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12 - Synthesis of High-Pressure Silicate Polymorphs Using Multi-Anvil Press

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  03 August 2023

Yingwei Fei
Affiliation:
Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington DC
Michael J. Walter
Affiliation:
Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington DC
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Summary

Multi-anvil press (MAP) is a major type of apparatus for phase equilibrium, material synthesis, and property investigations at up to 120 GPa of static compression. Here I summarize the fundamental aspects of the MAP techniques, highlighting uncertainties in pressure and temperature in experiments using tungsten carbide (WC) anvils with 3 mm and 5 mm truncation edge lengths (TEL). To illustrate the application of the MAP for synthesizing millimeter-sized single crystals of deep mantle silicates, I review the theory of crystal growth and compile relevant phase diagrams. The theory informs synthesis methods such as slow cooling of a fluid solution and growing crystals in a thermal gradient. The updated phase diagrams involve Mg2SiO4, MgSiO3, and H2O at pressures up to 27 GPa and touch upon iron-bearing compositions. Also reviewed briefly are techniques to characterize the compositions and structures of synthesis products.

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Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2022

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