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14 - Mechanical Working

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 June 2012

William F. Hosford
Affiliation:
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
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Summary

Introduction

The shapes of most metallic products are achieved by mechanical working. The exceptions are those produced by casting and by powder processing. Mechanical shaping processes are conveniently divided into two groups, bulk forming and sheet forming. Bulk forming processes include rolling, extrusion, rod and wire drawing, and forging. In these processes, the stresses that deform the material are largely compressive. One engineering concern is to ensure that the forming forces are not excessive. Another is ensuring that the deformation is as uniform as possible so as to minimize internal and residual stresses. Forming limits of the material are set by the ductility of the work piece and by the imposed stress state.

Products as diverse as cartridge cases, beverage cans, automobile bodies, and canoe hulls are formed from flat sheets by drawing or stamping. In sheet forming, the stresses are usually tensile and the forming limits usually correspond to local necking of the material. If the stresses become compressive, buckling or wrinkling will limit the process.

Bulk Forming Energy Balance

An energy balance is a simple way of estimating the forces required in many bulk-forming processes. As a rod or wire is drawn through a die, the total work, Wt, equals the drawing force, Fd, multiplied by the length of wire drawn, ΔL, Wt = Fd ΔL. Expressing the drawing force as Fd = σd A, where A is the area of the drawn wire and σd is the stress on the drawn wire, Wt = σd AΔL (Figure 14.1).

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Solid Mechanics , pp. 224 - 245
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2010

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References

Hosford, W. F. and Caddell, R. M., Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy, 3rd Ed. Cambridge U. Press, (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Backofen, W. A., Deformation Processing, Addison Wesley (1972).Google Scholar
Mielnick, E. M., Metalworking Science and Engineering, McGraw-Hill (1991).Google Scholar
Marciniak, Z. and Duncan, J. L., Mechanics of Sheet Forming, Edward Arnold (1992).Google Scholar
Dieter, G. E., Mechanical Metallurgy, 2nd Ed. McGraw-Hill (1976).Google Scholar
Hosford, W. F. and Caddell, R. M., Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy, 3rd Ed. Cambridge U. Press, (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Backofen, W. A., Deformation Processing, Addison Wesley (1972).Google Scholar
Mielnick, E. M., Metalworking Science and Engineering, McGraw-Hill (1991).Google Scholar
Marciniak, Z. and Duncan, J. L., Mechanics of Sheet Forming, Edward Arnold (1992).Google Scholar
Dieter, G. E., Mechanical Metallurgy, 2nd Ed. McGraw-Hill (1976).Google Scholar

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  • Mechanical Working
  • William F. Hosford, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
  • Book: Solid Mechanics
  • Online publication: 05 June 2012
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511841422.015
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  • Mechanical Working
  • William F. Hosford, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
  • Book: Solid Mechanics
  • Online publication: 05 June 2012
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511841422.015
Available formats
×

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

  • Mechanical Working
  • William F. Hosford, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
  • Book: Solid Mechanics
  • Online publication: 05 June 2012
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511841422.015
Available formats
×