Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5959bf8d4d-4p99k Total loading time: 0.851 Render date: 2022-12-10T07:08:28.720Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

10 - Reconciling Seemingly Conflicting Social Meanings

from Part II - The Structure of Social Meaning

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  30 July 2021

Lauren Hall-Lew
Affiliation:
University of Edinburgh
Emma Moore
Affiliation:
University of Sheffield
Robert J. Podesva
Affiliation:
Stanford University, California
Get access

Summary

As work in sociolinguistics explores new variables and communities, linguistic phenomena whose wide range of social meanings pose a challenge for any first-wave (Eckert 2012) perspective are uncovered. I focus on the Hebrew pharyngeal consonants, which have a particularly unusual combination of ideological associations. They are stigmatized and associated with speakers that are underprivileged in Israeli society: Mizrahis (Jews of Middle Eastern descent) and Palestinians; nevertheless, since they are also an older prestige form, they are also seen as ‘correct’, unlike many stigmatized variants. Using data from sociolinguistic interviews and media, I argue that the patterns of stylistic variation show that although they may initially appear irreconcilable, the disparate meanings of the pharyngeals are not mutually exclusive: speakers can and do invoke the full set of indexical links in the same interaction. These data demonstrate the significance of Eckert’s (2008) indexical field, as its ability to include potentially conflicting associations captures an intuitive part of how speakers understand social meaning – a whole that is greater than the sum of its indexical parts.

Type
Chapter
Information
Social Meaning and Linguistic Variation
Theorizing the Third Wave
, pp. 222 - 242
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Agha, Asif. 2003. The social life of cultural value. Language & Communication 23(3), 231–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Amara, Muhammad. 2002. The place of Arabic in Israel. International Journal of The Sociology of Language 158, 5368.Google Scholar
Benor, Sarah Bunin. 2010. Ethnolinguistic repertoire: Shifting the analytic focus in language and ethnicity. Journal of Sociolinguistics 14(2), 159–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ben-Rafael, Eliezer. 2013. Jewish Ethnicities in Israel. In Dieckhoff, A. (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Modern Israel. New York: Routledge, 96104.Google Scholar
Bentolila, Yaakov. 2002. Linguistic variation across generations in Israel. In Izre’el, S. (ed.), Speaking Hebrew: Studies in the Spoken Language and in Linguistic Variation in Israel. (Te’uda 18). Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University, 131–40.Google Scholar
Blanc, Haim. 1968. The Israeli Koine as an emergent national standard. In Fishman, J. A., Ferguson, C. A. and Das Gupta, J. (eds.), Language Problems of Developing Nations. New York: Wiley, 237–51.Google Scholar
Cohen, Yinon, Haberfeld, Yitchak, and Kristal, Tali. 2007. Ethnicity and mixed ethnicity: Educational gaps among Israeli-born Jews. Ethnic and Racial Studies 30(5), 896–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohen, Yinon, Lewin-Epstein, Noah, and Lazarus, Amit. 2019. Mizrahi-Ashkenazi educational gaps in the third generation. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 2, 2533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dahan, Momi, Mironichev, Natalie, Dvir, Eyal, and Shye, Shmuel. 2003. Have the gaps in education narrowed? On factors determining eligibility for the Israeli Matriculation Certificate. Israeli Economic Review 2, 3769.Google Scholar
Davis, Lawrence M. 1984. The pharyngeals in Hebrew: Linguistic change in apparent time. Folia Linguistica Historica 5(1), 2532.Google Scholar
Eckert, Penelope. 1989. The whole woman: Sex and gender differences in variation. Language Variation and Change 1(3), 245–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eckert, Penelope. 2008. Variation and the indexical field. Journal of Sociolinguistics 12(4), 453–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eckert, Penelope. 2012. Three waves of variation study: The emergence of meaning in the study of sociolinguistic variation. Annual Review of Anthropology 41, 87100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eckert, Penelope. 2016. Variation, meaning, and social change. In Coupland, N. (ed.), Sociolinguistics: Theoretical Debates. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 6885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gafter, Roey J. 2014. The Most Beautiful and Correct Hebrew: Authenticity, Ethnic Identity and Linguistic Variation in the Greater Tel Aviv Area. Ph.D. dissertation. Stanford, CA: Stanford University.Google Scholar
Gafter, Roey J. 2016a. Pharyngeal beauty and depharyngealized geek: Performing ethnicity on Israeli reality TV. In Alim, H. S., Rickford, J. R. and Ball, A. F. (eds.), Raciolinguistics: How Language Shapes our Ideas About Race. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 185201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gafter, Roey J. 2016b. What’s a stigmatized variant doing in the word list? Authenticity in reading styles and the Hebrew pharyngeals. Journal of Sociolinguistics 20(1), 31–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gafter, Roey J., and Horesh, Uri. 2020. Two languages, one variable? Pharyngeal realizations among Arabic–Hebrew bilinguals. Journal of Sociolinguistics 24, 369–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gafter, Roey J., and Milani, Tommaso M.. 2020. Affective trouble: A Jewish/Palestinian heterosexual wedding threatening the Israeli nation-state? Social Semiotics DOI:10.1080/10350330.2020.1810555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Halutz, Doron. 2009. A generation of Israeli Arabs nurtured on Jewish Chutzpah. Haaretz Online. www.haaretz.com/a-generation-of-israeli-arabs-nurtured-on-jewish-chutzpah-1.279267. Accessed on August 2017.Google Scholar
Henkin-Roitfarb, Roni. 2011. Hebrew and Arabic in asymmetric contact in Israel. Lodz Papers in Pragmatics 7, 61100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Horesh, Uri. 2020. Palestinian dialects and identities shifting across physical and virtual borders. Multilingua, published online ahead of print. https://doi.org/10.1515/multi-2020–0104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Izre’el, Shlomo. 2003. The emergence of spoken Israeli Hebrew. In Hary, B. H. (ed.), Corpus Linguistics and Modern Hebrew: Towards the Compilation of The Corpus of Spoken Israeli Hebrew (CoSIH). Tel Aviv, IL: Tel Aviv University, 85104.Google Scholar
Labov, William. 1966. The Social Stratification of English in New York City. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.Google Scholar
Labov, William. 1972a. Sociolinguistic Patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
Labov, William. 1972b. Some principles of linguistic methodology. Language in Society 1(1), 97120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lefkowitz, Daniel. 2004. Words and Stones: The Politics of Language and Identity in Israel. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levon, Erez, and Gafter, Roey J.. 2019. ‘This is not Europe’: Sexuality, ethnicity and the (re)enactment of Israeli authenticity. Discourse, Context & Media 30, 100287. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2211695818302447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matras, Yaron, and Schiff, Leora. 2005. Spoken Israeli Hebrew revisited: Structures and variation. Studia Semitica: Journal of Semitic Studies Supplement 16, 145–91.Google Scholar
Milroy, Lesley. 1987. Observing and Analysing Natural Language. Malden, MA, and Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
Mizrachi, Nissim, and Herzog, Hanna. 2012. Participatory destigmatization strategies among Palestinian citizens, Ethiopian Jews and Mizrahi Jews in Israel. Ethnic and Racial Studies 35, 418–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morag, Shelomo. 1990. Modern Hebrew: Some sociolinguistic aspects. Cathedra 56, 7092.Google Scholar
Myhill, John. 2004. A parameterized view of the concept of ‘correctness’. Multilingua 23, 389416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ravid, Dorit Diskin. 1995. Language Change in Child and Adult Hebrew: A Psycholinguistic Perspective. Oxford, UK, and New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Sasson-Levy, Orna. 2013. A different kind of whiteness: Marking and unmarking of social boundaries in the construction of hegemonic ethnicity. Sociological Forum 28, 4275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schilling-Estes, Natalie. 2008. Stylistic variation and the sociolinguistic interview: A reconsideration. In Monroy, R. and Sánchez, A. (eds.), 25 Años de Lingüística Aplicada en España: Hitos y Retos. Murcia, ES: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Murcia, 971–86.Google Scholar
Shalom Chertit, Sami. 2010. Intra-Jewish Conflict in Israel: White Jews, Black Jews. London, UK, and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Shohat, Ella. 1989. Israeli Cinema: East/West and the Politics of Representation. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
Shohat, Ella. 2010. Israeli Cinema: East/West and the Politics of Representation. Revised New ed. London, UK: I.B. Tauris.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Silverstein, Michael. 2003. Indexical order and the dialectics of sociolinguistic life. Language & Communication 23, 193229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smooha, Sami. 2003. Jewish ethnicity in Israel as a Persistent real phenomenon. Iyunim Bitkumat Israel 13, 413–25.Google Scholar
Swirski, Shlomo. 1981. Not Disadvantaged but Disenfranchized: Mizrahis and Ashkenazis in Israel. Haifa, IL: maxbarot le-mexkar ve-bikoret.Google Scholar
Swirski, Shlomo, Connor-Atias, Eti, and Abu-Hala, Hala. 2008. Israel: A Social Report 1998–2007. Jerusalem, IL: Adva Center.Google Scholar
Yaeger-Dror, Malcah. 1988. The influence of changing group vitality on convergence toward a dominant norm: An Israeli example. Language & Communication 8, 285305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Younis, R. 2015. In the democracy according to Lucy only Arabs like her are allowed to speak. Sixa Mekomit. www.mekomit.co.il/בדמוקרטיה-על-פי-לוסי-אהריש-רק-לערבים-כמ/. Accessed on August 2017.Google Scholar
Zuckermann, Ghil’ad. 2005. Abba, why was Professor Higgins trying to teach Eliza to speak like our cleaning lady?: Mizrahim, Ashkenazim, prescriptivism and the real sounds of the Israeli language. Australian Journal of Jewish Studies 19, 210–31.Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×