms of Trade in Egalitarian, Transegalitarian, and Chiefdom Societies

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  25 August 2022

Johan Ling
Affiliation:
University of Gothenburg, Sweden
Richard Chacon
Affiliation:
Winhrop University, South Carolina
Get access

Summary

Archaeological discussions commonly link the trade and exchange of precious metals, shells, feathers, and other exotics to the demands of a prestige-goods economy (e.g., Friedman and Rowlands 1978; Earle 1987: 294–297; Hayden 1998; Kristiansen and Larsson 2005; Earle and Spriggs 2015). These claims are sometimes challenged, both at a general (Barrett 2012) and specific level (Kienlin 2015), but attempts to investigate them run into serious difficulties because so many dimensions of prehistoric prestige economies are archaeologically invisible. Some of the goods traded and transacted in these economies are durable enough to survive in the material record, but others are not, and much about the political, social, religious, and aesthetic contexts that gave them social force and meaning were insubstantial or transient and are now beyond recovery.

Type
Chapter
Information
Trade before Civilization
Long Distance Exchange and the Rise of Social Complexity
, pp. 75 - 106
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2022

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Allen, B. J. (1976). Information Flow and Innovation Diffusion in the East Sepik District, Papua New Guinea. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Canberra: Australian National University.Google Scholar
Barlow, K. (1985). The Role of Women in Intertribal Trade among the Murik of Papua New Guinea. Research in Economic Anthropology 7, pp. 95122.Google Scholar
Barkow, Jerome H. 1975. Prestige and Culture: A Biosocial Interpretation. Current Anthropology 16: pp. 553572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barlow, K., Bolton, L., and Lipset, D. (1985). Trade and Society in Transition along the Sepik Coast. Sepik Documentation Project. Sydney: The Australian Museum.Google Scholar
Barrett, J. C. (2012). Are Models of Prestige Goods Economies and Conspicuous Consumption Applicable to the Archaeology of the Bronze to Iron Age Transition in Britain? In Jones, A. M., Pollard, J., Allen, M. J., and Gardner, J., eds., Image, Memory and Monumentality. Archaeological Engagements with the Material World: A Celebration of the Academic Achievements of Professor Richard Bradley. Oxford: Oxbow Books, pp. 617.Google Scholar
Bateson, G. (1932). Social Structure of the Iatmul People of the Sepik River. Oceania 2, pp. 245291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bateson, G. (1936). Naven: A Survey of the Problems Suggested by a Composite Picture of the Culture of a New Guinea Tribe Drawn from Three Points of View. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Behrmann, W. (1925). Verkehrs‑ und Handelsgeographie eines Naturvolkes, dargestellt am Beispiel der Sepik‑Bevölkerung im westlichen Kaiser‑Wilhelms‑Land, Neuguinea. In Festschrift zur Feier des 25Jahrigen Bestehens der Gesellschaft. Abhandlungen zur Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte, 2. Frankfurt am Main: H. Bechhold Verlag, pp. 4566.Google Scholar
Brown, P. (1972). The Chimbu: A Study of Change in the New Guinea Highlands. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman.Google Scholar
Burridge, K. O. L. (1975. The Melanesian Manager. In Beattie, J. H. M. and Lienhardt, R. G., eds., Studies in Social Anthropology: Essays in Memory of E. E. Evans-Pritchard by His Former Oxford Colleagues. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 86104.Google Scholar
Clutton-Brock, T. H., Albon, S. D. Gibson, R. M., and Guinness, F. E. (1979). The Logical Stag: Adaptive Aspects of Fighting in Red Deer (Cervus alaphus L.). Animal Behavior 27, pp. 211225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Conrad, B., Kepas, W., and Ibara, . (1973). Anthropological Data: Mountain Arapesh. Unpublished MS. Ukarumpa, Papua New Guinea: Summer Institute of Linguistics.Google Scholar
Dobrin, L., and Bashkow, I. (2006). “Pigs for Dance Songs”: Reo Fortune’s Empathetic Ethnography of the Arapesh Roads. Histories of Anthropology Annual 2, pp. 123154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Earle, T. (1987). Chiefdoms in Archaeological and Ethnohistorical Perspective. Annual Review of Anthropology 16, pp. 279308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Earle, T., and Spriggs, M. (2015). Political Economy in Prehistory: A Marxist Approach to Pacific Sequences. Current Anthropology 56, pp. 515529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Enquist, M., and Leimar, O. (1990). The Evolution of Fatal Fighting. Animal Behavior 39, pp. 19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Forge, A. (1990). The Power of Culture or Vice-versa. In Lutkehaus, N., Kaufmann, C., Mitchell, W. E., Newton, D., Osmundsen, L., and Schuster, M., eds., Sepik Heritage: Tradition and Change in Papua New Guinea. Durham: Carolina Academic Press, pp. 160170.Google Scholar
Fortune, R. (n.d.). New Guinea Field Notes (iii). Papers of Reo Fortune. Wellington: Turnbull Library, file 80–323-15/2.Google Scholar
Friedman, J., and Rowlands, M. J. (1978). Notes towards an Epigenetic Model of the Evolution of “Civilization.” In Friedman, J. and Rowlands, M. J., eds., The Evolution of Social Systems. London: Duckworth, pp. 201276.Google Scholar
Gerrits, G. J. M. (2012). The Haus Tambaran of Bongiora: A View from Within of the Tambaran and Yam Cults of the Abelam in the East Sepik Province of Papua New Guinea. Lugano: Museo delle Culture di Lugano,Google Scholar
Gerstner, A. (1953). Aus dem Gemeinschaftsleben der Wewak‑Boikin‑Leute, Nordost‑Neuguinea. Anthropos 48, pp. 413457.Google Scholar
Gombrich, E. H. (1982). The Image and the Eye: Further Studies in the Psychology of Pictorial Representation. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Gosden, C. (1989). Debt, Production, and Prehistory. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 8, pp. 355387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graeber, D. (2011) Consumption. Current Anthropology 52:4, pp. 489511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gregory, C. A. (1982). Gifts and Commodities. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Harrison, S. (1987). Cultural Efflorescence and Political Evolution on the Sepik River. American Ethnologist 14, pp. 491507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harrison, S. (1990). Stealing People’s Names: History and Politics in a Sepik River Cosmology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harrison, S. (1993). The Commerce of Cultures in Melanesia. Man (N.S.) 28, pp. 139158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harrison, S. (2000). From Prestige Goods to Legacies: Property and the Objectification of Culture in Melanesia. Comparative Studies in Society and History 42, pp. 662679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hauser‑Schäublin, B. (1977). Frauen in Kararau: Zur Rolle der Frau bei den Iatmul am Mittelsepik, Papua New Guinea. Basel: Ethnologisches Seminar der Universität und Museum für Völkerkunde.Google Scholar
Hauser‑Schäublin, B. (1991a). Iatmul. In Hays, T. E., ed., Encyclopedia of World Cultures. Vol. 2: Oceania. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co, pp. 98100.Google Scholar
Hauser‑Schäublin, B. (1991b). Abelam. In Hays, T. E., ed., Encyclopedia of World Cultures. Vol. 2: Oceania. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co, pp. 36.Google Scholar
Hauser‑Schäublin, B. (2015). Ceremonial Houses of the Abelam, Papua New Guinea: Architecture and Ritual – A Passage to the Ancestors. Goolwa: Crawford House.Google Scholar
Hauser‑Schäublin, B. (2017). Personal Communication.Google Scholar
Hayden, B. (1998). Practical and Prestige Technologies: The Evolution of Material Systems. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 5, pp. 155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Henrich, J., and Gil-White, F. J. (2001). The Evolution of Prestige: Freely Conferred Deference as a Mechanism for Enhancing the Benefits of Cultural Transmission. Evolution and Human Behavior 22, pp. 165196.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hide, R. (2003). Pig Husbandry in New Guinea. Canberra: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.Google Scholar
Huber‑Greub, B. (1988). Kokospalmenmenschen: Boden und Alltag und ihre Bedeutung im Selbstverständnis der Abelam von Kimbangwa (East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea). Basel: Ethnologisches Seminar der Universität und Museum für Völkerkunde.Google Scholar
Hughes, I. (1977). New Guinea Stone Age Trade: The Geography and Ecology of Traffic in the Interior. Terra Australis, 3. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, Department of Prehistory, Australian National University.Google Scholar
Johnson, P. L. (1982). Gainj Kinship and Social Organization. Unpublished PhD Dissertation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.Google Scholar
Johnson, R. T., Burk, J. A., and Kirkpatrick, L. A. (2007). Dominance and Prestige as Differential Predictors of Aggression and Testosterone Levels in Men. Evolution and Human Behavior 28, pp. 345351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Juillerat, B. (1986). Les Enfants du Sang: Société Reproduction et Imaginaire en Nouvelle-Guinée. Paris: Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme.Google Scholar
Kaberry, P. M. (1941a). Law and Political Organization in the Abelam Tribe, New Guinea. Oceania 12, pp. 7995, 209–225, 331–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaberry, P. M. (1941b). The Abelam Tribe, Sepik District, New Guinea: A Preliminary Report. Oceania 11, pp. 233258, 345–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaberry, P. M. (1971). Political Organization among the Northern Abelam. In Berndt, R. M. and Lawrence, P., eds., Politics in New Guinea: Traditional and in the Context of Change: Some Anthropological Perspectives. Nedlands; Seattle: University of Western Australia Press and University of Washington Press, pp. 3573.Google Scholar
Kienlin, T. L. (2015). All Heroes in Their Armour Bright and Shining? Comments on the Bronze Age “Other.” In Kienlin, T. L., ed., Fremdheit – Perspektiven auf das Andere. Bonn: Dr. Rudolph Habelt, pp. 153193.Google Scholar
Kristiansen, K., and Larsson, T. B. (2005). The Rise of Bronze Age Society: Travels, Transmissions, and Transformations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Lawrence, P. (1971). Introduction. In Berndt, R. M. and Lawrence, P., eds., Politics in New Guinea: Traditional and in the Context of Change: Some Anthropological Perspectives. Nedlands; Seattle: University of Western Australia Press and University of Washington Press, pp. 134.Google Scholar
Laycock, D. C. (1973). Sepik Languages – Checklist and Preliminary Classification. Pacific Linsguistics, Series B, No.25. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University.Google Scholar
Lea, D. A. M. (1964). Abelam Land and Sustenance. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. Canberra: Australian National University.Google Scholar
Leavitt, Stephen C. (1989). Cargo, Christ, and Nostalgia for the Dead: Themes of Intimacy and Abandonment in Bumbita Arapesh Social Experience. Unpublished PhD Dissertation. San Diego: University of California, San Diego.Google Scholar
Lipset, D. M. (1985). Seafaring Sepiks: Ecology, Warfare, and Prestige in Murik Trade. Research in Economic Anthropology 7, pp. 6794.Google Scholar
Losche, D. S. B. (1982). Male and Female in Abelam Society: Opposition and Complementarity. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. New York: Columbia University.Google Scholar
Lowman, C. (1973). Displays of Power: Art and War among the Marings of New Guinea. New York: The Museum of Primitive Art.Google Scholar
Lutkehaus, N., and Roscoe, P. B. (1987). Sepik Culture History: Variation, Innovation, and Synthesis. Current Anthropology 28, pp. 577581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mauss, M. (1990) [1954]. The Gift: The Form and Reason for Exchange in Archaic Societies. London; New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
May, P., and Tuckson, M. (1982). The Traditional Pottery of Papua New Guinea. Sydney: Bay Book.Google Scholar
McGuigan, N. D. (1992). The Social Context of Abelam Art: A Comparison of Art, Religion and Leadership in Two Abelam Communities. Ph.D. Thesis. Belfast: University of Ulster.Google Scholar
Mead, M. (n.d.). Dakuar Differences, August 18. Unpublished Field Notes. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, file B98, M.Google Scholar
Mead, M. (1938). The Mountain Arapesh: I. An Importing Culture. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History 36, pp. 139349.Google Scholar
Mead, M. (1963). Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies. New York: William Morrow.Google Scholar
Meggitt, M. (1964). Male-Female Relationships in the Highlands of Australian New Guinea. American Anthropologist 66, pp. 204224.Google Scholar
Meggitt, M. (1971). The Pattern of Leadership among the Mae‑Enga of New Guinea. In Berndt, R. M. and Lawrence, P., eds., Politics in New Guinea: Traditional and in the Context of Change: Some Anthropological Perspectives. Nedlands; Seattle: University of Western Australia Press and University of Washington Press, pp. 196206.Google Scholar
MPK. (1948/1949). Maprik Patrol Report No. 4. Port Moresby. Papua, New Guinea: National Archives.Google Scholar
MPK. (1953/1954). Maprik Patrol Report No. 10. Port Moresby. Papua, New Guinea: National Archives.Google Scholar
Newman, P. L. (1965). Knowing the Gururumba. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
O’Hanlon, M. (1989). Reading the Skin: Adornment, Display and Society among the Wahgi. London: British Museum.Google Scholar
Oosterwal, G. (1963). Die Papua: Von der Kultur eines Naturvolks. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer Verlag.Google Scholar
Reay, M. (1959). The Kuma: Freedom and Conformity in the New Guinea Highlands. Carlton: Melbourne University Press on behalf of The Australian National University.Google Scholar
Riches, D. (1984). Hunting, Herding and Potlatching: Towards a Sociological Account of Prestige. Man (N.S.) 19, pp. 234251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roscoe, P. (n.d.) Unpublished Field Notes. Orono, ME.Google Scholar
Roscoe, P. (1989). The Pig and the Long Yam: The Expansion of a Sepik Cultural Complex. Ethnology 28, pp. 219231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roscoe, P. (1990). Male Initiation among the Yangoru Boiken. In Lutkehaus, N., Kaufmann, C., Mitchell, W. E., Newton, D., Osmundsen, L., and Schuster, M., eds., Sepik Heritage: Tradition and Change in Papua New Guinea. Durham: Carolina Academic Press, pp. 402413.Google Scholar
Roscoe, P. (1995a). Of Power and Menace: Sepik Art as an Affecting Presence. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (N.S.), pp. 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roscoe, P. (1995b). In the Shadow of the Tambaran: Female Initiation among the Ndu of the Sepik Basin. In Lutkehaus, Nancy C. and Roscoe, Paul B., eds., Gender Rituals: Female Initiation in Melanesia. New York: Routledge, pp. 5582.Google Scholar
Roscoe, P. (2000). New Guinea Leadership as Ethnographic Analogy: A Critical Review. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 7, pp. 79126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roscoe, P. (2001). Strength and Sexuality: Sexual Avoidance and Masculinity in New Guinea and Amazonia. In Gregor, T. A. and Tuzin, D., eds., Gender in Amazonia and Melanesia: An Exploration of the Comparative Method. Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 279308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roscoe, P. (2002). The Hunters and Gatherers of New Guinea. Current Anthropology 43, pp. 153162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roscoe, P. (2009a). Social Signaling and the Organization of Small-Scale Society. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 16, pp. 69116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roscoe, P. (2009b). Symbolic Violence and Ceremonial Peace. In Dickhardt, M., Hermann, E., and Klenke, K., eds., Form, Macht, Differenz: Festschrift für Brigitta Hauser-Schäublin. Göttingen: Universitätsverlag Göttingen, pp. 207214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roscoe, P. (2012). Before Elites: The Political Capacities of Big-Men. In Kienlein, T. L. and Zimmerman, A., eds., Before Elites: Alternatives to Hierarchical Systems in Modelling Social Formations. Vol.1. Universitätsforschungen zur prähistorischen Archäologie, vol. 215. Bonn: Rudolp Habelt, pp. 4154.Google Scholar
Roscoe, P. (2013). Social Signaling, Conflict Management, and the Construction of Peace. In Fry, D. P., ed., War, Peace, and Human Nature: The Convergence of Evolutionary and Cultural Views. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 475494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roscoe, P. (2016). War and the Food Quest in Small-Scale Societies: Settlement Pattern Formation in Contact-Era New Guinea. In VanDerwarker, A. M. and Wilson, G. D., eds., The Archaeology of Food and Warfare: Food Insecurity in Prehistory. Cham: Springer International, pp. 1339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roscoe, P. (2017). The Emergence of Sociopolitical Complexity: Evidence from Contact-Era New Guinea. In Chacon, R. J. and Mendoza, R. G., eds., Feast, Famine or Fighting? Cham: Springer International, pp. 197222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roscoe, P. (2020). Social Inequality among New Guinea Forager Communities. In Moreau, L., ed., Social Inequality in Forager Society. Cambridge: MacDonald Institute for Archaeology, pp. 2132.Google Scholar
Roscoe, P. (2021). Conflict Management, Status Competition, and Consumption in New Guinea, Medieval England, and Contemporary Britain. In Roscoe, P. and Isenhour, C., eds., Consumption, Status, and Sustainability. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 5984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roscoe, P., Chacon, R., Heyward, D., and Chacon, Y. (2019). Social Signaling and the Warrior-Big-Man among the Western Dani: A Man Called Tibenuk. Human Nature 30:2, pp. 176191.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sahlins, M. D. (1963). Poor Man, Rich Man, Big‑Man, Chief: Political Types in Melanesia and Polynesia. Comparative Studies in Society and History 5, pp. 285303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmidt, J. (1923). Die Ethnographie des Nors‑Papua (Murik‑Kaup‑Karau) bei Dalmannhafen, Neu‑Guinea. Anthropos 18/19, pp. 700732; 21, pp. 38–71.Google Scholar
Schroeder, R. (1992). Initiation and Religion: A Case Study from the Wosera of Papua New Guinea. Freiburg: University Press Freibourg.Google Scholar
Stanek, M. (1983). Sozialordnung und Mythik in Palimbei. Basel: Ethnologisches Seminar der Universität und Museum für Völkerkunde.Google Scholar
Stephenson, N. A. (1995). Alte Bedrohungen, Moderne Zeiten. Ober das Kriegswesen bei den Wam (Papua-Neuguinea) in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart. In Braunlein, P. and Lauser, A., eds., Krieg und Frieden: Ethnologische Perspektiven. Bremen: Kea, Zeitschrift fiir Kulturwissenschaften, pp. 173194.Google Scholar
Stephenson, N. A. (2001). Kastom or Komuniti: A Study of Social Process and Change among the Wam People, East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea. Basel: Ethnologisches Seminar der Universität Basel und Museum der Kulturen.Google Scholar
Thurnwald, R. (1970) [1932]. Adventures of a Tribe in New Guinea (the Tjimundo). In Evans-Pritchard, E., Firth, R., Malinowski, B., and Schapera, I., eds., Essays Presented to C. G. Seligman Westport: Negro Universities Press, pp. 345360.Google Scholar
Tiesler, F. (1969). Die Intertribalen Beziehungen an der Nordküste Neuguineas im Gebiet der Kleinen Schouten-Inseln, I. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.Google Scholar
Tiesler, F. (1970). Die Intertribalen Beziehungen an der Nordküste Neuguineas im Gebiet der Kleinen Schouten-Inseln, II. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.Google Scholar
Tindale, N. B. (1941). Some Polychrome Incised Pottery Ware from Mt. Turu, New Guinea. Adelaide Records 6, pp. 357361.Google Scholar
Tuzin, D. F. (1972). Yam Symbolism in the Sepik: An Interpretative Account. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 28, pp. 230254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tuzin, D. F. (1976). The Ilahita Arapesh: Dimensions of Unity. Berkeley; Los Angeles: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tuzin, D. F. (1980). The Voice of the Tambaran: Truth and Illusion in Ilahita Arapesh Religion. Berkeley; Los Angeles: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tuzin, D. F. (1984). Miraculous Voices: The Auditory Experience of Numinous Objects. Current Anthropology 25, pp. 579589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
von Rueden, C., Gurven, M., and Hillard Kaplan, H. (2011). Why Do Men Seek Status? Fitness Payoffs to Dominance and Prestige. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 278, pp. 22232232.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wassmann, J. (1991). The Song to the Flying Fox: The Public and Esoteric Knowledge of the Important Men of Kandingei about Totemic Songs, Names and Knotted Cords (Middle Sepik, Papua New Guinea). Stephenson, Dennis Q., translator. Boroko: National Research Institute.Google Scholar
YRU. (1954/1955). Yangoru Patrol Report, No. 2. Port Moresby. Papua, New Guinea: National Archives.Google Scholar
YRU. (1964/1965). Yangoru Patrol Report, No. 4. Port Moresby. Papua, New Guinea: National Archives.Google Scholar
Young, M. W. (1971). Fighting with Food: Leadership, Values and Social Control in a Massim Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×