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11 - Fatigue

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 June 2012

William F. Hosford
Affiliation:
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
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Summary

Introduction

It has been estimated that 90% of all service failures of metal parts are caused by fatigue. A fatigue failure is one that occurs under a cyclic or alternating stress of an amplitude that would not cause failure if applied only once. Aircraft are particularly sensitive to fatigue. Automobile parts such as axles, transmission parts, and suspension systems may fail by fatigue. Turbine blades, bridges, and ships are other examples. Fatigue requires cyclic loading, tensile stresses, and plastic strain on each cycle. If any of these are missing, there will be no failure. The fact that a material fails after a number of cycles indicates that some permanent change must occur on every cycle. Each cycle must produce some plastic deformation, even though it may be very small. Metals and polymers fail by fatigue. Fatigue failures of ceramics are rare because there seldom is plastic deformation.

There are three stages of fatigue. The first is nucleation of a crack by small amounts of inhomogeneous plastic deformation at a microscopic level. The second is the slow growth of these cracks by cyclic stressing. Finally, sudden fracture occurs when the cracks reach a critical size.

Surface Observations

Often visual examination of a fatigue fracture surface will reveal clamshell or beach markings, as shown in Figure 11.1. These marks indicate the position of the crack front at some stage during the fatigue life. The initiation site of the crack can easily be located by examining these marks.

Type
Chapter
Information
Solid Mechanics , pp. 161 - 186
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2010

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References

Suresh, S., Fatigue of Materials, Cambridge U. Press (1991).Google Scholar
Coffin, L. F., Trans ASME, v76 (1954).
Paris, P. C., Fatigue- An Interdisciplinary Approach, Proc. 10th Sagamore Conf., Syracuse U. Press (1964).Google Scholar
Hertzberg, R. W., Deformation and fracture of Engineering Materials, 4th Ed., Wiley (1995).Google Scholar
Courtney, T. H., Mechanical Behavior of Materials, 2nd ed. McGraw Hill (2000).Google Scholar
Shigley, J. E., Mechanical Engineering Design, 3rd Ed., McGraw-Hill (1977).Google Scholar
Ritchie, R. O.Mater. Sci & Engrg., v. 103 (1988).
Hertzberg, R. W. & Manson, J. A., Fatigue of Engineering Plastics, Academic Press (1980).Google Scholar
Suresh, S., Fatigue of Materials, Cambridge U. Press (1991).Google Scholar
Coffin, L. F., Trans ASME, v76 (1954).
Paris, P. C., Fatigue- An Interdisciplinary Approach, Proc. 10th Sagamore Conf., Syracuse U. Press (1964).Google Scholar
Hertzberg, R. W., Deformation and fracture of Engineering Materials, 4th Ed., Wiley (1995).Google Scholar
Courtney, T. H., Mechanical Behavior of Materials, 2nd ed. McGraw Hill (2000).Google Scholar
Shigley, J. E., Mechanical Engineering Design, 3rd Ed., McGraw-Hill (1977).Google Scholar
Ritchie, R. O.Mater. Sci & Engrg., v. 103 (1988).
Hertzberg, R. W. & Manson, J. A., Fatigue of Engineering Plastics, Academic Press (1980).Google Scholar
Shigley, J. E., Mechanical Engineering Design, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill (1977)Google Scholar

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  • Fatigue
  • William F. Hosford, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
  • Book: Solid Mechanics
  • Online publication: 05 June 2012
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511841422.012
Available formats
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  • Fatigue
  • William F. Hosford, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
  • Book: Solid Mechanics
  • Online publication: 05 June 2012
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511841422.012
Available formats
×

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

  • Fatigue
  • William F. Hosford, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
  • Book: Solid Mechanics
  • Online publication: 05 June 2012
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511841422.012
Available formats
×