Published online by Cambridge University Press: 11 March 2010
Sexual stimulation, penile erection and subsequent orgasm generally result in ejaculation. When successfully induced in a clinical environment, ejaculation provides a primary procurement source for sperm.
Two vital subcomponents concurrently responsible for ejaculation include semen emission and expulsion. Any difficulties with either or both of these functions will affect sperm quantity and quality, necessitating a change in spermprocurement strategy.
Semen production and release
Spermatozoa produced in the testicles, when mixed with accessory sex glands' fluids, becomes semen (typically referred to as an “ejaculate,” or simply as the “sample”).
The neurophysical mechanism inducing sperm emission and expulsion is the orgasm.Thehumanorgasm is typically dependent upon a feedback mechanism between direct penile stimulation and excitation of various portions of the central nervous system.
As such, orgasm is a vital component of the sperm procurement process. Difficulties with orgasm inducementmust be addressed or circumvented to facilitate any sperm retrieval regimen.
Once orgasm has been achieved, emission and expulsion should autonomously occur.
During emission, bladder neck and external urethral sphincter remain closed to contain any deposited seminal fluid. Physical closure of the bladder neck is essential for prevention of retrograde semen flow back into the bladder.