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12 - Optical Atomic Standards

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 October 2018

Dennis D. McCarthy
United States Naval Observatory
P. Kenneth Seidelmann
University of Virginia
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Higher atomic transition frequencies in the optical wavelength region provide the opportunity for improved precision in comparison with microwave frequencies. One application uses a single ion with long transition lifetimes when trapped by electric fields and laser cooled. Another method uses laser-cooled atoms confined in optical lattices. The International Committee for Weights and Measures has recommended optical frequency standards for secondary representation of the second, and a number of laboratories have developed optical ion clocks and optical lattice clocks using different ions. One challenge is comparing the clocks at different locations at the accuracy of the clocks. Also at the 10-18 level, the geoid of the Earth is not well defined.
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2018

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