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Tractatus logico-philosophicus

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 February 2022

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Summary

1 The world is all that is the case.*

2 What is the case – a fact – is the existence of states of affairs.

3 A logical picture of facts is a thought.

4 A thought is a proposition with a sense.

5 A proposition is a truth-function of elementary propositions. (An elementary proposition is a truth-function of itself.)

6 The general form of a truth-function is: [p, ξ, N(ξ)]. This is the general form of a proposition.

7 What we cannot speak about we must pass over in silence.

1.

The world is all that is the case.

1.1 The world is the totality of facts, not of things.

1.2 The world divides into facts.

1.1

The world is the totality of facts, not of things.

1.11 The world is determined by the facts, and by their being all the facts.

1.12 For the totality of facts determines what is the case, and also whatever is not the case.

1.13 The facts in logical space are the world.

1.2

The world divides into facts.

1.21 Each item can be the case or not the case while everything else remains the same.

2. (01-06)

What is the case – a fact – is the existence of states of affairs.

2.01 A state of affairs (a state of things) is a combination of objects (things).

2.02 Objects are simple.

2.03 In the state of affairs objects fit into one another like the links of a chain.

2.04 The totality of existing states of affairs is the world.

2.05 The totality of existing states of affairs also determines which states of affairs do not exist.

2.06 The existence and non-existence of states of affairs is reality. (We also call the existence of states of affairs a positive fact, and their non-existence a negative fact.)

2.01

A state of affairs (a state of things) is a combination of objects (things).

2.011 I t is essential to things that they should be possible constituents of states of affairs.

2.012 In logic nothing is accidental: if a thing can occur in a state of affairs, the possibility of that state of affairs must be written into the thing itself.

Type
Chapter
Information
Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus
Centenary Edition
, pp. 56 - 250
Publisher: Anthem Press
Print publication year: 2021

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