Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-7mfl8 Total loading time: 1.014 Render date: 2021-12-06T18:36:17.959Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Book contents

27 - Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, Sleep, and the Physiology and Pathophysiology of the Respiratory Network

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 July 2018

Jan-Marino Ramirez
Affiliation:
Center for Integrative Brain Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, USA Departments of Neurological Surgery, Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, USA
Sanja C Ramirez
Affiliation:
Center for Integrative Brain Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, USA
Tatiana M Anderson
Affiliation:
Center for Integrative Brain Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, USA
Jodhie R. Duncan
Affiliation:
University of Melbourne
Roger W. Byard
Affiliation:
University of Adelaide
Get access

Summary

Introduction

The identification of risk factors associated with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has led to significant advances in the prevention of this tragic outcome. The discovery of the prone sleeping position and smoking as two of the major risk factors (1-5) led to worldwide awareness campaigns, such as, for example, the “Back to Sleep” campaign launched in the United States in 1996, and various smoking cessation campaigns (6, 7). These initiatives resulted in a dramatic reduction in the number of children succumbing to SIDS (5, 8). Unfortunately, SIDS still remains the number-one cause of death in infants under 1 year of age in many countries, despite epidemiological and pathological studies that continue to identify additional risk factors, such as hearing deficiencies, or various genetic alterations associated with SIDS (9-11, 12, 13). To parents and families, as well as some health professionals and researchers, the sheer number of suggested risk factors and gene mutations can also be bewildering.

The Triple Risk hypothesis by Dr Hannah Kinney and collaborators (14) can partly resolve this confusion. This hypothesis states that SIDS is caused by an incident in which not just one but three risk factors come together to bring an infant into a situation that leads to the sudden death. Specifically, it was proposed that those factors include [1] a vulnerable infant; [2] a critical period of development in homeostatic control; and [3] an exogenous stressor (14, 15). In other words, in the presence of two risk factors, namely being a vulnerable infant in a critical period of development, a third risk factor (e.g. an exogenous stressor) can become the ultimate cause that triggers an irreversible cascade of events leading to the sudden death.

The Triple Risk hypothesis also has important practical implications. The awareness campaigns have shown that it is possible to significantly reduce the risk of an infant being exposed to exogenous stressors. A potentially more challenging task is to identify the infant who is particularly vulnerable, which is clearly one of the major tasks for research. A better understanding of the characteristics of a vulnerable infant would facilitate the development of strategies that target a specific vulnerability.

Type
Chapter
Information
SIDS Sudden Infant and Early Childhood Death
The past, the present and the future
, pp. 615 - 640
Publisher: The University of Adelaide Press
Print publication year: 2018

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×