Published online by Cambridge University Press: 11 March 2010
Sperm from various sources and procured through various methods have been successfully utilized for assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures.
Naturally ejaculated fresh semen and stored, cryopreserved semen have both proven acceptable, effective sources.
The ART procedures include:
In vitro fertilization (IVF)
Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
All viable sperm within any given prepared ejaculate are utilized to maximize success rates for intrauterine insemination (IUI) procedures.
In contrast, a mere 100000 (maximum) motile spermatozoa are sufficient for ART procedures such as IVF and GIFT.
And, since the female reproductive tract naturally induces sperm capacitation, IVF and GIFT procedures, although requiring fewer viable sperm than IUI, none the less require in vitro means of capacitation.
In vitro sperm capacitation induction
Once decapacitation factor(s) present in the seminal plasma have been removed from the sperm, they may be artificially induced to undergo capacitation. Since capacitation incubation time might actually be hastened by using the right type of media with IVF and GIFT, their proper selection is important to the overall outcome.
Media: Of the many commercially available media products, these three are common:
Ham's F-10 medium (Irvine Scientific, Santa Ana, CA 92705)
Human tubal fluid medium and modified human tubal fluid (MHTF) medium (Irvine Scientific, Santa Ana, CA 92705)
Preimplantation stage one (P-1) medium (Irvine Scientific, Santa Ana, CA 92705)