Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-84b7d79bbc-4hvwz Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-25T20:28:39.588Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Part I - Conceptual Approaches to Smart Mixes

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 March 2019

Judith van Erp
Affiliation:
Universiteit Utrecht, The Netherlands
Michael Faure
Affiliation:
Universiteit Maastricht, Netherlands
André Nollkaemper
Affiliation:
Universiteit van Amsterdam
Niels Philipsen
Affiliation:
Universiteit Maastricht, Netherlands
Get access

Summary

The increasingly complex nature of transboundary environmental problems, and the risks associated with such problems, present policy makers worldwide with the challenge of designing an effective environmental governance system with a global reach. Environmental governance today consists of a mix of international and domestic law and regulations and private standards, with traditional forms of direct regulation operating in parallel with market-based and suasive instruments. The synergies between states and private actors on the international and domestic plane, and their resulting impact on global environmental governance, have resulted in a great deal of academic literature, but less attention has been paid to the interaction of different regulatory and private instruments at international and domestic levels. This book addresses the crucial question of whether “smart” combinations of instruments at different levels of governance can be found that can more effectively fight against transboundary environmental harm. This book analyzes the concept of smart mixes by discussing the various types and mixes of policy instruments and by addressing how and why particular mixes emerge. In addition, the book identifies what makes a particular mix of instruments “smart” and uses specific case studies relating to the sectors of climate change, forestry, fisheries and oil pollution.
Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

References

Abbott, K. 2012. ‘The Transnational Regime Complex for Climate Change’. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 30, 571590.Google Scholar
Abbott, K., Levi-Faur, D. & Snidal, D. 2017. ‘Introducing Regulatory Intermediaries’. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 670(1), 613.Google Scholar
Abbott, K. & Snidal, D. 2009. ‘Strengthening International Regulation through Transnational New Governance: Overcoming the Orchestration Deficit’. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 42, 501576.Google Scholar
Alter, K. & Meunier, S. 2009. ‘The Politics of International Regime Complexity’. Perspectives on Politics 7, 1324.Google Scholar
Auld, G. 2014. Constructing Private Governance: The Rise and Evolution of Forest, Coffee, and Fisheries Certification. New Haven, CT, Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Auld, G., Renckens, S. & Cashore, B. 2015. ‘Transnational Private Governance between the Logics of Empowerment and Control’. Regulation & Governance 9(2), 108124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bahr, H. 2010. The Politics of Means and Ends. Abingdon, Routledge.Google Scholar
Baldwin, R. & Black, J. 2008. ‘Really Responsive Regulation’. The Modern Law Review 71(1), 5994.Google Scholar
Bartley, T. 2011. ‘Transnational Governance as the Layering of Rules’. Theoretical Inquiries in Law 12, 517542.Google Scholar
Bernstein, S. & Cashore, B. 2007. ‘Can Non-state Global Governance Be Legitimate? An Analytical Framework’. Regulation & Governance 1(4), 347371.Google Scholar
Biermann, F., Betsill, M., Gupta, J., Kani, N., Lebel, L., Liverman, D., Schroeder, H. & Siebenhüner, B. 2009. Earth System Governance: People, Places and the Planet, Science and Implementation Plan of the Earth System Governance Project. Bonn, The Earth System Governance Project.Google Scholar
Bodansky, D. 2010. The Art and Craft of International Environmental Law. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Börzel, T. A. & Risse, T. 2010. ‘Governance without a State: Can it Work?’. Regulation & Governance 4(2), 113134.Google Scholar
Börzel, T.A. & Risse, T. 2016. ‘Dysfunctional State Institutions, Trust, and Governance in Areas of Limited Statehood’. Regulation & Governance 10(2), 149160.Google Scholar
Dahl, R. & Lindblom, C. 1953. Politics, Economics and Welfare. Chicago, IL, University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Eberlein, B., Abbott, K., Black, J., Meidinger, E. & Wood, S. 2013. ‘Transnational Business Governance Interactions: Conceptualization and Framework for Analysis’. Regulation & Governance 8, 121.Google Scholar
Eijsbouts., J. 2013. ‘Guest Editorial’. The Dovenschmidt Quarterly 4, 165167.Google Scholar
Faure, M. G. 2012. ‘Effectiveness of Environmental Law: What Does the Evidence Tell Us?’. William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review 36(2), 293336.Google Scholar
Faure, M. G. 2014. ‘The Complementary Roles of Liability, Regulation and Insurance in Safety Management: Theory and Practice’. Journal of Risk Research 17(6), 689707.Google Scholar
Garcia, S. M., Rice, J. & Charles, A. 2014. Governance of Marine Fisheries and Biodiversity Conservation: Interaction and Coevolution. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Goodin, R. 1996. The Theory of Institutional Design. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gunningham, N. 2009. ‘Environmental Law, Regulation and Governance: Shifting Architectures’. Journal of Environmental Law 21(2), 179212.Google Scholar
Gunningham, N., Grabosky, P. & Sinclair, D. 1998. Smart Regulation: Designing Environmental Policy. New York, Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gunningham, N. & Sinclair, D. 1999. ‘Regulatory Pluralism: Designing Policy Mixes for Environmental Protection’. Law & Policy 21(1), 4976.Google Scholar
Gupta, Y. 2011. ‘Regulatory Competition and Developing Countries and the Challenge for Compliance Push and Pull Measures’. In Winter, G. (ed.), Multilevel Governance of Global Environmental Change. Perspectives from Science, Sociology and the Law. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 455469.Google Scholar
Hanebury, J. 2006. ‘Smart Regulation – Rhetoric or Reality?’. Alberta Law Review 44(1), 3363.Google Scholar
Hood, C. 1983. The Tools of Government. London, Palgrave McMillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Howlett, M. 1991. ‘Policy Instruments, Policy Styles and Policy Implementation: National Approaches to Theories of Instrument Choice’. Policy Studies Journal 19(2), 121.Google Scholar
Howlett, M. 2000. ‘Managing the “Hollow State”: Procedural Policy Instruments and Modern Governance’. Canadian Public Administration 43, 412431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Howlett, M. 2004. ‘Beyond Good and Evil in Policy Implementation: Instrument Mixes, Implementation Styles, and Second Generation Theories of Policy Instrument Choice’. Policy and Society 23(2), 117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Howlett, M. & Rayner, J. 2004. ‘(Not so) “Smart Regulation”? Canadian Shellfish Aquaculture Policy and the Evolution of Instrument Choice for Industrial Development’. Marine Policy 28(2), 171184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Howlett, M. & Rayner, J. 2007. ‘Designing Principles for Policy Mixes: Cohesion and Coherence in “New Governance Arrangements”’. Policy and Society 26, 118.Google Scholar
Keohane, R. & Victor, D. 2011. ‘The Regime Complex for Climate Change’. Perspectives on Politics 9, 723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kinderman, D. 2016. ‘Time for a Reality Check: Is Business Willing to Support a Smart Mix of Complementary Regulation in Private Governance?’. Policy and Society 35, 2942.Google Scholar
Liu, J., Faure, M. & Mascini, P. 2017. Environmental Governance of Common-Pool Resources. London, Routledge.Google Scholar
Meidinger, E. 2002. ‘The New Environmental Law: Forest Certification’. Buffalo Environmental Law Journal 10, 214303.Google Scholar
Mintz, J. A. 2013. ‘Assessing National Environmental Enforcement: Some Lessons from the United States Experience’. The Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 26, 112.Google Scholar
Mintz, J. A. 2014. ‘Measuring Environmental Enforcement Success: The Elusive Search for Objectivity’. Environmental Law Reporter 44(9), 1075110756.Google Scholar
Mitchell, R. 2008. ‘Compliance Theory: Compliance, Effectiveness and Behavior Change in International Environmental Law’. In Bodansky, D., Brunnée, J. & Hey, E. (eds.), Oxford Handbook of International Environmental Law. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 893921.Google Scholar
Oikonomou, V. et al. 2014. Understanding Policy Contexts and Stakeholder Behaviour for Consistent and Coherent Environmental Policies: A Synthesis of Results from the APRAISE Project.Google Scholar
Orsini, A., Morin, J. & Young, O. 2013. ‘Regime Complexes: A Buzz, a Boom, or a Boost for Global Governance?’. Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations 19(1), 2739.Google Scholar
Overdevest, C. & Zeitlin, J. 2014. ‘Assembling an Experimentalist Regime. Transnational Governance Interactions in the Forest Sector’. Regulation & Governance 8(1), 2248.Google Scholar
Peeters, M. 2014. ‘Instrument Mix or Instrument Mess? The Administrative Complexity of the EU Legislative Package for Climate Change’. In Peeters, M. G. W. M. & Uylenburg, R. (eds.), EU Environmental Legislation. Legal Perspectives on Regulatory Strategies. Cheltenham, Edward Elgar, 173192.Google Scholar
Raustiala, K. & Victor, D. 2004. ‘The Regime Complex for Plant Genetic Resources’. International Organization 58(2), 277309.Google Scholar
Reus-Smit, C. 2005. ‘Constructivism’. In Burchill, S., Linklater, A., Devetak, R., Donnelly, J., Paterson, M., Reus-Smit, C. & True, J., Theories of International Relations, 3rd edn. Basingstoke, Palgrave, 188212.Google Scholar
Richards, K. 2000. ‘Framing Environmental Policy Instrument Choice’. Duke Environmental Law & Policy Forum 10, 221285.Google Scholar
Sand, P. H. (ed.). 1992. The Effectiveness of International Environmental Agreements: A Survey of Existing Legal Instruments. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Sands, P. & Peel, J. 2012. Principles of International Environmental Law. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Simões, S., Huppes, G. & Seixas, J. 2015. A Tangled Web: Assessing Overlaps between Energy and Environmental Policy Instruments in Place along Electricity Systems. Environmental Policy and Governance 25(6), 439458. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/eet.1691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stewart, R. B. 2008. ‘Instrument Choice’. In Bodansky, D., Brunnée, J. & Hey, E. (eds.), Oxford Handbook of International Environmental Law. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 147181.Google Scholar
Stokke, O. S. 2012. ‘International Fisheries Politics: from Sustainability to Precaution’. In Andresen, S., Lerum Boasson, E. & Hønneland., G. (eds.), International Environmental Agreements: An Introduction. London/New York, Routledge, 97116.Google Scholar
Trevisanut, S. 2014. ‘The Role of Private Actors in Offshore Energy: Shifting Models of Participation’. International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 29(4), 645665.Google Scholar
Trubek, D. & Trubek, L. 2006. ‘New Governance & Legal Regulation: Complementarity, Rivalry and Transformation’. Columbia Journal of European Law 13, 539564.Google Scholar
Underdal, A. 2001. ‘One Question, Two Answers’. In Miles, L., Andresen, S., Carlin, E., Skjaerseth, J., Underdal, A. & Wettestad, J. (eds.), Environmental Regime Effectiveness: Confronting Theory with Evidence. Cambridge, MA, The MIT Press, 345.Google Scholar
United Nations Conference on Environment & Development, Agenda 21, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 3–14 June 1992, (Agenda 21), https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/Agenda21.pdf.Google Scholar
Van Erp, J. & Huisman, W. 2010. ‘Smart Regulation and Enforcement of the Illegal Disposal of Electronic Waste’. Criminology & Public Policy 9(3), 579590.Google Scholar
Van Gossum, P., Arts, B. & Verheyen, K. 2010. ‘From “Smart Regulation” to “Regulatory Arrangements”’. Policy and Science 43, 245261.Google Scholar
Van Rooij, B., McAllister, L. & Kagan, R. A. (eds.). 2010. ‘Pollution Law Enforcement in Emerging Markets’. Law & Policy (special issue) 32(1), 113.Google Scholar
Vedung, E. 1998. ‘Policy Instruments: Typologies and Theories’. In Bemelmans-Videc, M.-L., Rist, R. & Vedung, E. (eds.), Carrots, Sticks and Sermons: Policy Instruments and their Evaluation. New Brunswick, NJ, Transaction Publishers, 2158.Google Scholar
Von Moltke, K., 2011. ‘On Clustering International Environmental Agreements’. In Winter, G., (ed.), Multilevel Governance of Global Environmental Change. Perspectives from Science, Sociology and the Law. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 409429.Google Scholar
Wiener, J. 1999. ‘Gobal Environmental Regulation: Instrument Choice in Legal Context’. Yale Law Journal 108, 677800.Google Scholar
Winter, G. (ed.). 2011. Multilevel Governance of Global Environmental Change: Perspectives from Science, Sociology and the Law. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Wood, S. & Johannson, L. 2009. ‘Six Principles for Integrating Non-governance Environmental Standards into Smart Regulation’. Osgoode Hall Law Journal 46(2), 345395.Google Scholar
Woodside, K. 1986. ‘Policy Instruments and the Study of Public Policy’. Canadian Journal of Political Science 19, 775793.Google Scholar
Wurzel, R. K. W., Zito, A. R. & Jordan, A. J. 2013. Environmental Governance in Europe: A Comparative Analysis of New Environmental Policy Instruments. Cheltenham, Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
Young, O. (ed.). 1999. The Effectiveness of International Environmental Regimes. Cambridge, MA, The MIT Press.Google Scholar

References

Ayres, I. & Braithwaite, J. 1992. Responsive Regulation. Transcending the Deregulation Debate. Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Ayres, I. & Braithwaite, J. 1994. Responsive Regulation. Transcending the Deregulation Debate. Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Baldwin, R. & Black, J. 2008. ‘Really Responsive Regulation’. Modern Law Review 71(1), 5994.Google Scholar
Bressers, H. Th. A. & O’Toole, L. J. Jr. 1998. ‘The Selection of Policy Instruments: A Network-Based Perspective’. Journal of Public Policy 18(3), 213239.Google Scholar
Cafaggi, F. 2014. ‘A Comparative Study Analysis of Transnational Private Regulation: Legitimacy, Quality, Effectiveness and Enforcement’, EUI Working Papers, 2014/12015 http://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/33591/LAW_2014_15.pdf?sequence=1/handle/1814/16526, www.eesc.europa.eu/resources/docs/a-comparative-analysis-of-transnational-private-regulation-fcafaggi_12062014.pdf.Google Scholar
Curtin, D. & Senden, L. A. J. 2011. ‘Public Accountability of Transnational Private Regulation; Chimera or Reality?’. Journal of Law and Society 38(1), 163188.Google Scholar
Eberlein, B., Abbott, K. W., Black, J. & Meidinger, E. 2012. ‘Transnational Business Governance Interactions: Conceptualization and Framework for Analysis’, Comparative Research in Law & Political Economy, Research Paper No. 29, 2012, available at: http://digitalcommons.osgoode.yorku.ca/clpe/33.Google Scholar
Gulbrandsen, L. 2014. ‘Dynamic Governance Interactions: Evolutionary Effects of State Responses to Non-State Certification Programs’. Regulation & Governance 8(1), 7492.Google Scholar
Gunningham, N. & Sinclair, D. 1999. ‘Regulatory Pluralism: Designing Policy Mixes for Environmental Protection’. Law & Policy 21(1), 4976.Google Scholar
Gunningham, N., Grabosky, P. & Sinclair, D.Smart Regulation’. 2017. In Drahos, P. (ed.), Regulatory Theory, Foundations and Applications, Canberra, Australian National University Press, 133149.Google Scholar
Gunningham, N., Grabosky, P. & Sinclair, D. 1998. Smart Regulation, Designing Environmental Policy. Oxford socio-legal studies. Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Heremans, T. 2012. Professional Services in the EU Internal Market – Quality Regulation and Self-Regulation. Oxford, Hart Publishing.Google Scholar
Howlett, M. 1991. ‘Policy Instruments, Policy Styles, and Policy Implementation: National Approaches to Theories of Instrument Choice’. Policy Studies Journal 19(2), 121.Google Scholar
Howlett, M. 2004. ‘Beyond Good and Evil in Policy Implementation: Instrument Mixes, Implementation Styles, and Second Generation Theories of Policy Instrument Choice’. Policy & Society: Journal of public, foreign and global policy 23(2), 117.Google Scholar
Howlett, M. & Rayner, J. 2004. ‘(Not so) “Smart Regulation”? Canadian Shellfish Aquaculture Policy and the Evolution of Instrument Choice for Industrial Development’. Marine Policy 28, 171184.Google Scholar
Joerges, Ch., Schepel, H. & Vos, E. 1999. ‘The Law’s Problems with the Involvement of Non-Governmental Actors in Europe’s Legislative Processes: The Case of Standardization under the “New Approach”’, EU Working Paper LAW, No. 99/9.Google Scholar
Linder, S. H. & Peters, B. G. 1989. ‘Instruments of Government: Perceptions and Contexts’. Journal of Public Policy 9(1), 3558.Google Scholar
Majone, G. 1976. ‘Choice among Policy Instruments for Pollution Control’. Policy Analysis 2, 589613Google Scholar
Maxwell, W. J. 2014. ‘Global Privacy Governance: A Comparison of Regulatory Models in the US and Europe, and the Emergence of Accountability as a Global Norm’. In Dartiguepeyrou, C. (ed.), Cahier de Prospective. The Future of Privacy. Paris, Foundation Telecom, 6370.Google Scholar
Moerel, L. 2012. Binding Corporate Rules, Corporate Self-Regulation of Global Data Transfers. Oxford, Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
NWO. 2013. Smart Governance. Part of the Social Infrastructure Agenda, The Hague, NWO.Google Scholar
Pelkmans, J. 1987. ‘The New Approach to Technical Harmonization and Standardization’. Journal of Common Market Studies 25(3), 249269.Google Scholar
Salamon, L. M. & Lund, M. S. 1989. Beyond Privatization: The Tools of Government Action. Washington, D.C., Urban Institute Press.Google Scholar
Scott, C., Cafaggi, F. & Senden, L. 2011. ‘Conceptual and Constitutional Challenges of Transnational Private Regulation’. Journal of Law and Society 38(1), 119.Google Scholar
Senden, L. A. J. 2013. Transnational private regulation in the area of human rights, Unitreport, available at: http://renforce.rebo.uu.nl/bouwsteenprojecten/private-actoren/.Google Scholar
Senden, L. A. J. 2017. ‘The Constitutional Fit of European Standardisation Put to the Test’. Legal Issues of Economic Integration 44(4), 337352.Google Scholar
Senden, L. A. J., Kica, E., Hiemstra, M. & Klinger, K. 2015. Mapping Self- and Co-regulation Approaches in the EU-context, explorative study for the European Commission, DG Connect, available at: https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/sites/digital-agenda/files/dae-library/mapping_self-and_co-regulation_in_the_eu_context_0.pdf.Google Scholar
Six, F. & Verhoest, K. 2017. ‘Trust in Regulatory Regimes: Scoping the Field’. In Six, F. & Verhoest, K. (eds.), Trust in Regulatory Regimes. Cheltenham, Edward Elgar, 136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van der Voort, H. 2017. ‘Trust and Cooperation over the Public-Private Divide: An Empirical Study on Trust Evolving in Co-regulation’. In Six, F. & Verhoest, K. (eds.), Trust in Regulatory Regimes. Cheltenham, Edward Elgar, 181204.Google Scholar
Van Gossum, P., Arts, B. & Verheyen, K. 2012. ‘“Smart regulation”: Can policy instrument design solve forest policy aims of forest expansion and sustainability in Flanders and the Netherlands’. Forest Policy and Economics 16, 2334, available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2009.08.010.Google Scholar
Voermans, W.Legislation and Regulation’. 2017. In Karpen, U. & Xanthaki, H. (eds.), Legislation in Europe. A Comprehensive Guide to Scholars and Practitioners. Portland, Hart Publishing, 1732.Google Scholar
Walker, W. E., Rahman, S. A. & Cave, J. 2001. ‘Adaptive Policies, Policy Analysis, and Policy-Making’. European Journal of Operational Research 128, 282289.Google Scholar
Wiener, J. B. & Richman, B. D. 2010. ‘Mechanism Choice’. In Farber, D. A & O’Connell, A. J. (eds.), Research Handbook on Public Choice and Public Law. Northampton, Edward Elgar, 363396.Google Scholar

References

Abbott, K. W. 2012. ‘The Transnational Regime Complex for Climate Change’. Environment & Planning C: Government & Policy 30(4), 571590.Google Scholar
Abbott, K. W. & Snidal, D. 2009. ‘Strengthening International Regulation Through Transnational New Governance: Overcoming the Orchestration Deficit’. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 42(2), 501578.Google Scholar
Abbott, K. W. & Snidal, D. 2010. ‘International Regulation without International Government: Improving International Organization Performance Through Orchestration’. The Review of International Organizations 5(3), 314344.Google Scholar
Abbott, K. W., Green, J. & Keohane, R. O. 2016. ‘Organizational Ecology and Organizational Diversity in Global Governance’. International Organization 70(2), 247277, doi:10.1017/S0020818315000338.Google Scholar
Alter, K. J. & Meunier, S. 2009. ‘The Politics of International Regime Complexity’. Perspectives on Politics 7(1), 1324.Google Scholar
Barabási, A. -L. & Albert, R. 1999. ‘Emergence of Scaling in Random Networks’. Science 286(5439), 509512.Google Scholar
Biermann, F., Pattberg, Ph., Van Asselt, H. & Zelli, F. 2009. ‘The Fragmentation of Global Governance Architectures: A Framework for Analysis’. Global Environmental Politics 9(4), 1440, doi:10.1162/glep.2009.9.4.14.Google Scholar
Boas, I., Biermann, F., & Kanie, N. 2016. ‘Cross-Sectoral Strategies in Global Sustainability Governance: Towards a Nexus Approach’. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics 16(3), 449464, doi: 10.1007/s10784–016–9321–1.Google Scholar
Bousquet, A. & Curtis, S. 2011. ‘Beyond Models and Metaphors: Complexity Theory, Systems Thinking and International Relations’. Cambridge Review of International Affairs 24(1), 4362.Google Scholar
Bulkeley, H., Andonova, L., Betsill, M. M., Compagnon, D., Hale, Th., Hoffmann, M. J., Newell, P., Paterson, M., Roger, C. & VanDeveer, S. D. 2014. Transnational Climate Change Governance. New York, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Byrne, D. & Callaghan, G. 2013. Complexity Theory and the Social Sciences: The State of the Art. Abingdon, Routledge. Available at: https://books.google.nl/books?hl=en&lr=&id=mXC_AAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=Byrne+and+Callaghan+2014+complexity+theory&ots=PNk1H-pLEf&sig=0ICNWDfYjIE2gBm-EjOd7FkTIA4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Capra, F. 1996. The Web of Life: A New Scientific Understanding of Living Systems. New York, Anchor.Google Scholar
DeLanda, M. 2006. A New Philosophy of Society: Assemblage Theory and Social Complexity. London, A&C Black. Available at: https://books.google.nl/books?hl=en&lr=&id=64TUAwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=delanda+assemblages&ots=9A0lgY2R4q&sig=WO3_YWFp1mRW9oUHDFAaEcOxRdQ.Google Scholar
Drezner, D. W. 2008. All Politics Is Global. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Available at: http://journals.cambridge.org/production/action/cjoGetFulltext?fulltextid=5466536.Google Scholar
Emirbayer, M. 1997. ‘Manifesto for a Relational Sociology’. American Journal of Sociology 103(2), 281317, doi:10.1086/231209.Google Scholar
Friedrichs, J. 2001. ‘The Meaning of New Medievalism’. European Journal of International Relations 7(4), 475501.Google Scholar
Green, J. F. 2013. ‘Order out of Chaos: Public and Private Rules for Managing Carbon’. Global Environmental Politics 13(2), 125.Google Scholar
Hafner-Burton, E. M., Kahler, M. & Montgomery, A. H. 2009. ‘Network Analysis for International Relations’. International Organization 63(3), 559592.Google Scholar
Harrison, N. E. & Singer, D. J. 2006. ‘Complexity is More than System Theory’. In Harrison, N. E. (ed), Complexity in World Politics. Concepts and Methods of a New Paradigm. Albany, NY, State University of New York Press, 2542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jordan, A., Van Asselt, H., Huitema, D. & Forster, J. (eds.). 2018. Governing Climate Change: Polycentricity in Action. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Kavalski, E. 2007. ‘The Fifth Debate and the Emergence of Complex International Relations Theory: Notes on the Application of Complexity Theory to the Study of International Life’. Cambridge Review of International Affairs 20(3), 435454.Google Scholar
Keck, M. E. & Sikkink, K. 1998. Activists beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Keohane, R. O. & Victor, D. G. 2011. ‘The Regime Complex for Climate Change’. Perspectives on Politics 9(1), 723.Google Scholar
Kim, R. 2013. ‘The Emergent Network Structure of the Multilateral Environmental Agreement System’. Global Environmental Change 23, 980991.Google Scholar
McNutt, K. 2010. ‘Virtual Policy Networks: Where All Roads Lead to Rome’. Canadian Journal of Political Science 43(4), 915935.Google Scholar
McNutt, K. 2012. ‘Climate Change Subsystem Structure and Change: Network Mapping, Density and Centrality’. Canadian Political Science Review 6(1), 1550.Google Scholar
McNutt, K. & Pal, L. A. 2011. ‘“Modernizing Government”: Mapping Global Public Policy Networks’. Governance 24(3), 439467, doi:10.1111/j.1468-0491.2011.01532.x.Google Scholar
Mitleton-Kelly, E. 2000. Complexity: Partial Support for BPR?. Dordrecht, Springer. Available at: http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978–1–4471–0457–5_3.Google Scholar
Mittelman, J. H. 2013. ‘Global Bricolage: Emerging Market Powers and Polycentric Governance’. Third World Quarterly 34(1), 2337.Google Scholar
Nilsson, M., Griggs, D. & Visbeck, M. 2016. ‘Map the Interactions between Sustainable Development Goals’. Nature 534(7607), 320322.Google Scholar
Oberthür, S. & Stokke, O. S. 2011. Managing Institutional Complexity: Regime Interplay and Global Environmental Change. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.Google Scholar
Orsini, A., Morin, J. -F. & Young, O. R. 2013. ‘Regime Complexes: A Buzz, a Boom, or a Boost for Global Governance?’. Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations 19(1), 2739.Google Scholar
Page, S. E. 2015. ‘What Sociologists Should Know About Complexity’. Annual Review of Sociology 41, 2141.Google Scholar
Park, H. W. 2003. ‘Hyperlink Network Analysis: A New Method for the Study of Social Structure on the Web’. Connections 25(1), 4961.Google Scholar
Pattberg, Ph. & Stripple, J. 2008. ‘Beyond the Public and Private Divide: Remapping Transnational Climate Governance in the 21st Century’. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics 8(4), 367388.Google Scholar
Pattberg, Ph., Kristensen, K. & Widerberg, O. 2017. ‘Beyond Biodiversity. Exploring the institutional landscape of governing for biodiversity’, Amsterdam, IVM, R-17/06.Google Scholar
Raustiala, K. & Victor, D. G. 2004. ‘The Regime Complex for Plant Genetic Resources’. International Organization 52(2), 277309.Google Scholar
Rogers, P. J. 2008. ‘Using Programme Theory to Evaluate Complicated and Complex Aspects of Interventions’. Evaluation 14(1), 2948.Google Scholar
Rogers, R. 2010. ‘Mapping Public Web Space with the Issuecrawler’. In Brossaud, C. & Reber, B. (eds.), Digital Cognitive Technologies: Epistemology and the Knowledge Economy. Hoboken, NJ, Wiley, 8999.Google Scholar
Rosenau, J. N. 1990. Turbulence in World Politics: A Theory of Change and Continuity. Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Rosenau, J. N. 2003. Distant Proximities: Dynamics beyond Globalization. Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press. Available at: https://books.google.nl/books?hl=en&lr=&id=grYHrK5MSRYC&oi=fnd&pg=PR9&dq=rosenau+2003&ots=_QpyUr4is4&sig=Nd7ilkIkMywatFsalGWNrTMQicc.Google Scholar
Sassen, S. 2006. Territory, Authority, Rights: From Medieval to Global Assemblages, Vol. 7. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Available at: http://journals.cambridge.org/production/action/cjoGetFulltext?fulltextid=1039036.Google Scholar
Singer, D. J. 1971. A General Systems Taxonomy for Political Science. New York, General Learning Press.Google Scholar
Stame, N. 2004. ‘Theory-Based Evaluation and Types of Complexity’. Evaluation 10(1), 5876.Google Scholar
Watts, D. J. & Strogatz, S. H. 1998. ‘Collective Dynamics of “Small-World” Networks’. Nature 393(6684), 440442.Google Scholar
Widerberg, O. 2016. ‘Mapping Institutional Complexity in the Anthropocene: A Network Approach’. In Pattberg, Ph. & Zelli, F. (eds.), Environmental Politics and Governance in the Anthropocene: Institutions and Legitimacy in a Complex World. London, Routledge, 81102.Google Scholar
Widerberg, O., Pattberg, Ph. & Kristensen, K. 2016. ‘Mapping the Institutional Architecture of Global Climate Change Governance - V.2.’, Technical Paper, Amsterdam, Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM).Google Scholar
Young, O. R. 1996. ‘Institutional Linkages in International Society: Polar Perspectives’. Global Governance 2, 124.Google Scholar

References

Abbott, K. 2012. ‘The Transnational Regime Complex for Climate Change’. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 30(4), 571590.Google Scholar
Andersen, M. S. 1994. Governance by Green Taxes. Making Pollution Prevention Pay. Manchester, Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
Andersen, M. S. & Sprenger, R. -U. (eds.). 2000. Market-Based Instruments for Environmental Management: Politics and Institutions. Cheltenham, Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
Bähr, H. 2010. The Politics of Means and Ends. Farnham, Ashgate.Google Scholar
Baumol, W. J. & Oates, W. E. 1979. The Theory of Environmental Policy. Externalities, Public Outlays and Quality of Life. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
Bemelmans-Videc, M. -L., Rist, R. C. & Vedung, E. 1998. Carrots, Sticks and Sermons. Policy Instruments and their Evaluation. New York, Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
Börkey, P. & Lévêque, F. 1998. Voluntary Approaches for Environmental Protection in the European Union, report prepared for the OECD Environment Directorate, ENV/EPOC/GEEI(98)29/final. Paris, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.Google Scholar
Burrows, P. 1979. The Economic Theory of Pollution. Oxford, Martin Robertson.Google Scholar
CEC. 2002. Environmental Agreements at Community Level, COM (2002) 412 final. Brussels, Commission of the European Communities.Google Scholar
CEC. 2001. European Governance: A White Paper, COM(2001) 428 final. Brussels, Commission of the European Communities.Google Scholar
CEC. 1996. Communication from the Commission to the Council of the European Parliament on Environmental Agreements, COM(96) 561 final. Brussels, Commission of the European Communities.Google Scholar
De Bruijn, H. & Hufen, H. 1998. ‘The Traditional Approach to Policy Instruments’. In Peters, B. G. & Van Nispen, F. (eds.), Public Policy Instruments: Evaluating the Tools of Public Administration. Cheltenham, Edward Elgar, 1132.Google Scholar
Doern, G. & Wilson, V. (eds.). 1974. Issues in Canadian Public Policy. Toronto, Macmillan of Canada.Google Scholar
EEA. 1997. Environmental Agreements, Copenhagen, European Environmental Agency.Google Scholar
Ellerman, D., Buchner, B. & Carraro, C. (eds.). 2007. Allocation in the European Emissions Trading Scheme. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Faure, M., Vervaele, J. & Weale, A. (eds.). 1994. Environmental Standards in the European Union in an Interdisciplinary Framework. Antwerp, Maklu.Google Scholar
Finer, S. 1970. Comparative Government. Harmondsworth, Penguin.Google Scholar
Gunningham, N., Grabosky, P. & Sinclair, D. 1998. Smart Regulation: Designing Environmental Policy. Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Grubb, M., Vrolijk, C. & Brack, D. 1999. The Kyoto Protocol. London, Earthscan.Google Scholar
Héritier, A. & Lehmkuhl, U. 2008. ‘The Shadow of Hierarchy and New Modes of Governance: Sectoral Governance and Democratic Government’. Journal of Public Policy 28(1), 117.Google Scholar
Hood, C. 1983. The Tools of Government. Basingstoke, Macmillan.Google Scholar
Holzinger, K. & Knill, C. 2003. ‘Marktorientierte Umweltpolitik – ökonomischer Anspruch und politische Wirklichkeit’. Politische Vierteljahresschrift 43, special issue, 232255.Google Scholar
Holzinger, K., Knill, C. & Schäfer, A. 2003. ‘Steuerungswandel in der europäischen Umweltpolitik’. In Holzinger, K., Knill, C. & Lehmkuhl, D. (eds.), Politische Steuerung im Wandel: Der Einfluss von Ideen und Problemstrukturen. Opladen, Leske + Budrich, 103129.Google Scholar
Howlett, M. 1991. ‘Policy Instruments, Policy Styles and Policy Implementation: National Approaches to Theories of Instrument Choice’. Policy Studies Journal 19(2), 121.Google Scholar
Howlett, M. & Rayner, J. 2004. ‘(Not so) “Smart Regulation”? Canadian Shellfish Aquaculture Policy and the Evolution of Instrument Choice for Industrial Development’. Marine Policy 28(2), 171184.Google Scholar
Jordan, A. 2002. The Europeanization of British Environmental Policy. A Departmental Perspective. London, Palgrave.Google Scholar
Jordan, A., Wurzel, R. & Zito, A. 2007. ‘New Modes of Environmental Governance. Are “New” Environmental Policy Instruments (NEPIs) Supplanting or Supplementing Traditional Tools of Government?’. Politische Vierteljahresschrift 39 , special issue, 283298.Google Scholar
Jordan, A., Wurzel, R. K. W. & Zito, A. R. 2005. ‘The Rise of “New” Policy Instruments in Comparative Perspective: Has Governance Eclipsed Government?’. Political Studies 53(3), 477496.Google Scholar
Jordan, A., Wurzel., R. K. W., Zito, A. & Brückner, L. 2004. ‘Consumer Responsibility-Taking and Eco-Labelling’. In Micheletti, M., Follesdal, A. & Stolle, D. (eds.), Politics, Products and Markets. New Brunswick, NJ, and London, Transaction Publishers, 161180.Google Scholar
Kitschelt, H., Lange, P., Marks, G. & Stephens, J. (eds.). 2003. Continuity and Change in Contemporary Capitalism. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Lascoumes, P. & Le Galès, P. 2007. ‘Introduction: Understanding Public Policy Through Its Instruments’. Governance 20(1), 122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luhmann, N. 1984. Soziale Systeme. Grundriß einer allgemeinen Theorie. Frankfurt, Surhkamp Verlag.Google Scholar
Majone, G. 1976. ‘Choice among Policy Instruments for Pollution Control’. Policy Analysis 2(4), 589613.Google Scholar
Mol, A., Lauber, V. & Liefferink, D. 2000. The Voluntary Approach to Environmental Policy. Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
OECD. 2003. Voluntary Approaches for Environmental Policy. Paris, Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development.Google Scholar
OECD. 1999. Economic Instruments for Pollution Control and Natural Resources Management in OECD Countries. Paris, Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development.Google Scholar
OECD. 1997. Eco-labelling: Actual Effects of Selected Programmes. Paris: Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development.Google Scholar
OECD. 1994. Managing the Environment: The Role of Economic Instruments. Paris: Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development.Google Scholar
OECD. 1993. Taxation and the Environment: Complementary Policies. Paris, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.Google Scholar
OECD. 1991. Environmental Labelling in OECD Countries. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.Google Scholar
Page, B. & Kaika, M. 2003. ‘The EU Water Framework Directive: Part 2. Policy Innovation and the Shifting Choreography of Governance’. Environmental Policy and Governance 13(6), 328343.Google Scholar
Rengeling, H. & Hof, H. (eds.). 2001. Instrumente des Umweltschutzes im Wirkungsverband. Baden-Baden, Nomos.Google Scholar
Rhodes, R. 1996. ‘The New Governance: Governing without Governance’. Political Studies 44(4), 652667.Google Scholar
Salamon, L. (ed.). 2002. The Tools of Government. Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Siebert, H. 1976. Analyse der Instrumente der Umweltpolitik. Göttingen, Vandenhoeck.Google Scholar
Smith, S. & Ingram, H. 2002. ‘Policy Tools and Democracy’. In Salamon, L. (ed.), The Tools of Government. A Guide to the New Governance. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 565584.Google Scholar
Stoker, G. 1998. ‘Governance as Theory: Five Propositions’. International Social Science Journal 50(155), 1728.Google Scholar
Vedung, E. 1997. ‘Policy Instruments: Typologies and Theories’. In Bemelmans-Videc, M. L., Rist, R. C. & Vedung, E. (eds.). Carrots, Sticks and Sermons: Policy Instruments and Their Evaluation. New Brunswick/London, Transaction Publishers. 2158.Google Scholar
Vogel, D. 1986. National Styles of Regulation. Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Wurzel, R. K. W. 2008. The Politics of Emissions Trading in Britain and Germany. London, Anglo-German Foundation.Google Scholar
Wurzel, R. K. W., Zito, A. & Jordan, A. 2013. Environmental Governance in Europe: A Comparative Analysis of New Environmental Policy Instruments. Cheltenham, Edward Elgar.Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×