Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-544b6db54f-2p87r Total loading time: 0.26 Render date: 2021-10-17T13:58:44.166Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

4 - Bacterial Foraging Optimization For Metamaterial Antennas

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 July 2016

Balamati Choudhury
Affiliation:
National Aerospace Laboratories
Rakesh Mohan Jha
Affiliation:
National Aerospace Laboratories
Get access

Summary

The increasing demand for wireless capabilities in modern systems has ushered in the development of compact, high performance antennas. Typically, engineers involved in the design of systems for aerospace applications prefer the use of microstrip, conformal antennas for reduction of drag. However, traditional microstrip antennas have low performance characteristics. Research has shown that the inclusion of metamaterial layers in antenna design can significantly improve its performance. Therefore, the design of metamaterial resonating at the same frequency as the antenna under consideration is crucial to the development of high performance antenna systems. This in fact becomes a time consuming procedure as it requires a systematic variation of structural parameters of the metamaterial while simultaneously observing its performance. In this chapter, an attempt has been made to optimize the procedure for metamaterial design by using bacterial foraging optimization (BFO). This soft computing technique will reduce the time taken for obtaining optimized structural parameters and enable rapid design of high performance antenna systems.

Overview

The usage of a metamaterial layer in an antenna results in a system that shows higher performance—gain enhancement and multi-band operation, and better capability of compact design by reduction of mutual coupling, in the case of antenna arrays. This has led to the application of such systems in wireless communications, especially in the aerospace domain [Lafmajani and Rezaei, 2011]. These systems are often realized by loading a microstrip antenna with a metamaterial as shown in Fig. 4.1.

As mentioned earlier, the performance of such systems depends on the design of the metamaterial—best performance is observed when the resonant frequency of the metamaterial matches with that of the antenna. Achieving this design objective is a time-consuming task that requires simulation by changing structural parameters iteratively. Efforts are being made to decrease the time involved in obtaining optimized structural parameters using various soft computing techniques such as genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, etc.

Genetic algorithm (GA) was used by Kim and Yeo [Kim and Yeo, 2007] to design an AMC (artificial magnetic conductor) for a dual band, passive RFID tag antenna. The algorithm was used to optimize the lumped circuit elements in the equivalent circuit of the AMC. The resultant antenna resonated in the 869.5–869.7 MHz and 910–914 MHz bands, thereby conforming to European and Korean UHF standards, respectively.

Type
Chapter
Information
Soft Computing in Electromagnetics
Methods and Applications
, pp. 65 - 83
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2016

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Araujo,, H. X., D. S. E., Barbin, and L. C., Kretly, “Design of UHF Quasi-Yagi antenna with metamaterial structures for RFID applications,” Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference, IEEE, pp. 8–11, Nov. 2011.Google Scholar
Bengin,, V. C., V., Radonic, and B., Jokanovic, “Fractal geometries of complementary split-ring resonators,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 56, no. 10, Oct. 2008.Google Scholar
Bilotti,, F., A., Toscano, and L., Vegni, “Design of spiral and multiple split-ring resonators for the realization of miniaturized metamaterial samples,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 2258–2267, Aug. 2007.Google Scholar
Chen,, P. Y., C. H., Chen, H., Wang, J. H., Tsai, and W., X. Ni, “Synthesis design of artificial magnetic metamaterials using a genetic algorithm,” Optics Express, vol. 16, no.17, pp. 12806–12818, Aug. 2008.Google Scholar
Choudhury,, B., O. P., Acharya, and A., Patnaik, “Bacteria foraging optimisation in antenna engineering: An application to array fault finding,” International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 141–148, Mar. 2013.Google Scholar
Cui,, G., Y., Liu, and S., Gong, “A novel fractal patch antenna with low RCS,” Journal of Electromagnetics Waves and Application, vol. 21, no. 15, pp. 2403–2411, 2007.Google Scholar
Datta,, T., I. S., Mishra, B. B., Mangaraj, and S., Imtiaj, “Improved adaptive bacteria foraging algorithm in optimisation of antenna array for faster convergence,” Progress in Electromagnetic Research C, vol. 1, pp. 143–157, 2008.Google Scholar
Ekmekci,, E., K., Topalli, T., Akin, and G., Turhan-Sayan, “A tunable multi-band metamaterial design using micro-split SRR structures,” Optics Express, vol. 17, no. 18, pp. 16046–16058, Aug. 2009.Google Scholar
Fletcher,, P. N., M., Dean, and A. R., Nix, “Mutual coupling in multi-element array antennas and its influence on MlMO channel capacity,” Electronic Letters, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 342–344, Feb. 2003.Google Scholar
Gollapudi,, S. V. R., S., S. S., Pattnaik, O. P., Bajapai, S., Devi, K. M., Bakwad, and P. K., Pradyumna, “Intelligent bacterial foraging optimisation technique to calculate resonant frequency of RMA,” International Journal of Microwave and Optical Technology, vol. 4, pp. 67–75, Mar. 2009.Google Scholar
Huang,, J. T., J. H., Shiao, and J. M., Wu, “A miniaturized Hilbert inverted-F antenna for wireless sensor network applications,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 3100–3103, Sep. 2010.Google Scholar
Jin,, N. and Y. R., Samii, “Particle swarm optimisation of miniaturized quadrature reflection phase structure for low-profile antenna applications,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, vol. 2, pp. 255–258, Jul. 2005.Google Scholar
Ju,, J., D., Kim, W. J., Lee, and J. I., Choi, “Wideband high-gain antenna using metamaterial superstrate with the zero refractive index,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 1973–1976, Aug. 2009.Google Scholar
Kim,, D. and J., Yeo, “Dual-band long range passive RFID tag antenna using an AMC ground plane,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 2620–2626, June 2007.Google Scholar
Kossiavas,, C., A., Zeitler, G., Clementi, C., Migliaccio, R., Staraj, and G., Kossiavas, “X-band circularly polarized antenna gain enhancement with metamaterials,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 1911–1915, Aug. 2011.Google Scholar
Kossiavas,, C. and J. L., Dubard, “Synthesis of new artificial magnetic conductors for wideband ultra compact antennas,” The Second European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, pp. 1–6, Nov. 2007.Google Scholar
Lafmajani,, I. A. and P., Rezaei, “Miniaturized rectangular patch antenna loaded with spiral/ wires metamaterial,” European Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 121–130, 2011.Google Scholar
Mandelbrot,, B. B., Les, Objects Fractals – Forme, Hasard et Diemnsions, 4th Ed., Champs Flammarion, Paris, France, ISBN 2-08-081301, 1995. Translation in English Fractals. Form, Chance and Dimension, W.H. Freeman & Co Springer, Netherlands, ISBN: 0716704730, 1977.
McVay,, J., N., Engheta, and A., Hoorfar, “High impedance metamaterial surfaces using Hilbertcurve inclusions,” IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 130–132, Mar. 2004.Google Scholar
Nur,, T. E., S. K., Ray, D., Paul, and T., Mollick, “Design of fractal antenna for ultra-wideband applications,” International Journal of Research and Reviews in Wireless Communications, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 66–74, 2011.Google Scholar
Palandoken,, M., and H., Henke, “Fractal negative-epsilon metamaterial,” Antenna Technology (iWAT) IEEE, pp. 1–4, Mar. 2010.Google Scholar
Rajo-Iglesias,, E., O., Quevedo-Teruel, and L., Inclan-Sanchez, “Mutual coupling reduction in patch antenna arrays by using a planar EBG structure and a multilayer dielectric substrate,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 1648–1655, June 2008.Google Scholar
Samii,, Y. R., “Metamaterials in antenna applications: Classifications, designs and applications,” Proceedings of IEEE International Workshop on Antenna Technology, Small Antennas and Novel Metamaterials, pp. 1–4, Mar. 2006.Google Scholar
Shiju,, R. M. and N., Venkateswaran, “ Optimisation of linear array antenna pattern synthesis using bacterial foraging algorithm,” Proceedings of International Conference on Recent Advances in Computing and Software Systems, pp. 130–134, Apr. 2012.Google Scholar
Suganthi,, S., S., Raghavan, and D., Kumar, “Miniature fractal antenna design and simulation for Wireless Applications,” International Conference on IEEE Recent Advances in Intelligent Computational Systems (RAICS2011) Trivandrum, pp. 51, Sep. 2011.Google Scholar
Thakare,, Y. B. and Rajkumar, “Design of fractal patch antenna for size and radar cross-section reduction,” IET Microwaves Antennas Propagation, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 175–181, 2010.Google Scholar
Tonn,, D. A. and R., Bansal, “Design of a metamaterial-based linear insulated antenna using a genetic algorithm,” International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 39–49, Jan. 2009.Google Scholar
Werner,, D. H., Z., Bayraktar, F., Namin, T. G., Spence, M. D., Gregory, P. L., Werner, and
E. A., Semouchkina, “A novel miniature wideband stacked-patch antenna design using matched impedance magneto-dielectric substrates,” Metamaterials, pp. 373–375, 2009.Google Scholar
Werner,, D. H., R. L., Haupt, and P. L., Werner, “Fractal antenna engineering: The theory and design of fractal antenna arrays,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 37–58, 1999.Google Scholar
Yousefi, L., and O. M., Ramahi, “Miniaturized wideband antenna using engineered magnetic materials with multi-mesonator inclusions,” IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation Society, 2007.

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×