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13 - Composites

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 June 2012

William F. Hosford
Affiliation:
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
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Summary

Introduction

Throughout history, mankind has used composite materials to achieve combinations of properties that could not be achieved with individual materials. The Bible describes mixing of straw with clay to make tougher bricks. Concrete is a composite of cement paste, sand, and gravel. Today, poured concrete is almost always reinforced with steel rods. Other examples of composites include steel-belted tires, asphalt blended with gravel for roads, plywood with alternating directions of fibers, as well as fiberglass-reinforced polyester used for furniture, boats, and sporting goods. Composite materials offer combinations of properties otherwise unavailable. The reinforcing material may be in the form of fibers, particles, or laminated sheets.

Fiber-Reinforced Composites

Fiber composites may also be classified according to the nature of the matrix and the fiber. Examples of a number of possibilities are listed in Table 13.1.

Various geometric arrangements of the fibers are possible. In two-dimensional products, the fibers may be unidirectionally aligned, at 90°to one another in a woven fabric or cross-ply, or randomly oriented (Figure 13.1.) The fibers may be very long or chopped into short segments. In thick objects, short fibers may be random in three dimensions. The most common use of fiber reinforcement is to impart stiffness (increased modulus) or strength to the matrix. Toughness may also be of concern.

Elastic Properties of Fiber-Reinforced Composites

The simplest arrangement is long parallel fibers. The strain parallel to the fibers must be the same in both the matrix and the fiber, εf = εm = ε.

Type
Chapter
Information
Solid Mechanics , pp. 203 - 223
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2010

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References

Chawla, K. K., Composite Materials, Science and Engineering, Springer-Verlag (1978).Google Scholar
Mallick, P. K., Fiber-reinforced, Composites, Materials, Manufacturing & Design, Dekker (1988).Google Scholar
,Engineered Materials Handbook, Vol I, Composites, ASM International (1987).
Hilyard, N. C., Mechanics of Cellular Plastics, MacMillan (1982).Google Scholar
Andrew, E., Sanders, W. and Gibson, L. J., Compressive and tensile behaviour of aluminium foams, Mater Sci Eng A 270 (1999).
Gibson, L. J. & Ashby, M. F.Cellular Foams, Cambridge (1999).Google Scholar
Kim, A., Hasan, M. A., Nahm, S. H. and Cho, S. S., Composite Structures, v. 71 (2005).
Chawla, K. K., Composite Materials, Science and Engineering, Springer-Verlag (1978).Google Scholar
Mallick, P. K., Fiber-reinforced, Composites, Materials, Manufacturing & Design, Dekker (1988).Google Scholar
,Engineered Materials Handbook, Vol I, Composites, ASM International (1987).
Hilyard, N. C., Mechanics of Cellular Plastics, MacMillan (1982).Google Scholar
Andrew, E., Sanders, W. and Gibson, L. J., Compressive and tensile behaviour of aluminium foams, Mater Sci Eng A 270 (1999).
Gibson, L. J. & Ashby, M. F.Cellular Foams, Cambridge (1999).Google Scholar
Kim, A., Hasan, M. A., Nahm, S. H. and Cho, S. S., Composite Structures, v. 71 (2005).

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  • Composites
  • William F. Hosford, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
  • Book: Solid Mechanics
  • Online publication: 05 June 2012
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511841422.014
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  • Composites
  • William F. Hosford, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
  • Book: Solid Mechanics
  • Online publication: 05 June 2012
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511841422.014
Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

  • Composites
  • William F. Hosford, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
  • Book: Solid Mechanics
  • Online publication: 05 June 2012
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511841422.014
Available formats
×