Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-797576ffbb-cx6qr Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-12-04T16:51:05.876Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false


Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 March 2023

Juliane Reinecke
University of Oxford
Jimmy Donaghey
University of South Australia
Get access


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Stitching Governance for Labour Rights
Towards Transnational Industrial Democracy?
, pp. 230 - 250
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2023

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Alam, Q., and Teicher, J. (2012). The state of governance in Bangladesh: The capture of state institutionsSouth Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies, 35(4): 858884.Google Scholar
Alamgir, F., and Banerjee, S. (2019). Contested compliance regimes in global production networks: Insights from the Bangladesh garment industry. Human Relations, 72(2): 272297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alliance (2015). Worker Helpline. Available at (accessed 20 May 2015).Google Scholar
Amable, B. (2003). The Diversity of Modern Capitalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Amengual, M., and Chirot, L. (2016). Reinforcing the state: Transnational and state labor regulation in Indonesia. Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 69(5): 10561080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Amengual, M., Distelhorst, G., and Tobin, D. (2020). Global purchasing as labor regulation: The missing middle. Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 73(4): 817840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anner, M. (2012). Corporate social responsibility and freedom of association rights: The precarious quest for legitimacy and control in global supply chains. Politics & Society, 40(4): 609644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anner, M. (2015). Labor control regimes and worker resistance in global supply chains. Labor History, 56(3): 292307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anner, M. (2018). CSR participation committees, wildcat strikes and the sourcing squeeze in global supply chains. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 56(1): 7598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anner, M. (2019). Squeezing workers’ rights in global supply chains: Purchasing practices in the Bangladesh garment export sector in comparative perspective. Review of International Political Economy, 27(2): 320347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anner, M., Greer, I., Hauptmeier, M., Lillie, N., and Winchester, N. (2006). The industrial determinants of transnational solidarity: Global interunion politics in three sectors. European Journal of Industrial Relations, 12(1): 727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ashwin, S., Oka, C., Schuessler, E., Alexander, R., and Lohmeyer, N. (2020). Spillover effects across transnational industrial relations agreements: The potential and limits of collective action in global supply chains. Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 73(4): 9951020.Google Scholar
Atkinson, M. M., and Coleman, W. D. (1985). Corporatism and industrial policy. In Cawson, A. (ed.), Organized Interests and the State. London: Sage, pp. 2244.Google Scholar
Baccaro, L. (2006). Civil society meets the state: Towards associational democracy? Socio-Economic Review, 42(1): 185208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baccaro, L., and Lim, S. H. (2007). Social pacts as coalitions of the weak and moderate: Ireland, Italy and South Korea in comparative perspective. European Journal of Industrial Relations, 13(1): 2746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baccaro, L., and Mele, V. (2012). Pathology of path dependency? The ILO and the challenge of new governance. Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 65(2): 195224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baccaro, L., and Pontusson, J. (2016). Rethinking comparative political economy: The growth model perspective. Politics & Society, 44(2): 175207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Banerjee, S. B. (2008). Corporate social responsibility: The good, the bad and the ugly. Critical Sociology34(1): 5179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Banerjee, S. B. (2018). Transnational power and translocal governance: The politics of corporate responsibility. Human Relations, 71(6): 796821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BGMEA). (2020). Sustainability Report 2020. Available at (accessed 11 June 2021).Google Scholar
Bansal, P., and Roth, K. (2000). Why companies go green: A model of ecological responsiveness. Academy of Management Journal, 43(4): 717736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barnett, C., Clarke, N., Cloke, P., and Malpass, A. (2005). The political ethics of consumerism. Consumer Policy Review, 15(2): 4551.Google Scholar
Barrientos, S., and Smith, S. (2007). Do workers benefit from ethical trade? Assessing codes of labour practice in global production systems. Third World Quarterly, 28(4): 713729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bartley, T. (2007). Institutional emergence in an era of globalization: The rise of transnational private regulation of labor and environmental conditionsAmerican Journal of Sociology, 113(2): 297351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bartley, T. (2018). Rules without Rights: Land, Labor, and Private Authority in the Global Economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bartley, T., and Egels-Zandén, N. (2016). Beyond decoupling: Unions and the leveraging of corporate social responsibility in Indonesia. Socio-Economic Review, 14(2): 231255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baur, D., and Palazzo, G. (2011). The moral legitimacy of NGOs as partners of corporations. Business Ethics Quarterly, 21(4): 579604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bendell, J. (2005). In whose name? The accountability of corporate social responsibility. Development in Practice, 15(3–4): 362374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Benhabib, S. (ed.). (1996). Democracy and Difference: Contesting the Boundaries of the Political. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Beynon, H. (1973). Working for Ford. London: Allen Lane.Google Scholar
Bohman, J. (2012). Representation in the deliberative system. In. Parkinson, J. and Mansbridge, J. (eds.), Deliberative Systems: Deliberative Democracy at the Large Scale. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 7294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boyer, R. (2001). The diversity and future of capitalisms: A ‘régulationist’ analysis. In Hodgson, G., Itoh, M. and Yokokawa, N. (eds.), Capitalism in Evolution: Global Contentions – East and West. Aldershot: Edward Elgar, pp. 100121.Google Scholar
Braverman, H. (1974). Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century. New York: New York University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brinkerhoff, D. W., and Brinkerhoff, J. M. (2002). Governance reforms and failed states: Challenges and implications. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 68(4): 511531.Google Scholar
Brown, W. (1973). Piecework Bargaining. London: Heinemann.Google Scholar
Bryde, O. (2011). Transnational democracy. In Fastenrath, U., Geiger, R., Khan, D., Paulus, A., von Schorlemer, S. and Vedde, C. (eds.), From Bilateralism to Community Interest: Essays in Honour of Bruno Simma. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 211223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Budd, J. W. (2004). Employment with a Human Face: Balancing Efficiency, Equity, and Voice. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Carroll, A. B. (1999). Corporate social responsibility evolution of a definitional construct. Business & Society, 38(2): 268295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cerny, P. G. (1995). Globalization and the changing logic of collective action. International Organization, 49(4): 595625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cerny, P. G. (1997). Paradoxes of the competition state: The dynamics of political globalization. Government and Opposition, 32(2): 251274.Google Scholar
Clark, G. L., and Wrigley, N. (1997). Exit, the firm and sunk costs: Reconceptualizing the corporate geography of disinvestment and plant closure. Progress in Human Geography, 21(3): 338358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clarke, S. (1992). What in the f---’s name is Fordism? In Gilbert, N., Burrows, R. and Pollertt, A. (eds.), Fordism and Flexibility. London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 1330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clean Clothes Campaign, International Labor Rights Forum, Maquila Solidarity Network and Worker Rights Consortium. (2019). Bangladesh Government’s safety inspection agencies not ready to take over Accord’s work. Available at (accessed 7 November 2021).Google Scholar
Clegg, H. (1951). Industrial Democracy and Nationalization: A Study Prepared for the Fabian Society. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Cohen, J. (1989). The economic basis of deliberative democracy. Social Philosophy and Policy, 6(2): 2550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohen, J., and Rogers, J. (1992). Secondary associations and democratic governance. Politics & Society, 20(4): 393472.Google Scholar
Commons, J. R. (1919). Industrial Goodwill. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
Compa, L. (2004). Trade unions, NGOs, and corporate codes of conduct. Development in Practice, 14: 210215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Conroy, M. E. (2007). Branded! How the ‘Certification Revolution’ Is Transforming Global Corporations. New York: New Society.Google Scholar
Crane, A., Matten, D., and Moon, J. (2008). Corporations and Citizenship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crouch, C. (2009). Privatised Keynesianism: An unacknowledged policy regime. The British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 11(3): 382399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Croucher, R., and Cotton, E. (2008). Global Unions, Global Business: Global Union Federations and International Business. New York: Libri.Google Scholar
Cullinane, N., and Dundon, T. (2014). Unitarism and employer resistance to trade unionism. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(18): 25732590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daily Star (2018) Tofail blasts Accord. The Daily Star. Available at (accessed 20 September 2021).Google Scholar
Dawkins, C. E. (2012). Labored relations: Corporate citizenship, labor unions, and freedom of association. Business Ethics Quarterly, 22(3): 473500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dawkins, C. E. (2019). A normative argument for independent voice and labor unions. Journal of Business Ethics, 155(4): 11531165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Den Hond, F., and De Bakker, F. G. (2007). Ideologically motivated activism: How activist groups influence corporate social change activities. Academy of Management Review, 32(3): 901924.Google Scholar
Department of Inspection for Factories and Establishments (DIFE). (2020). Gender roadmap, 2020–2030. Available at (accessed 17 April 2021).Google Scholar
Dingwerth, K., and Pattberg, P. (2009). World politics and organizational fields: The case of transnational sustainability governance. European Journal of International Relations, 15(4): 707743.Google Scholar
Disch, L. (2011). Toward a mobilization conception of democratic representation. American Political Science Review, 105(1): 100114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Disch, L. (2012). Democratic representation and the constituency paradox. Perspectives on Politics, 10(3): 599616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Disch, L. (2015). The ‘constructivist turn’ in democratic representation: A normative dead‐end? Constellations, 22(4): 487499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Djelic, M. L., and Sahlin-Andersson, K. (eds.). (2006). Transnational Governance: Institutional Dynamics of Regulation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dobbin, F., and Sutton, J. R. (1998). The strength of a weak state: The rights revolution and the rise of human resources management divisions. American Journal of Sociology, 104(2): 441476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Doellgast, V. (2012). Disintegrating Democracy at Work. New York: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Dolan, C., and Humphrey, J. (2004). Changing governance patterns in the trade in fresh vegetables between Africa and the United Kingdom. Environment and Planning A, 36(3): 491509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Donaghey, J., and Reinecke, J. (2018). When industrial democracy meets corporate social responsibility: A comparison of the Bangladesh Accord and Alliance as responses to the Rana Plaza disasterBritish Journal of Industrial Relations56(1): 1442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Donaghey, J., Reinecke, J., Niforou, C., and Lawson, B. (2014). From employment relations to consumption relations: Balancing labor governance in global supply chains. Human Resource Management, 53(2): 229252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dryzek, J. S. (1999). Transnational democracy. Journal of Political Philosophy, 7(1): 3051.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dryzek, J. S. (2010). Foundations and Frontiers of Deliberative Governance. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dryzek, J. S., and Niemeyer, S. (2008). Discursive representationAmerican Political Science Review, 102(4): 481493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edwards, P. (1986) Conflict at Work: A Materialist Analysis of Workplace Relations. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
Edwards, P. (2003). The employment relationship and the field of industrial relations. In Edwards, P. (ed.), Industrial relations, 2nd ed. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, pp. 434460.Google Scholar
Edwards, P. K. (2018). Conflict in the Workplace: The Concept of Structured Antagonism Reconsidered. Coventry: University of Warwick.Google Scholar
Egels-Zandén, N. (2009). Transnational governance of workers’ rights: Outlining a research agenda. Journal of Business Ethics, 87: 169188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Egels-Zandén, N., and Hyllman, P. (2006). Exploring the effects of union–NGO relationships on corporate responsibility: The case of the Swedish clean clothes campaign. Journal of Business Ethics, 64(3): 303316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Egels-Zandén, N., and Hyllman, P. (2011). Differences in organizing between unions and NGOs: Conflict and cooperation among Swedish unions and NGOs. Journal of Business Ethics, 101(2): 249261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Egels-Zandén, N., and Lindholm, H. (2015). Do codes of conduct improve worker rights in supply chains? A study of Fair Wear Foundation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 107: 3140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Egels-Zandén, N., and Merk, J. (2014). Private regulation and trade union rights: Why codes of conduct have limited impact on trade union rights. Journal of Business Ethics, 123(3): 461473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ehrnström‐Fuentes, M. (2016). Delinking legitimacies: A pluriversal perspective on political CSR. Journal of Management Studies, 53(3): 433462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Engman, M., Onodera, O., and Pinali, E. (2007). Export processing zones: Past and future role in trade and development. OECD Trade Policy Papers, No. 53. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
Erixon, L. (2008). The Swedish third way: An assessment of the performance and validity of the Rehn-Meidner modelCambridge Journal of Economics32(3): 367393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Erixon, L. (2010). The Rehn-Meidner model in Sweden: Its rise, challenges and survival. Journal of Economic Issues, 44(3): 677715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ethical Trading Initiative (ETI). (2014). Auditing working conditions. Available at (accessed 15 February 2019).Google Scholar
European Commission. (2018). Implementation of the Bangladesh Compact: Technical status report. Available at (accessed 8 November 2021).Google Scholar
Eurostat (2020). Where do our clothes come from? Available at (accessed 8 November 2021).Google Scholar
Evans, A. (2020). Overcoming the global despondency trap: Strengthening corporate accountability in supply chains. Review of International Political Economy, 27(3): 658685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feuerstein, P. (2013). Patterns of work reorganization in the course of the IT industry’s internationalization. Competition & Change, 17(1): 2440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fichter, M., and McCallum, J. K. (2015). Implementing global framework agreements: The limits of social partnership. Global Networks, 15(s1): S65S85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ford, M., and Gillan, M. (2015). The global union federations in international industrial relations: A critical review. Journal of Industrial Relations, 57(3), 456475.Google Scholar
Fox, A. (1974). Beyond Contract: Work, Power and Trust Relations. London: Faber & Faber.Google Scholar
Fox, A. (1975). Collective bargaining, Flanders, and the Webbs. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 13(2): 151174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fransen, L. (2012). Multi-stakeholder governance and voluntary programme interactions: Legitimation politics in the institutional design of corporate social responsibility. Socio-Economic Review, 10(1): 163192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fransen, L., and Burgoon, B. (2015). Global labour‐standards advocacy by European civil society organizations: Trends and developments. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 53(2): 204230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frenkel, S., and Schuessler, E. (2021) From Rana Plaza to COVID-19: Deficiencies and opportunities for a new labour governance system in garment global supply chains. International Labour Review 160(4): 591609.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Freeman, R., and Lazear, E. (1995). An economic analysis of works councils. In Rogers, J. and Streeck, W. (eds.), Works Councils: Consultation, Representation and Cooperation in Industrial Relations. Chicago: Chicago University Press, pp. 2752.Google Scholar
Gereffi, G. (1994). The organization of buyer-driven global commodity chains: How US retailers shape overseas production networks. In Gereffi, G. and Korzeniewicz, M. (eds.), Commodity chains and global capitalism. Westport, CT: Praeger, pp. 95122.Google Scholar
Gereffi, G., Humphrey, J., and Timothy, S. (2005). The governance of global value chains. Review of International Political Economy, 12(1): 78104.Google Scholar
Gilbert, D. U., and Rasche, A. (2007). Discourse ethics and social accountability: The ethics of SA 8000. Business Ethics Quarterly, 17(2): 187216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Global Justice Now. (2016). 10 biggest corporations make more money than most countries in the world combined. Available at (accessed 5 May 2021).Google Scholar
Goodin, R. E. (2007). Enfranchising all affected interests, and its alternatives. Philosophy & Public Affairs, 35(1): 4068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greer, I., and Hauptmeier, M. (2012). Identity work: Sustaining transnational collective action at General Motors Europe. Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, 51(2): 275299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gunningham, N. (2008). Occupational health and safety, worker participation and the mining industry in a changing world of work. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 29(3): 336361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gutierrez-Huerter, O. G., Gold, S., and Trautrims, A. (2021). Change in rhetoric but not in action? Framing of the ethical issue of modern slavery in a UK sector at high risk of labor exploitation. Journal of Business Ethics. Available at–021-05013-w (accessed 2 March 2022).Google Scholar
Habermas, J. (1989). The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Hahn, R., and Weidtmann, C. (2016). Transnational governance, deliberative democracy, and the legitimacy of ISO 26000: Analyzing the case of a global multistakeholder process. Business & Society, 55(1): 90129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haidinger, B., Schönauer, A., Flecker, J., and Holtgrewe, U. (2014). Value chains and networks in services: Crossing borders, crossing sectors, crossing regimes. In Hauptmeier, M. and Vidal, M. (eds.), Comparative Political Economy of Work. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 98118.Google Scholar
Hall, M., and Purcell, J. (2012). Consultation at Work: Regulation and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University PressCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hammer, N. (2005). International framework agreements: Global industrial relations between rights and bargaining. Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research, 11(4): 511530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hammer, N., and Plugor, R (2016). Near-sourcing UK apparel: Value chain restructuring, productivity and the informal economy. Industrial Relations Journal, 47(5–6): 402416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hammer, N., and Plugor, R. (2019). Disconnecting labour? The labour process in the UK fast fashion value chain. Work, Employment & Society, 33(6): 913928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hammer, N., Plugor, R., Nolan, P., and Clark, I. (2015). New industry on a skewed playing field: Supply chain relations and working conditions in UK garment manufacturing. Focus area Leicester and the East Midlands. Leicester: University of Leicester. Available at (accessed 20 November 2021).Google Scholar
Hasan, R., Moore, M., and Handfield, R. (2020). Addressing social issues in commodity markets: Using cost modeling as an enabler of public policy in the Bangladeshi apparel industry. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 56(4): 2544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hassel, A. (2008). The evolution of a global labor governance regime. Governance, 21(2): 231251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hathaway, T. (2020). Neoliberalism as corporate power. Competition & Change, 24(3–4): 315337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heery, E. (1993). Industrial relations and the customer. Industrial Relations Journal, 24(4): 284295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hirschman, A. O. (1970). Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Hobbes, T. (1651). Leviathan, with selected variants from the Latin edition of 1668 (Curley, E. ed.) Indianapolis, IN: HackettThomas.Google Scholar
Human Rights Watch. (2015). Whoever raises their head, suffers the most: Workers’ rights in Bangladesh Garment factories. Available at (accessed 15 March 2019).Google Scholar
Hyman, R. (2001). Understanding European Trade Unionism: Between Market, Class and Society. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
IndustriALL. (2012). Tchibo joins agreement on garment factory safety in Bangladesh. Available at (accessed 20 November 2021).Google Scholar
IndustriALL. (2013a). IndustriALL leading the struggle for Bangladesh Garment workers. Available at (accessed 20 November 2021).Google Scholar
IndustriALL. (2013b). We made it! Global breakthrough as retail brands sign up to Bangladesh factory safety deal. Available at (accessed 20 November 2021).Google Scholar
International Labour Organization (ILO). (2015). Rana Plaza two years on: Progress made & challenges ahead for the Bangladesh RMG sector. Available at (accessed 20 November 2021).Google Scholar
International Labour Organization (ILO). (2018). International framework agreements in the food retail, garment and chemicals sector. Available at (accessed 20 November 2021).Google Scholar
International Labour Organization (ILO). (2022). Social Dialogue Report 2022. Available at (accessed 19 May 2022).Google Scholar
International Labor Rights Forum (ILRF). (2015). Our voices, our safety: Bangladeshi garment workers speak out. Washington, DC: International Labour Rights Forum. Available at:,%20Our%20Safety%20Online_1.pdf (accessed 1 May 2017).Google Scholar
International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC). (2018). ITUC Global Rights Index 2018. Available at (accessed 23 October 2017).Google Scholar
International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC). (2019). ITUC Global Rights Index 2019. Available at (accessed 23 October 2020).Google Scholar
International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC). (2020). ITUC Global Rights Index 2020. Available at (Accessed 17 November 2019).Google Scholar
Iversen, T., and Soskice, D. (2020). Response to Carles Boix’s review of Democracy and Prosperity: Reinventing Capitalism through a Turbulent Century. Perspectives on Politics, 18(2): 547548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
James, P., Johnstone, R., Quinlan, M., and Walters, D. (2007). Regulating supply chains to improve health and safety. Industrial Law Journal, 36(2): 163187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jenkins, J., and Blyton, P. (2017). In debt to the time-bank: The manipulation of working time in Indian garment factories and ‘working dead horse’. Work, Employment and Society 31(1): 90105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jessop, B. (2002). Liberalism, neoliberalism, and urban governance: A state–theoretical perspective. Antipode, 34(3): 452472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jessop, B. (2011). Rethinking the diversity and variability of capitalism. In Wood, G. and Lane, C. (eds.), Capitalist Diversity and Diversity within Capitalism. London: Routledge, pp. 151209.Google Scholar
Johnstone, S., Wilkinson, A., and Ackers, P. (2011). Applying Budd’s model to partnership. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 32(2): 307328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kabeer, N. (2017). Economic pathways to women’s empowerment and active citizenship: What does the evidence from Bangladesh tell us? The Journal of Development Studies, 53(5): 649663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kabeer, N., Huq, L., and Sulaiman, M. (2020). Paradigm shift or business as usual? Workers’ views on multi-stakeholder initiatives in Bangladesh. Development and Change, 51(5): 13601398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaldor, M. (2003). The idea of global civil society. International Affairs, 79(3): 583593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kang, Y. (2021). The rise, demise, and replacement of the Bangladesh experiment in transnational labour regulation. International Labour Review, 160(3): 407430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaufman, B. E. (2004). The Global Evolution of Industrial Relations: Events, Ideas and the IIRA. Geneva: ILO.Google Scholar
Kelly, J. (1998). Rethinking Industrial Relations: Mobilisation, Collectivism and Long Waves. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Keohane, R. 2003. Global governance and democratic accountability. In Held, D. and Koenig-Archibugi, M. (eds.), Taming Globalization: Frontiers of Governance. Bristol: Polity Press, pp. 130159.Google Scholar
Kessler, I., and Bach, S. (2011). The citizen‐consumer as industrial relations actor: New ways of working and the end‐user in social care. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 49(1): 80102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khan, F. R., Munir, K. A., and Willmott, H. (2007). A dark side of institutional entrepreneurship: Soccer balls, child labour and postcolonial impoverishment. Organization Studies, 28(6): 10551077.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
King, B. G., and Pearce, N. A. (2010). The contentiousness of markets: Politics, social movements, and institutional change in markets. Annual Review of Sociology, 36: 249267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knudsen, J. S., and Moon, J. (2017). Visible Hands: Government Regulation and International Business Responsibility. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kochan, F., Jackson, B., and Duke, D. (1999). A Thousand Voices from the Firing Line: A Study of Educational Leaders, Their Jobs, and the Problems They Face. Columbia, MO: University Council for Educational Administration.Google Scholar
Koenig-Archibugi, M., and MacDonald, K. (2013). Accountability-by-proxy in transnational non-state governance. Governance, 26(3): 499522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krasner, S. (1999). Organized Hypocrisy, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Labowitz, S., and Baumann-Pauly, D. (2014). Business as Usual Is Not an Option. Supply Chains and Sourcing after Rana Plaza. New York: Stern Center for Business and Human Rights, New York University.Google Scholar
Laclau, E. (2005). On Populist Reason. London: Verso.Google Scholar
Lange, D., and Washburn, N. T. (2012). Understanding attributions of corporate social irresponsibility. Academy of Management Review, 37(2): 300326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
LeBaron, G., and Lister, J. (2015). Benchmarking global supply chains: The power of the ‘ethical audit’ regime. Review of International Studies, 41(5): 905924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
LeBaron, G., Lister, J., and Dauvergne, P. (2017). Governing global supply chain sustainability through the ethical audit regime. Globalizations, 14(6): 958975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levi, M., Adolph, C., Berliner, D., Erlich, A., Greenleaf, A., Lake, M., and Noveck, J. (2013). Aligning rights and interests: Why, when and how to uphold labor standards. Background Paper for the World Development Report, 8258024-1320950747192.Google Scholar
Lim, A., and Tsutsui, K. (2012). Globalization and commitment in corporate social responsibility: Cross-national analyses of institutional and political-economy effects. American Sociological Review, 77(1): 6998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lipset, S. M. (1952). Democracy in private government: A case study of the International Typographical Union. The British Journal of Sociology 3(1): 4758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Locke, R. M. (2013). The Promise and Limits of Private Power: Promoting Labor Standards in a Global Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Locke, R. M., Amengual, M., and Mangla, A. (2009). Virtue out of necessity? Compliance, commitment, and the improvement of labor conditions in global supply chains. Politics & Society, 37(3): 319351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Locke, R. M., Rissing, B. A., and Pal, T. (2013). Complements or substitutes? Private codes, state regulation and the enforcement of labour standards in global supply chains. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 51(3): 519552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lund‐Thomsen, P. (2008). The global sourcing and codes of conduct debate: Five myths and five recommendations. Development and Change, 39(6): 10051018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lury, C. (2004). Brands: The Logos of the Global Economy. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lynch, L. M. (1994). Training and the Private Sector. International Comparisons NBEC. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maeckelbergh, M. (2011). The road to democracy: The political legacy of ‘1968’. International Review of Social History, 56(2): 301332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mansbridge, J. (2003). Rethinking representation. American Political Science Review, 97(4): 515528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mansbridge, J. (2009). A ‘selection model’ of political representation. Journal of Political Philosophy, 17(4): 369398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mansbridge, J. (2011). Clarifying the concept of representation. American Political Science Review, 105(3): 621630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mansbridge, J. (2012). On the importance of getting things done. PS: Political Science & Politics, 45(1): 18.Google Scholar
Marchington, M., Willmott, H., Grimshaw, D., and Rubery, J. (2005). Fragmenting Work: Blurring Organizational Boundaries and Disordering Hierarchies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Marshall, T. H. (1950). Citizenship and Social Class. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Martin, R. (1968). Union democracy: An explanatory framework. Sociology, 2(2): 205220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matten, D., and Crane, A. (2005). Corporate citizenship: Towards an extended theoretical conceptualization. Academy of Management Review, 30(1): 166179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCallum, J. (2017). Global Unions, Local Power: The New Spirit of Transnational Labor Organizing. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Miller, D. (2011). Global social relations and corporate social responsibility in outsourced apparel supply chains: The Inditex Global Framework Agreement. In Papadakis, K. (ed.), Shaping Global Industrial Relations. London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 179198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mintzberg, H. (1983). The case for corporate social responsibility. Journal of Business Strategy, 4: 315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Montanaro, L. (2012). The democratic legitimacy of self-appointed representatives. The Journal of Politics, 74(4): 10941107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morelli, C. (2021). Regulating the post-independence textile trade: Anglo-Indian tariff negotiations from independence to the Multi-Fibre Arrangement. Business History, 63(1), 3851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morris, J., Jenkins, J., and Donaghey, J. (2021). Uneven development, uneven response: The relentless search for meaningful regulation of GVCs. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 59(1), 324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Müller-Jentsch, W. (1976). Zum Verhältnis von Staat und Gewerkschaften. Frankfurt: Rahmenbedingungen und Schranken staatlichen Handelns.Google Scholar
Müller-Jentsch, W. (2003). Re-assessing co-determination. In Weitbrecht, H. and Muller-Jentsch, W. (eds.), The Changing Contours of German Industrial Relations. Munich: Rainer Hampp Verlag, pp. 3956.Google Scholar
Nanz, P., and Steffek, J. (2004). Global governance, participation and the public sphere. Government and Opposition, 39(2): 314335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nicholls, A., and Opal, C. (2005). Fair Trade: Market-Driven Ethical Consumption. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nienhüser, W. (2020). Works councils. In Wilkinson, A., Donaghey, J., Dundon, T. and Freeman, R. (eds.) Handbook of Research on Employee Voice. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 250276.Google Scholar
Niforou, C. (2012). International framework agreements and industrial relations governance: Global rhetoric versus local realities. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 50(2): 352373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Niforou, C. (2014). International framework agreements and the democratic deficit of global labour governance. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 35(2): 367386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
O’Rourke, D. (2006). Multi-stakeholder regulation: Privatizing or socializing global labor standards? World Development, 34(5): 899918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olson, M. (1965). The Logic of Collective Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Permanent Court of Arbitration. (2018). Bangladesh Accord Arbitrations. Available at (accessed 17 January 2021).Google Scholar
Petit, P. (1999). Structural forms and growth regimes of the post-Fordist era. Review of Social Economy, 57(2): 220243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pike, K. (2020). Voice in supply chains: Does the Better Work Program lead to improvements in labor standards compliance? Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 73(4): 913938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Piketty, T. (2014). Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pitkin, H. F. (1967). The Concept of Representation. Berkeley: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pitkin, H. F. (2004). Representation and democracy: Uneasy alliance. Scandinavian Political Studies, 27(3): 335342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Preuss, L., Gold, M., and Rees, C. (2015). The rise of corporate social responsibility as a challenge for trade unions. In Preuss, L., Rees, M. and Gold, C. (eds.), Corporate Social Responsibility and Trade Unions. London: Routledge, pp. 125.Google Scholar
Preuss, L., Haunschild, A., and Matten, D. (2009). The rise of CSR: Implications for HRM and employee representation. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20(4): 953973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Quan, K. (2008). Use of global value chains by labor organizers. Competition & Change, 12(1): 89104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Quinlan, M. (1999). The implications of labour market restructuring in industrialized societies for occupational health and safety. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 20(3): 427460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rahim, M. M., and Islam, S. S. (2020). Freedom of association in the Bangladeshi garment industry: A policy schizophrenia in labour regulation. International Labour Review, 159(3): 423446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rahman, Z., and Langford, T. (2014). International solidarity or renewed trade union imperialism? The AFL–CIO and garment workers in Bangladesh. WorkingUSA, 17(2): 169186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rainnie, A., Herod, A., and Champ, S. M. (2007). Spatialising industrial relations. Industrial Relations Journal, 38(2): 102118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rasche, A. (2010). The limits of corporate responsibility standards. Business Ethics: A European Review, 19(3): 280291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ravallion, M. (2014). Income inequality in the developing world. Science, 344(6186): 851855.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Razsa, M., and Kurnik, A. (2012). The Occupy Movement in Žižek’s hometown: Direct democracy and a politics of becoming. American Ethnologist, 39(2): 238258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Regini, M. (2000). Between deregulation and social pacts: The responses of European economies to globalization. Politics & Society, 28(1), 533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rehfeld, A. (2006). Towards a general theory of political representation. The Journal of Politics, 68(1): 121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reinecke, J. (2018). Social movements and prefigurative organizing: Confronting entrenched inequalities in Occupy London. Organization Studies, 39(9): 12991321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reinecke, J., and Ansari, S. (2015). What is a ‘fair’ price? Ethics as sensemaking. Organization Science, 26(3): 867888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reinecke, J., and Ansari, S. (2016). Taming wicked problems: The role of framing in the construction of corporate social responsibility. Journal of Management Studies, 53(3): 299329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reinecke, J., and Donaghey, J. (2015). After Rana Plaza: Building coalitional power for labour rights between unions and (consumption-based) social movement organisations. Organization, 22(5): 720740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reinecke, J., and Donaghey, J. (2021a). Political CSR at the coalface: The roles and contradictions of multinational corporations in developing workplace dialogue. Journal of Management Studies, 58(2): 457486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reinecke, J., and Donaghey, J. (2021b). Towards worker‐driven supply chain governance: Developing decent work through democratic worker participation. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 57(2): 1428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reinecke, J., Donaghey, J., Bocken, N., and Lauriano, L. (2019). Business Models and Labour Standards: Making the Connection. London: Ethical Trading Initiative.Google Scholar
Reinecke, J., Donaghey, J., Wilkinson, A., and Wood, G. (2018). Global supply chains and social relations at work: Brokering across boundaries. Human Relations 71(4): 459480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reinecke, J., Manning, S., and Von Hagen, O. (2012). The emergence of a standards market: Multiplicity of sustainability standards in the global coffee industry. Organization Studies, 33(5–6), 791814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Riisgaard, L., and Hammer, N. (2011). Prospects for labour in global value chains: Labour standards in the cut flower and banana industries. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 49(1): 168190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Risse, T. (2004). Global governance and communicative action. Government and Opposition, 39(2): 288313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Risse, T. (2006). Transnational governance and legitimacy. In Benz, A. and Papadopolous, I. (eds.), Governance and Democracy: Comparing National, European and International Experiences. London: Routledge, pp. 179199.Google Scholar
Rodrik, D. (2008). Second-best institutions. American Economic Review, 98(2): 100104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rodrik, D. (2013). The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the Future of the World Economy. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
Rogers, J., and Streeck, W. (1995). The study of works councils: Concepts and problems. In Rogers, J. and Streeck, W. (eds.), Works Councils. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rueda, D., and Pontusson, J. (2000). Wage inequality and varieties of capitalism. World Politics, 52(3): 350383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruggie, J. G. (2018). Multinationals as global institution: Power, authority and relative autonomy. Regulation & Governance, 12(3): 317333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rugman, A. M. (2010). Globalization, regional multinationals and Asian economic development. Asian Business & Management, 9(3): 299317.Google Scholar
Ryder, G. (2015). The International Labour Organization: The next 100 years. Journal of Industrial Relations, 57(5): 748757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Safi, M. (2018). Bangladesh to eject safety inspectors brought in after Rana Plaza disaster. The Guardian (28 November). Available at (accessed 29 November 2021).Google Scholar
Sanches, W., and Hoffman, C. (2017). 2018 Accord on Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh: May 2018. Available at (accessed 29 November 2021).Google Scholar
Saward, M. (2008). Representation and democracy: Revisions and possibilities. Sociology Compass, 2(3): 10001013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saward, M. (2010). The Representative Claim. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scharpf, F. W. (1997). Economic integration, democracy and the welfare state. Journal of European Public Policy, 4(1): 1836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scherer, A. G., and Palazzo, G. (2007). Toward a political conception of corporate responsibility: Business and society seen from a Habermasian perspective. Academy of Management Review, 32(4): 10961120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scherer, A. G., and Palazzo, G. (2011). The new political role of business in a globalized world: A review of a new perspective on CSR and its implications for the firm, governance, and democracy. Journal of Management Studies, 48(4): 899931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scherer, A. G., Palazzo, G., and Baumann, D. (2006). Global rules and private actors: Toward a new role of the transnational corporation in global governance. Business Ethics Quarterly, 16(4): 505532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scherer, A. G., Rasche, A., Palazzo, G., and Spicer, A. (2016). Managing for political corporate social responsibility: New challenges and directions for PCSR 2.0. Journal of Management Studies, 53(3): 273298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmelzer, M. (2010). Marketing morals, moralizing markets: Assessing the effectiveness of fair trade as a form of boycott. Management & Organizational History, 5(2): 221250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmitter, P. C. (1974). Still the century of corporatism? The Review of Politics, 36(1): 85131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmitter, P. C. (1983). Democratic theory and neocorporatist practice. Social Research, 50(4): 885928.Google Scholar
Schmitter, P. C., and Streeck, W. (1981). The organization of business interests: A research design to study the associative action of business in the advanced industrial societies of Western Europe. Discussion Papers IIMV/Arbeitsmarktpolitik – IIM/Labour Market Policy. Available at (accessed 29 November 2021).Google Scholar
Scholte, J. A. (2008). From government to governance: Transition to a new diplomacy. In Malet, W. (ed.), Global Governance and Diplomacy. London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 3960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schormair, M. J. L., and Gilbert, D. U. (2021). Creating value by sharing values: Managing stakeholder value conflict in the face of pluralism through discursive justification. Business Ethics Quarterly, 31(1): 136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schrempf-Stirling, J., and Palazzo, G. (2016). Upstream corporate social responsibility: The evolution from contract responsibility to full producer responsibility. Business & Society, 55(4): 491527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schuessler, E., Frenkel, S. J., and Wright, C. F. (2019). Governance of labor standards in Australian and German garment supply chains: The impact of Rana Plaza. Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 72(3): 552579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Severs, E. (2012). Substantive representation through a claims-making lens: A strategy for the identification and analysis of substantive claims. Representation, 48(2): 169181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Siddiqi, D. M. (2009). Do Bangladeshi factory workers need saving? Sisterhood in the post-sweatshop era. Feminist Review, 91(1): 154174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Siddiqi, D. M. (2015) Starving for justice: Bangladeshi garment workers in a ‘post-Rana Plaza’ world. International Labor and Working-Class History, 87: 165173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Siddiqi, D. M. (2017). Before Rana Plaza: Toward a history of labor organizing in Bangladesh’s garment industry. In Crinis, V. and Vickers, A. (eds.), Labour in the Clothing Industry in the Asia Pacific. London: Routledge, pp. 6079.Google Scholar
Siddiqi, D. M. (2020). Logics of sedition: Re-signifying insurgent labour in Bangladesh’s garment factories. Journal of South Asian Development, 15(3): 371397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sobczak, A. (2007). Legal dimensions of international framework agreements in the field of corporate social responsibility. Relations Industrielles/Industrial Relations, 62(3): 466491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Soule, S. A. (1997). The student divestment movement in the United States and tactical diffusion: The shantytown protest. Social Forces, 75(3): 855882.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spooner, D. (2004). Trade unions and NGOs: The need for cooperation. Development in Practice, 14(1–2): 1933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Standing, G. (1997). Globalization, labour flexibility and insecurity: The era of market regulation. European Journal of Industrial Relations, 3(1): 737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Standing, G. (2008). The ILO: An agency for globalization? Development and Change, 39(3): 355384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Starkey, K., and McKinlay, A. (1989). Beyond Fordism? Strategic choice and labour relations in Ford UK. Industrial Relations Journal, 20(2): 93100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stone, D. A. (1989). Causal stories and the formation of policy agendas. Political Science Quarterly, 104(2): 281300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Streeck, W. (1992). Social Institutions and Economic Performance: Studies of Industrial Relations in Advanced Capitalist Economies. London: Sage.Google Scholar
Streeck, W. (1995). Works councils in Western Europe: From consultation to participation. In Rogers, J. and Streeck, W. (eds.), Works Councils: Consultation, Representation, and Cooperation in Industrial Relations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Streeck, W. (1997a). Industrial citizenship under regime competition: The case of the European works councils. Journal of European Public Policy, 4(4): 643664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Streeck, W. (1997b). Beneficial constraints: On the economic limits of rational voluntarism. In Boyer, R. and Hollingsworth, J. R. (eds.), Contemporary Capitalism: The Embeddedness of Institutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 197219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Streeck, W. (2016). How Will Capitalism End? Essays on a Failing System. New York: Verso.Google Scholar
Streeck, W., and Kentworthy, L. (2003). Theories and practices of neocorporatism. In Janoski, T., Alford, R. R., Hicks, A. M. and Schwartz, M. A. (eds.), The Handbook of Political Sociology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Streeck, W., and Schmitter, P. C. (1985). Community, market, state-and associations? The prospective contribution of interest governance to social orderEuropean Sociological Review1(2): 119138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Streeck, W., and Thelen, K. A. (2005). Beyond Continuity: Institutional Change in Advanced Political Economies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Stroehle, J. C. (2017). The enforcement of diverse labour standards through private governance: An assessment. Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research, 23(4): 475493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
SumOfUs. (2013). How many more Bangladeshi workers need to die? Available at (accessed 12 March 2014).Google Scholar
Sumon, M. H., Shifa, N., and Gulrukh, S. (2017). Discourses of compensation and the normalization of negligence: The experience of the Tazreen factory fire. In Prentice, R. and De Neve, G. (eds.), Unmaking the Global Sweatshop: Health and Safety of the World’s Garment Workers. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 147172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tanjeem, N. (2017). Can Workers of the World Unite? A Multi-sited Ethnography of Transnational Labor Organizing across the Apparel Commodity Network. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
Taylor, P., Newsome, K., and Rainnie, A. (2013). ‘Putting labour in its place’: Global value chains and labour process analysis. Competition & Change, 17(1): 15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Teague, P. (2005). What is enterprise partnership? Organization, 12(4): 567589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Terlaak, A. (2007). Order without law? The role of certified management standards in shaping socially desired firm behaviors. Academy of Management Review, 32(3): 968985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Textilbuendis. (2018). Letter to Sheikh Hasina, Prime Minister of Bangladesh. Available at (accessed 15 November 2021).Google Scholar
Thelen, K. (2003). The paradox of globalization: Labor relations in Germany and beyond. Comparative Political Studies, 36(8): 859880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thelen, K. (2007). Contemporary challenges to the German vocational training system. Regulation & Governance, 1(3): 247260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thomas, H., and Turnbull, P. (2018). From horizontal to vertical labour governance: The International Labour Organization (ILO) and decent work in global supply chains. Human Relations, 71(4): 536559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thomas, M. P. (2011). Global industrial relations? Framework agreements and the regulation of international labor standards. Labor Studies Journal, 36(2): 269287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thompson, D. F. (2001) Political representation. In Smelser, N. J. and Baltes, P. B. (eds.), International Encyclopedia of Social & Behavioral Science. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 1169611698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Towers, B. (1997). The Representation Gap: Change and Reform in the British and American Workplace. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Traxler, F. (1999). The state in industrial relations: A cross-national analysis of developments and socioeconomic effects. European Journal of Political Research, 36(1): 5585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Traxler, F., Brandl, B., Glassner, V., and Ludvig, A. (2008). Can cross-border bargaining coordination work? Analytical reflections and evidence from the metal industry in Germany and Austria. European Journal of Industrial Relations, 14(2): 217237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
UK Environmental Audit Committee. (2019). Fixing Fashion: Clothing Consumption and Sustainability. London: UK Parliament. Available at (accessed 22 November 2021).Google Scholar
UNCTAD. (2016). World Investment Report 2016. Available at (accessed 5 June 2016).Google Scholar
UNCTAD. (2018). World Investment Report 2018. Available at (accessed 5 June 2016).Google Scholar
Urbinati, N., and Warren, M. E. (2008). The concept of representation in contemporary democratic theory. Annual Review Political Science, 11: 387412.Google Scholar
US Government Publishing Office. (2020). Seven years after Rana Plaza, significant challenges remain. Available at (accessed 12 March 2021).Google Scholar
Van Buren, H. J., Greenwood, M., Donaghey, J., & Reinecke, J. (2021). Agonising over industrial relations: Bringing agonism and dissensus to the pluralist frames of reference. Journal of Industrial Relations, 63(2), 177203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Maanen, J. (1995). An end to innocence: the ethnography of ethnography. In Van Maanen, J. (ed.), Representation in Ethnography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 135.Google Scholar
Vartiainen, J. (1998). Understanding Swedish social democracy: Victims of success? Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 14(1): 1939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vidal, M. (2015). Fordism and the golden age of Atlantic capitalism. In Edgell, S., Gottfried, H. and Ganter, E. (eds.), The Sage Handbook of the Sociology of Work and Employment. London: Sage, pp. 283305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vogel, D. (2008). Private global business regulation. Annual Review of Political Science, 11(1): 261282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walters, D., and Quinlan, M. (2019). Voice and resistance: Coalminers’ struggles to represent their health and safety interests in Australia and New Zealand 1871–1925The Economic and Labour Relations Review, 30(4): 513531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Watson, D. (2019). Fordism: A review essayLabor History60(2): 144159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Webb, S., and Webb, B. (1897). Industrial Democracy (vol. 2). London: Longmans, Green and Company.Google Scholar
Welford, R., and Frost, S. (2006). Corporate social responsibility in Asian supply chains. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management13(3): 166176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wells, D. (2007). Too weak for the job: Corporate codes of conduct, non-governmental organizations and the regulation of international labour standards. Global Social Policy, 7(1): 5174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wells, D. (2009). Local worker struggles in the Global South: Reconsidering Northern impacts on international labour standards. Third World Quarterly, 30(3): 567579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Werhane, P. (1985). Person, Rights and Cooperation. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
Whittle, A., and Mueller, F. (2011). The language of interests: The contribution of discursive psychologyHuman Relations64(3): 415435.Google Scholar
Wilkinson, A., Dundon, T., Donaghey, J., and Freeman, R. (2014). Employee voice: Charting new terrain. In Wilkinson, A., Donaghey, J., Dundon, T. and Freeman, R. (eds.), The Handbook of Research on Employee Voice. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 116.Google Scholar
Williams, S., Abbott, B., and Heery, E. (2017). Civil governance in work and employment relations: How civil society organizations contribute to systems of labour governance. Journal of Business Ethics, 144(1): 103119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wills, J. (2002). Bargaining for the space to organize in the global economy: A review of the Accord–IUF trade union rights agreement. Review of International Political Economy, 9(4): 675700.Google Scholar
Wright, C. F. (2016). Leveraging reputational risk: Sustainable sourcing campaigns for improving labour standards in production networks. Journal of Business Ethics, 137(1): 195210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wright, E. O. (2000). Working-class power, capitalist-class interests, and class compromise. American Journal of Sociology, 105(4): 9571002.Google Scholar
Wright, E. O. (2010). Envisioning Real Utopias. New York: Verso.Google Scholar
Yang, Y., and Mlachila, M. (2007). The end of textiles quotas: A case study of the impact on Bangladesh. The Journal of Development Studies43(4): 675699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Young, I. M. (2001). Activist challenges to deliberative democracy. Political Theory, 29(5): 670690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Young, I. M. (2006). Responsibility and global justice: A social connection model. Social Philosophy and Policy, 23(1): 102130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zajak, S. (2017). International allies, institutional layering and power in the making of labour in Bangladesh. Development and Change, 48(5): 10071030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhu, J., and Morgan, G. (2018). Global supply chains, institutional constraints and firm level adaptations: A comparative study of Chinese service outsourcing firmsHuman Relations, 71(4): 510535Google Scholar
Zhu, S., and He, C. (2013). Geographical dynamics and industrial relocation: Spatial strategies of apparel firms in Ningbo, China. Eurasian Geography and Economics, 54(3): 342362.Google Scholar