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17 - Time and Frequency Transfer

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 October 2018

Dennis D. McCarthy
United States Naval Observatory
P. Kenneth Seidelmann
University of Virginia
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In the 19th century, time balls were used to distribute accurate time in harbors and cities, and the telegraph was used for distribution over distances. In the 20th century, radio signals became the primary means of time and frequency distribution. One-way and/or two-way methods are used in time and frequency transfer of many types, but in each case, propagation and relativistic effects must be determined and calibrations made. The effects of making measurements in either a rotating or nonrotating reference frame must be determined. Modern methods of time and frequency dissemination include coaxial cable, telephone, optical fibers, microwave links, television broadcasts, internet, high- and low-frequency radio signals, navigation signals, navigation satellite system broadcast signals, navigation satellite carrier phase, two-way satellite radio signals, optical two-way transfer, and Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space (ACES).
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2018

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