Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-5db6c4db9b-wnbrb Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-03-25T18:54:34.681Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true


Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 June 2020

Allison Carnegie
Columbia University, New York
Austin Carson
University of Chicago
Get access


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Secrets in Global Governance
Disclosure Dilemmas and the Challenge of International Cooperation
, pp. 294 - 326
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Abass, Ademola. 2013. “Prosecuting International Crimes in Africa: Rationale, Prospects and Challenges.” European Journal of International Law 24(3): 933–946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Abbott, Kenneth W. 1993. “Trust but Verify: The Production of Information in Arms Control Treaties and Other International Agreements.” Cornell International Law Review 26(1): 1–58.Google Scholar
Abbott, Kenneth W., Keohane, Robert O., Moravcsik, Andrew, Slaughter, Anne-Marie, and Snidal, Duncan. 2000. “The Concept of Legalization.” International Organization 54(3): 401–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Abilova, Olga and Novosseloff, Alexandra. 2016. Demystifying Intelligence in UN Peace Operations: Toward an Organizational Doctrine. New York: International Peace Institute, (accessed March 19, 2018).Google Scholar
Ackerman, John M. and Irma E. Sandoval-Ballesteros. 2006. “The Global Explosion of Freedom of Information Laws.” Administrative Law Review 58(1): 85–130.Google Scholar
Acton, James M. 2014. “International Verification and Intelligence.” Intelligence and National Security 29(3): 341–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aday, Sean and Livingston, Steven. 2009. “NGOs as Intelligence Agencies: The Empowerment of Transnational Advocacy Networks and the Media by Commercial Remote Sensing in the Case of the Iranian Nuclear Program.” Geoforum 40(4): 514–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aftergood, Steven. 2008. “Reducing Government Secrecy: Finding What Works.” Yale Law & Policy Review 27(4): 399–416.Google Scholar
Ahn, Mun Suk and Cho, Young Chul. 2014. “A Nuclear South Korea?” International Journal: Canada’s Journal of Global Policy Analysis 69(1): 26–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ahronovitz, Michelle. 2017. “Guilty until Proven Innocent: International Prosecutorial Failure to Disclose Exculpatory Evidence.” University of the Pacific Law Review 47(2): 343–369.Google Scholar
Akhavan, Payam. 1996. “The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda: The Politics and Pragmatics of Punishment.” American Journal of International Law 90(3): 501–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Albright, David. 1993. “A Proliferation Primer.” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 49(5): 14–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Albright, David. 1994. “South Africa and the Affordable Bomb.” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 50(4): 37–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Albright, David. 1998. “Masters of Deception.” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 54(3): 44–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Albright, David. 2010. Peddling Peril: How the Secret Nuclear Trade Arms America’s Enemies. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
Albright, David and Gay, Corey. 1998. “Taiwan: Nuclear Nightmare Averted.” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 54(1): 54–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Albright, David and Hibbs, Mark. 1993. “Supplier-Spotting.” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 49(1): 8–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Albright, David and Hinderstein, Corey. 2001. “Algeria: Big Deal in the Desert?” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 57(3): 45–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Albright, David, Gay, Corey, and Hamza, Khidir. 1999. “Development of AlTuwaitha Site: What if the Public or the IAEA Had Overhead Imagery.” Scholar
Algeria–France: Civil Nuclear Energy Deal. 2008. Africa Research Bulletin. Economic, Financial and Technical Series 44(11): 17620C–17620A.Google Scholar
Allee, Todd L. and Huth, Paul K.. 2006. “Legitimizing Dispute Settlement: International Legal Rulings as Domestic Political Cover.” American Political Science Review 100(2): 219–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allee, Todd L. and Peinhardt, Clint. 2011. “Contingent Credibility: The Impact of Investment Treaty Violations on Foreign Direct Investment.” International Organization 65(3): 401–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alter, Karen J. 2014. The New Terrain of International Law: Courts, Politics, Rights. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
American Association for the United Nations. 1931. An Eleven Year Review of the League of Nations. New York: Educational Department, League of Nations.Google Scholar
Angrist, Joshua D. and Pischke, Jörn-Steffen. 2008. Mostly Harmless Econometrics: An Empiricist’s Companion. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Appel, Benjamin J. 2018. “In the Shadow of the International Criminal Court: Does the ICC Deter Human Rights Violations?” Journal of Conflict Resolution 62(1): 3–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Argüello, Irma. 2011. “The Position of an Emerging Global Power: Brazilian Responses to the 2010 US Nuclear Posture Review.” Nonproliferation Review 18(1): 183–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Axelrod, Robert and Keohane, Robert O.. 1985. “Achieving Cooperation under Anarchy: Strategies and Institutions.” World Politics 38(1): 226–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baeckmann, A. von, Gary Dillon and Perricos, Demetrius. 1995. “Nuclear Verification in South Africa.” IAEA Bulletin 37(1): 42–48.Google Scholar
Bagwell, Kyle and Staiger, Robert W.. 1999. “An Economic Theory of GATT.” The American Economic Review 89(1): 215–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bahgat, Gawdat. 2008. Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in the Middle East. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
Baker, John C. and Williamson, Ray A.. 2000. “The Implications of Emerging Satellite Information Technologies for Global Transparency and International Security.” In Power and Conflict in the Age of Transparency, eds. Finel, Bernard I. and Lord, Kristen M.. New York: Springer, pp. 221–255.Google Scholar
Baliga, Sandeep and Sjöström, Tomas. 2008. “Strategic Ambiguity and Arms Proliferation.” Journal of Political Economy 116(6): 1023–1057.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ballard-Rosa, Cameron, Carnegie, Allison and Gaikwad, Nikhar. 2018. “Economic Crises and Trade Policy Competition.” British Journal of Political Science 48(3): 713–748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Banka, Andris and Quinn, Adam. 2018. “Killing Norms Softly: US Targeted Killing, Quasi-secrecy and the Assassination Ban.” Security Studies 27(4): 665–703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barletta, Michael. 1997. The Military Nuclear Program in Brazil. Stanford, CA: Center for International Security and Arms Control.Google Scholar
Barnett, Michael and Finnemore, Martha. 2004. Rules for the World: International Organizations in Global Politics. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Bar-Siman-Tov, Yaacov. 1998. “The United States and Israel Since 1948: A ‘Special Relationship’?” Diplomatic History 22(2): 231–262.Google Scholar
Bas, Muhammet and Schub, Robert. 2016. “Mutual Optimism as a Cause of Conflict: Secret Alliances and Conflict Onset.” International Studies Quarterly 60(3): 552–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bassiouni, M. Cherif and Manikas, Peter. 1996. The Law of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. Irvington, NY: Transnational Publishers.Google Scholar
Baumgart, Claudia and Müller, Harald. 2004. “A Nuclear Weapons-Free Zone in the Middle East: A Pie in the Sky?” Washington Quarterly 28(1): 45–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bellamy, Alex J. 2011. “Libya and the Responsibility to Protect: The Exception and the Norm.” Ethics & International Affairs 25(3): 263–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beshkar, Mostafa. 2016. “Arbitration and Renegotiation in Trade Agreements.” The Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization 32(3): 586–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beshkar, Mostafa, Bond, Eric W. and Rho, Youngwoo. 2015. “Tariff Binding and Overhang: Theory and Evidence.” Journal of International Economics 97(1): 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beshkar, Mostafa and Park, Jee-Hyeong. 2017. “Dispute Settlement with Second-Order Uncertainty: The Case of International Trade Disputes.” CAEPR Working Papers 2017–010. Center for Applied Economics and Policy Research, Department of Economics, Indiana University Bloomington. Scholar
Betts, Richard K. 1977. “Paranoids, Pygmies, Pariahs and Nonproliferation.” Foreign Policy 26: 157–183.Google Scholar
Bexell, Magdalena, Tallberg, Jonas and Uhlin, Anders. 2010. “Democracy in Global Governance: The Promises and Pitfalls of Transnational Actors.” Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations 16(1): 81–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bianchi, Andrea and Peters, Anne. 2013. Transparency in International Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bicchieri, Cristina and Fukui, Yoshitaka. 1999. “The Great Illusion: Ignorance, Informational Cascades, and the Persistence of Unpopular Norms.” In Experience, Reality, and Scientific Explanation: Essays in Honor of Merrilee and Wesley Salmon, eds. Galavotti, Maria Carla and Pagnini, A.. New York: Springer, pp. 89–121.Google Scholar
Binningsbø, Helga Malmin, Loyle, Cyanne E., Gates, Scott and Elster, Jon. 2012. “Armed Conflict and Post-Conflict Justice, 1946–2006: A Dataset.” Journal of Peace Research 49(5): 731–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blanton, Thomas. 2007. “The Struggle for Openness in the International Financial Institutions.” In The Right to Know: Transparency for an Open World, ed. Florini, Ann. New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 243–278.Google Scholar
Bleek, Philipp C. 2017. “When Did (and Didn’t) States Proliferate?” Discussion Paper. Project on Managing the Atom, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School. Scholar
Booth, Ken and Wheeler, Nicholas. 2007. The Security Dilemma: Fear, Cooperation, and Trust in World Politics. New York: Springer Nature. Borger, Julian. 2016. The Butcher’s Trail: How the Search for Balkan War Criminals Became the World’s Most Successful Manhunt. New York: Other Press.Google Scholar
Bosco, David. 2013. Rough Justice: The International Criminal Court in a World of Power Politics. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Brake, Benjamin. 2015. Strategic Risks of Ambiguity in Cyberspace. Council on Foreign Relations, Center for Preventive Action. Scholar
Brands, Hal. 2007. “Non-proliferation and the Dynamics of the Middle Cold War: The Superpowers, the MLF, and the NPT.” Cold War History 7(3): 389–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Braun, Chaim and Chyba, Christopher F.. 2004. “Proliferation Rings: New Challenges to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Regime.” International Security 29(2): 5–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Braut-Hegghammer, Malfrid. 2016. Unclear Physics: Why Iraq and Libya Failed to Build Nuclear Weapons. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Brkovic, Damjan, Gabriel, Kathrin, Jovanovic, Dusan, Pasquero, Alberto, and Sekulovic, Marija. 2015. “War Crimes Proceedings in Serbia (2003–2014).” OSCE Mission to Serbia, Belgrade.Google Scholar
Brown, Jonathan N. and Marcum, Anthony S.. 2011. “Avoiding Audience Costs: Domestic Political Accountability and Concessions in Crisis Diplomacy.” Security Studies 20(2): 141–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, Jonathan N., Lupton, Danielle L. and Farrington, Alex. 2018. “Embedded Deception: Interpersonal Trust, Cooperative Expectations, and the Sharing of Fabricated Intelligence.” Journal of Global Security Studies 4(2): 209–226.Google Scholar
Brown, Robert L. 2015. Nuclear Authority: The IAEA and the Absolute Weapon. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
Brown, Robert L. and Kaplow, Jeffrey M.. 2014. “Talking Peace, Making Weapons: IAEA Technical Cooperation and Nuclear Proliferation.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 58(3): 402–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Broz, J. Lawrence and Hawes, Michael Brewster. 2006. “Congressional Politics of Financing the International Monetary Fund.” International Organization 60(2): 367–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brugioni, Dino A. 1991. Eyeball to Eyeball: The Inside Story of the Cuban Missile Crisis. New York: Random House Incorporated.Google Scholar
Burke-White, William W. 2004. “Human Rights and National Security: The Strategic Correlation.” Harvard Human Rights Journal 17: 249–280.Google Scholar
Burr, William. 2007a. “The Algerian Nuclear Problem, 1991: Controversy over the Es Salam Nuclear Reactor.” National Security Archive, September 10, 2007. The Nuclear Vault, Scholar
Burr, William. 2007b. “U.S. Opposed Taiwanese Bomb during 1970s.” National Security Archive, June 15, 2007. The Nuclear Vault, Scholar
Burr, William, and Richelson, Jeffrey T.. 2013. “Proliferation Watch: U.S. Intelligence Assessments of Potentials Nuclear Threats, 1977-2001.” National Security Archives, December 16, 2013. The Nuclear Vault ( Scholar
Busch, Marc L. 2007. “Overlapping Institutions, Forum Shopping, and Dispute Settlement in International Trade.” International Organization 61(4): 735–761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Busch, Marc L. and Reinhardt, Eric. 2006. “Three’s a Crowd: Third Parties and WTO Dispute Settlement.” World Politics 58(3): 446–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Busch, Marc L. and Pelc, Krzysztof J.. 2010. “The Politics of Judicial Economy at the World Trade Organization.” International Organization 64(2): 257–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Büthe, Tim and Milner, Helen V.. 2008. “The Politics of Foreign Direct Investment into Developing Countries: Increasing FDI through International Trade Agreements?” American Journal of Political Science 52(4): 741–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Búzás, Zoltán I. 2017. “Evading International Law: How Agents Comply with the Letter of the Law but Violate Its Purpose.” European Journal of International Relations 23(4): 857–883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Calari, Cesare and Ingves, Stefan. 2005. “Financial Sector Assessment Program – Review, Lessons, and Issues Going Forward.” The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (February 2003). Scholar
Canfil, Justin Key. 2016. “Honing Cyber Attribution: A Framework for Assessing Foreign State Complicity.” Journal of International Affairs 70(1): 217.Google Scholar
Carasales, Julio C. 1999. “The So-Called Proliferator That Wasn’t: The Story of Argentina’s Nuclear Policy.” The Nonproliferation Review 6(4): 51–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Card, Brittany L. and Baker, Isaac L.. 2014. “GRID: A Methodology Integrating Witness Testimony and Satellite Imagery Analysis for Documenting Alleged Mass Atrocities.” Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal 8(3): 7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carey, Sabine C., Colaresi, Michael P. and Mitchell, Neil J.. 2015. “Governments, Informal Links to Militias, and Accountability.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 59(5): 850–876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carlson, John, Leslie, Russell and Berriman, Annette. 2006. “Detection of Undeclared Nuclear Activities: Does the IAEA Have the Necessary Capabilities?” Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM), Nashville, Tennessee.Google Scholar
Carment, David, Rudner, Martin et al. 2007. Peacekeeping Intelligence: New Players, Extended Boundaries. Hoboken, NJ: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carmody, Matthew. 2016. “Overturning the Presumption of Confidentiality: Should the UNCITRAL Rules on Transparency Be Applied to International Commercial Arbitration.” International Trade and Business Law Review 19: 96–179.Google Scholar
Carmody, Susan. 1994. “Balancing Collective Security and National Sovereignty: Does the United Nations Have the Right to Inspect North Korea’s Nuclear Facilities.” Fordham International Law Journal 18: 229.Google Scholar
Carnegie, Allison. 2014. “States Held Hostage: Political Hold-Up Problems and the Effects of International Institutions.” American Political Science Review 108(1): 54–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carnegie, Allison. 2015. Power Plays: How International Institutions Reshape Coercive Diplomacy. New York: Cambridge University Press. Carnegie, Allison and Austin Carson. 2018. “The Spotlight’s Harsh Glare: Rethinking Publicity and International Order.” International Organization 72(3): 627–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carnegie, Allison and Carson, Austin. 2019a. “The Disclosure Dilemma: Nuclear Intelligence and International Organizations.” American Journal of Political Science 63(2): 269–285.Google Scholar
Carnegie, Allison and Carson, Austin. 2019b. “Reckless Rhetoric? Compliance Pessimism and International Order in the Age of Trump.” The Journal of Politics 81(2): 739–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carnegie, Allison and Mikulaschek, Christoph. 2017. “The Promise of Peacekeeping: Protecting Civilians in Civil Wars.”CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carnegie, Allison and Samii, Cyrus. 2017. “International Institutions and Political Liberalization: Evidence from the World Bank Loans Program.” British Journal of Political Science 49(4): 1357–1379.Google Scholar
Carrubba, Clifford J. 2005. “Courts and Compliance in International Regulatory Regimes.” Journal of Politics 67(3): 669–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carson, Austin. 2016. “Facing Off and Saving Face: Covert Intervention and Escalation Management in the Korean War.” International Organization 70(1): 103–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carson, Austin. 2018. Secret Wars: Covert Conflict in International Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Carson, Austin and Thompson, Alexander. 2019. “The Power in Opacity: Rethinking Information in International Organizations.” In International Institutions and Power Politics: Bridging the Divide, eds. Paul, T. V. and Wivel, Anders. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
Castle, Matthew Adrian and Pelc, Krzysztof. 2019. “The Causes and Effects of Leaks in International Negotiations.” International Studies Quarterly 63(4): 1147–1162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chapman, Terrence L. 2007. “International Security Institutions, Domestic Politics, and Institutional Legitimacy.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 51(1): 134–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chayes, Abram and Handler Chayes, Antonia. 1995. The New Sovereignty: Compliance with International Regulatory Agreements. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Chesterman, Simon. 2006a. “Does the UN Have Intelligence?” Survival 48(3): 149–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chesterman, Simon. 2006b. “Shared Secrets: Intelligence and Collective Security.” Lowy Institute Paper (10).Google Scholar
Chesterman, Simon. 2006c. “The Spy Who Came in from the Cold War: Intelligence and International Law.” Michigan Journal of International Law 27(4): 1071–1130.Google Scholar
Chesterman, Simon. 2011. “Intelligence Cooperation in International Operations: Peacekeeping, Weapons Inspections, and the Apprehension and Prosecution of War Criminals.” In International Intelligence Cooperation and Accountability, eds. Born, Hans, Leigh, Ian, and Wills, Aidan. New York: Routledge, 124–148.Google Scholar
Chinoy, Mike. 2010. Meltdown: The Inside Story of the North Korean Nuclear Crisis. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
Chittaranjan, Kalpana. 1999. “Iraq’s Nuclear Weapons Programme.” Strategic Analysis 23(3): 407–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
CIA. 1978. “South Korea: Nuclear Developments and Strategic DecisionMaking.” National Foreign Assessment Center, June 1978.Google Scholar
Ciorciari, John D. and Franzblau, Jesse M.. 2014. “Hidden Files: Archival Sharing, Accountability, and the Right to the Truth.” Columbia Human Rights Law Review 46(1): 1–84Google Scholar
Claude, Inis L. 1966. “Collective Legitimization as a Political Function of the United Nations.” International Organization 20(3): 367–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clegg, Liam. 2013. Controlling the World Bank and IMF: Shareholders, Stakeholders, and the Politics of Concessional Lending. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coe, Andrew J. and Vaynman, Jane. 2015. “Collusion and the Nuclear Nonproliferation Regime.” The Journal of Politics 77(4): 983–997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cogan, Jacob Katz. 2000. “The Problem of Obtaining Evidence for International Criminal Courts.” Human Rights Quarterly 22(2): 404–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohen, Avner. 1998. Israel and the Bomb. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Cohen, Avner. 2013. The Worst-Kept Secret: Israel’s Bargain with the Bomb. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Cohen, Avner and Burr, William. 2006. “Israel Crosses the Threshold.” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 62(3): 22–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohen, Avner and Frankel, Benjamin. 1987. “Israel’s Nuclear Ambiguity.” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 43(2): 15–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Colson, Aurélien. 2008. “The Ambassador between Light and Shade: The Emergence of Secrecy as the Norm for International Negotiation.” International Negotiation 13(2): 179–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Combs, Nancy Amoury. 2010. Fact-Finding without Facts: The Uncertain Evidentiary Foundations of International Criminal Convictions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Combs, Nancy Amoury. 2017. “Grave Crimes and Weak Evidence: A Fact-Finding Evolution in International Criminal Law.” Harvard International Law Journal 58(1): 47–125.Google Scholar
Coppen, Tom. 2015. “Developing IAEA Safeguards: An Institutional Perspective on the State-Level Concept.” Journal of Conflict and Security Law 20(2): 169–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Costas, Jana and Grey, Christopher. 2014. “Bringing Secrecy into the Open: Towards a Theorization of the Social Processes of Organizational Secrecy.” Organization Studies 35(10): 1423–1447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Croxton, Derek. 2000. “The Prosperity of Arms Is Never Continual: Military Intelligence, Surprise, and Diplomacy in 1640s Germany.” The Journal of Military History 64(4): 981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dai, Xinyuan. 2002. “Information Systems in Treaty Regimes.” World Politics 54(4): 405–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dai, Xinyuan. 2005. “Why Comply? The Domestic Constituency Mechanism.” International Organization 59(2): 363–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dai, Xinyuan. 2007. International Institutions and National Policies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Danner, Allison Marston. 2003. “Enhancing the Legitimacy and Accountability of Prosecutorial Discretion at the International Criminal Court.” American Journal of International Law 97(3): 510–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Danner, Allison Marston and Martinez, Jenny S.. 2005. “Guilty Associations: Joint Criminal Enterprise, Command Responsibility, and the Development of International Criminal Law.” California Law Review 93(75): 75–169.Google Scholar
Davenport, Christian and Stam, Allan C.. 2009. “What Really Happened in Rwanda?” Miller-McCune, October 6: 2009.Google Scholar
Davies, Rodger. 1969. “Memorandum from Rodger Davies to Mr. Austin et al.” Israel Crosses the Threshold. Review Group Consideration of Response to NSSM-40, June 26, 1969. National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 189. George Washington University. June 30, 1969.Google Scholar
Davis, Christina L. 2006. “Do WTO Rules Create a Level Playing Field? Lessons from the experience of Peru and Vietnam.” Negotiating Trade: Developing Countries in the WTO and NAFTA, pp. 219–256.Google Scholar
Davis, Christina L. 2009. “Overlapping Institutions in Trade Policy.” Perspectives on Politics 7(1): 25–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davis, Christina L. and Pratt, Tyler. 2016. “The Forces of Attraction: How Security Interests Shape Membership in Economic Institutions.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
Davis, Christina L. and Shirato, Yuki. 2007. “Firms, Governments, and WTO Adjudication: Japan’s Selection of WTO Disputes.” World Politics 59(2): 274–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dawson, Grant and Dixon, Mieke. 2006. “The Protection of States? National Security Interests in Cases before the ICTY.” In The Dynamics of International Criminal Justice, ed. Abtahi, Hirad and Boas, Gideon. Leiden: Brill Press.Google Scholar
Daxecker, Ursula E. 2012. “The Cost of Exposing Cheating: International Election Monitoring, Fraud, and Post-Election Violence in Africa.” Journal of Peace Research 49(4): 503–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Baere, Geert, Chane, Anna-Luise and Wouters, Jan. 2015. “International Courts as Keepers of the Rule of Law: Achievements, Challenges, and Opportunities.” NYU Journal of International Law & Politics 48(3): 715–794Google Scholar
de Santana Carvalho, José Luiz. 2006. “Ending Brazil’s Nuclear Weapons Program.” Arms Control Today 36(2): 51–52.Google Scholar
de Villiers, John W., Jardine, Roger and Reiss, Mitchell. 1993. “Why South Africa Gave Up the Bomb.” Foreign Affairs 72(5): 98–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Del Ponte, Carla. 2006. “Investigation and Prosecution of Large-Scale Crimes at the International Level.” Journal of International Criminal Justice 4(3): 539–558.Google Scholar
Dembinski, Matthias. 1995. “North Korea, IAEA Special Inspections, and the Future of the Nonproliferation Regime.” The Nonproliferation Review 2(2): 31–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Des Forges, Alison. 1999. “Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda.” Human Rights Watch Report 171–1, Scholar
Dewatripont, Mathias and Tirole, Jean. 1999. “Advocates.” Journal of Political Economy 107(1): 1–39.Google Scholar
Dincer, N. Nergiz and Eichengreen, Barry. 2013. “Central Bank Transparency and Independence: Updates and New Measures.” International Journal of Central Banking 10(1): 189–259.Google Scholar
Dipert, Randall R. 2010. “The Ethics of Cyberwarfare.” Journal of Military Ethics 9(4): 384–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Doorenspleet, Renske. 2000. “Reassessing the Three Waves of Democratization.” World Politics 52(3): 384–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dorn, A. Walter. 2009. “Intelligence-led Peacekeeping: The United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), 2006–07.” Intelligence and National Security 24(6): 805–835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Doyle, James. 2011. Nuclear Safeguards, Security and Nonproliferation: Achieving Security with Technology and Policy. Berlington, MA: Elsevier.Google Scholar
Dreher, Axel, Nunnenkamp, Peter and Thiele, Rainer. 2008. “Does US Aid Buy UN General Assembly Votes? A Disaggregated Analysis.” Public Choice 136(1–2): 139–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dunn, Lewis A. 1990. “Arms Control Verification: Living with Uncertainty.” International Security 14(4): 165–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dunn, Lewis A. 2009. “The NPT: Assessing the Past, Building the Future.” Nonproliferation Review 16(2): 143–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ecker-Ehrhardt, Matthias. 2018. “International Organizations ‘Going Public’? An Event History Analysis of Public Communication Reforms 1950–2015.” International Studies Quarterly 62(4): 723–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ehlermann, Claus-Dieter. 2002. “Six Years on the Bench of the World Trade Court: Some Personal Experiences as Member of the Appellate Body of the World Trade Organization.” Journal of World Trade 36(4): 605–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ehring, Lothar. 2008. “Public Access to Dispute Settlement Hearings in the World Trade Organization.” Journal of International Economic Law 11(4): 1021–1034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
EkéusRolf, . 2016. “The Lessons of UNSCOM and Iraq.” The Nonproliferation Review 23(1–2): 131–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
ElBaradei, Mohamed 1992. “Application of IAEA Safeguards in the Middle East.” IAEA Bulletin 34(1): 45–46.Google Scholar
ElBaradei, Mohamed. 2011. The Age of Deception: Nuclear Diplomacy in Treacherous Times. New York: Metropolitan Books.Google Scholar
Elliot, Dominic. 2016. “Deutche Bank’s Opaque Balance Sheet Clouds Its Position.” The New York Times. Scholar
Ellis, Jason D. and Kiefer, Geoffrey D.. 2004. Combating Proliferation: Strategic Intelligence and Security Policy. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Epstein, Katherine. 2019. The Political Economy of Secrecy (Unpublished Book Manuscript).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eriksson, Pär. 1997. “Intelligence in Peacekeeping Operations.” International Journal of Intelligence and Counter Intelligence 10(1): 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Erlinder, Peter. 2010. “The UN Security Council Ad Hoc Rwanda Tribunal: International Justice or Juridically Constructed ‘Victor’s Impunity’?” DePaul Journal for Social Justice 4(1): 131–214.Google Scholar
European Commission. 2013. “Study on Trade Secrets and Confidential Business Information in the Internal Market.” Scholar
Evans, Owen Alfredo M. Leone, Gill, Mahinder, Hilbers, Paul, Blaschke, Winfrid, Krueger, Russell, Moretti, Marina, Nagayasu, Jun, O’Brien, Mark and Berge, Joy ten. 2000. “Macroprudential Indicators of Financial System Soundness.” Macroprudential Indicators of Financial System Soundness. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.Google Scholar
Fang, Songying. 2008. “The Informational Role of International Institutions and Domestic Politics.” American Journal of Political Science 52(2): 304–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Farrell, Greg. 2016. “Goldman Sachs Gets Panama Request from New York Bank Regulator.” Bloomberg. Scholar
Fearon, James D. 1995. “Rationalist Explanations for War.” International Organization 49(3): 379–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fearon, James D. 1998. “Bargaining, Enforcement, and International Cooperation.” International Organization 52(2): 269–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feldman, Shai. 1997. Nuclear Weapons and Arms Control in the Middle East. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Fey, Mark and Ramsay, Kristopher W.. 2010. “When Is Shuttle Diplomacy Worth the Commute? Information Sharing through Mediation.” World Politics 62(4): 529–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Findlay, Trevor. 2015. “Proliferation Alert! The IAEA and Non-Compliance Reporting.” Managing the Atom Project, Report #2015–04, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs.Google Scholar
Finel, Bernard I. and Lord, Kristin M.. 1999. “The Surprising Logic of Transparency.” International Studies Quarterly 43(2): 325–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Finnemore, Martha and Hollis, Duncan B.. 2016. “Constructing Norms for Global Cybersecurity.” American Journal of International Law 110(3): 425–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fioretos, Orfeo. 2011. “Historical Institutionalism in International Relations.” International Organization 65(2): 367–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fischer, David. 1997. History of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The First Forty Years. Vienna: IAEA.Google Scholar
Frantz, Douglas and Collins, Catherine. 2007. The Nuclear Jihadist: The True Story of the Man Who Sold the World’s Most Dangerous Secrets. . . and How We Could Have Stopped Him. New York: Twelve. Fuhrmann, Matthew. 2009. “Spreading Temptation: Proliferation and Peaceful Nuclear Cooperation Agreements.” International Security 34(1): 7–41.Google Scholar
Fuhrmann, Matthew. 2012. Atomic Assistance: How Atoms for Peace Programs Cause Nuclear Insecurity. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fuhrmann, Matthew and Lupu, Yonatan. 2016. “Do Arms Control Treaties Work? Assessing the Effectiveness of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.” International Studies Quarterly 60(3): 530–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fuhrmann, Matthew and Tkach, Benjamin. 2015. “Almost Nuclear: Introducing the Nuclear Latency Dataset.” Conflict Management and Peace Science 32(4): 443–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fung, Archon, Graham, Mary and Weil, David. 2007. Full Disclosure: The Perils and Promise of Transparency. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gaietta, Michele. 2015. The Trajectory of Iran’s Nuclear Program. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gambetta, Diego. 1988. “Trust: Making and Breaking Cooperative Relations.” The Economic Journal 99(394): 201–203.Google Scholar
Ganguly, Nandita D. and Iyer, K. N.. 2009. “Monitoring the Success of Implementation of the Montreal Protocol in India with Satellite Measurements.” International Journal of Remote Sensing 30(15–16): 3927–3941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gavin, Francis J. 2010. “Nuclear Proliferation and Non-proliferation during the Cold War.” In The Cambridge History of the Cold War, eds. Leffler, Melvyn P. and Westad, Odd Arne. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Geers, Kenneth. 2010. “The Challenge of Cyber Attack Deterrence.” Computer Law & Security Review 26(3): 298–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Geser, Hans. 1992. “Towards an Interaction Theory of Organizational Actors.” Organization Studies 13(3): 429–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ghosh, Anirban and Kharas, Homi. 2011. “The Money Trail: Ranking Donor Transparency in Foreign Aid.” World Development 39(11): 1918–1929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gibson, David R. 2014. “Enduring Illusions: The Social Organization of Secrecy and Deception.” Sociological Theory 32(4): 283–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gilligan, Michael J. 2006. “Is Enforcement Necessary for Effectiveness? A Model of the International Criminal Regime.” International Organization 60(4): 935–967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gnutzmann-Mkrtchyan, Arevik and Lester, Simon. 2017. “Does Safeguards Need Saving? Lessons from the Ukraine–Passenger Cars Dispute.” World Trade Review 16(2): 227–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldstein, Judith and Martin, Lisa L.. 2000. “Legalization, Trade Liberalization, and Domestic Politics: A Cautionary Note.” International Organization 54(3): 603–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gowa, Joanne. 1989. “Bipolarity, Multipolarity, and Free Trade.” American Political Science Review 83(4): 1245–1256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gowa, Joanne and Mansfield, Edward D.. 1993. “Power Politics and International Trade.” American Political Science Review 87(2): 408–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gowa, Joanne and Yeon Kim, Soo. 2005. “An Exclusive Country Club: The Effects of the GATT on Trade, 1950–94.” World Politics 57(4): 453–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graham, Erin R. 2015. “Money and Multilateralism: How Funding Rules Constitute IO Governance.” International Theory 7(1): 162–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grando, Michelle T. 2009. Evidence, Proof, and Fact-Finding in WTO Dispute Settlement. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grant, Ruth W. and Keohane, Robert O.. 2005. “Accountability and Abuses of Power in World Politics.” American Political Science Review 99(1): 29–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gray, Julia. 2018. “Life, Death, or Zombie? The Vitality of International Organizations.” International Studies Quarterly 62(1): 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gray, Julia. 2019. “Treaty Shopping and Unintended Consequences: BRICS in the International System.”CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gregorian, Vartan, Campbell, Kurt M., Einhorn, Robert J. and Reiss, Mitchell B.. 2005. The Nuclear Fipping Point: Why States Reconsider Their Nuclear Choices. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
Grigorescu, Alexandru. 2003. “International Organizations and Government Transparency: Linking the International and Domestic Realms.” International Studies Quarterly 47(4): 643–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grigorescu, Alexandru. 2007. “Transparency of Intergovernmental Organizations: The Roles of Member States, International Bureaucracies and Nongovernmental Organizations.” International Studies Quarterly 51(3): 625–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grigorescu, Alexandru. 2015. Democratic Intergovernmental Organizations? Normative Pressures and Decision-Making Rules. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Groeber, Patrick and Rauhut, Heiko. 2010. “Does Ignorance Promote Norm Compliance?” Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory 16(1): 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gupta, Aarti. 2008. “Transparency under Scrutiny: Information Disclosure in Global Environmental Governance.” Global Environmental Politics 8(2): 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guzman, Andrew T. 1997. “Why LDCs Sign Treaties That Hurt Them: Explaining the Popularity of Bilateral Investment Treaties.” Virginia Journal of International Law 38(1): 639–688.Google Scholar
Guzman, Andrew T. 2008. How International Law Works: A Rational Choice Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hafemeister, David, Romm, Joseph J. and Tsipis, Kosta. 1985. “The Verification of Compliance with Arms-Control Agreements.” Scientific American 252(3): 38–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hafner-Burton, Emilie M. 2008. “Sticks and Stones: Naming and Shaming the Human Rights Enforcement Problem.” International Organization 62(4): 689–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hafner-Burton, Emilie M. 2012. “International Regimes for Human Rights.” Annual Review of Political Science 15(1): 265–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hafner-Burton, Emilie M. and Victor, David G.. 2016. “Secrecy in International Investment Arbitration: An Empirical Analysis.” Journal of International Dispute Settlement 7(1): 161–182.Google Scholar
Hafner-Burton, Emilie M., Steinert-Threlkeld, Zachary C. and Victor, David G.. 2016. “Predictability versus Flexibility: Secrecy in International Investment Arbitration.” World Politics 68(3): 413–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hafner-Burton, Emilie M., Victor, David G. and LeVeck, Brad L.. 2016. “How Activists Perceive the Utility of International Law.” The Journal of Politics 78(1): 167–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamilton, Keith and Langhorne, Richard. 2011. The Practice of Diplomacy: Its Evolution, Theory, and Administration. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Handl, Gunther. 1997. “Compliance Control Mechanisms and International Environmental Obligations.” Tulane Journal of International Comparative Law 5(1): 29–49.Google Scholar
Hanegraaff, Marcel, Beyers, Jan and Braun, Caelesta. 2011. “Open the Door to More of the Same? The Development of Interest Group Representation at the WTO.” World Trade Review 10(4): 447–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harrer, Gudrun. 2014. Dismantling the Iraqi Nuclear Program: The Inspections of the International Atomic Energy Agency, 1991–1998. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harris, Verne, Hatang, Sello and Liberman, Peter. 2004. “Unveiling South Africa’s Nuclear Past.” Journal of Southern African Studies 30(3): 457–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hastedt, Glenn. 2005. “Public Intelligence: Leaks as Policy Instruments.” Intelligence and National Security 20(3): 419–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hautsch, Nikolaus, Hess, Dieter and Veredas, David. 2011. “The Impact of Macroeconomic News on Quote Adjustments, Noise, and Informational Volatility.” Journal of Banking & Finance 35(10): 2733–2746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hawkins, Darren G., Lake, David A., Nielson, Daniel L. and Tierney, Michael J.. 2006. Delegation and Agency in International Organizations. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hazan, Pierre. 2004. Justice in a Time of War: The True Story behind the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.Google Scholar
Heinonen, Olli. 2010. “The Case for an Immediate IAEA Special Inspection in Syria.” Policy Watch. Scholar
Heinonen, Olli. 2013. “IAEA Safeguards: Evolving to Meet Todays Verification Undertakings.” Conference Paper, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs. Scholar
Heinonen, Olli. 2014. “Verifying the Dismantlement of South Africa’s Nuclear Weapons Program.” In Nuclear Materials Gone Missing, ed. Sokolsky, Henry. Arlington, VA: Nonproliferation Policy Education Center, ch. 8.Google Scholar
Heo, Uk. 2008. “Articles: The North Korean Nuclear Crisis: Motives, Progress, and Prospects.” Korea Observer 39(4): 487–506.Google Scholar
Hersman, Rebecca K. C. and Peters, Robert. 2006. “Nuclear U-Turns: Learning from South Korean and Taiwanese Rollback.” Nonproliferation Review 13(3): 539–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hibbs, Mark. 1992a. “IAEA Explores Iran’s Intentions, Minus Evidence of Weapons Drive.” Nucleonics Week 33(7): 12.Google Scholar
Hibbs, Mark. 1992b. “IAEA Inspectors to Visit Iran; ‘Nothing on the Ground’ U.S. Says.” Nucleonics Week 33(34): 7.Google Scholar
Hibbs, Mark. 1993. “IAEA Says It Found No Non-Peaceful Activity during Recent Iran Visit.” Nucleonics Week 34(50): 10.Google Scholar
Hoedl, Seth. 2016. Ensuring Peaceful Use via International Licensing of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. In Nuclear Non-Proliferation in International Law-Volume III: Legal Aspects of the Use of Nuclear Energy for Peaceful Purposes, eds. Black-Branch, Jonathan L. and Fleck, Dieter. New York: Springer, pp. 63–112.Google Scholar
Hollyer, James R., Rosendorff, B. Peter and Vreeland, James Raymond. 2014. “Measuring Transparency.” Political Analysis 22(4): 413–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hsu, Kuang-Jung. 2015. “To Regulate or Not to Regulate: The Conundrum of Taiwan’s Nuclear Power.” Asian Perspective 39(4): 637–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hymans, Jacques. 2006. “The Psychology of Nuclear Proliferation.” Identity, Emotions, and Foreign Policy. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Hymans, Jacques E. C. 2001. “Of Gauchos and Gringos: Why Argentina Never Wanted the Bomb, and Why the United States thought It Did.” Security Studies 10(3): 153–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hymans, Jacques and Herrera, Yoshiko M.. 2011. “The Non-Proliferation Treaty as a Conditional Norm.” PONARS Eurasia Policy Memo No. 142.Google Scholar
Imai, Kosuke and Kim, In Song. 2019. “On the Use of Two-Way Fixed Effects Regression Models for Causal Inference with Panel Data.” Harvard University Working Paper.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Imber, Mark F. 1989. The USA, ILO, UNESCO and IAEA: Politicization and Withdrawal in the Specialized Agencies. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). 2008. Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement of the Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. Report by the Director General.” Scholar
International Monetary Fund. 2000. “Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) A Review: Lessons from the Pilot and Issues Going Forward.” Scholar
International Monetary Fund. 2005. “Financial Sector Assessment: A Handbook.” Scholar
Jackson, Kateland. 2013. “The Silent Witness Rule: A Secret Safeguard to the First and Sixth Amendments.” George Mason University Civil Rights Law Journal 24(3): 325–348.Google Scholar
Jervis, Robert. 1978. “Cooperation under the Security Dilemma.” World Politics 30(2): 167–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jervis, Robert. 2010. Why Intelligence Fails: Lessons from the Iranian Revolution and the Iraq War. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Jo, Hyeran and Simmons, Beth A.. 2016. “Can the International Criminal Court Deter Atrocity?” International Organization 70(3): 443–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johns, Leslie and Pelc, Krzysztof J.. 2014. “Who Gets to Be in the Room? Manipulating Participation in WTO Disputes.” International Organization 68(3): 663–699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johns, Leslie and Pelc, Krzysztof J.. 2016. “Fear of Crowds in World Trade Organization Disputes: Why Don’t More Countries Participate?” The Journal of Politics 78(1): 88–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, Tana. 2015. “Information Revelation and Structural Supremacy: The World Trade Organizations Incorporation of Environmental Policy.” The Review of International Organizations 10(2): 207–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones, Matthew T. and Hilbers, Paul. 2004. “Stress Testing Financial Systems: What to Do When the Governor Calls.” IMF Working Paper 4(127): 1–38.Google Scholar
Jönsson, Christer and Tallberg, Jonas. 2010. Transnational Actors in Global Governance: Patterns, Explanations and Implications. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Joseph, Michael F. and Poznansky, Michael. 2018. “Media Technology, Covert Action, and the Politics of Exposure.” Journal of Peace Research 55(3): 320–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Joyner, Daniel H. 2016. Iran’s Nuclear Program and International Law: From Confrontation to Accord. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kang, Jungmin, Hayes, Peter, Bin, Li, Suzuki, Tatsujiro and Tanter, Richard. 2005. “South Korea’s Nuclear Surprise.” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 61(1): 40–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaoutzanis, Christodoulos. 2013. “A Turbulent Adolescence Ahead: The ICC’s Insistence on Disclosure in the Lubanga Trial.” Washington University Global Studies Law Review 12(2): 263–311.Google Scholar
Karlsrud, John and Rosen, Frederik. 2013. “In the Eye of the Beholder? The UN and the Use of Drones to Protect Civilians.” Stability: International Journal of Security and Development 2(2): 1–10.Google Scholar
Karp, Aaron and Carasales, Julio. 2000. “Argentina and the Bomb.” The Nonproliferation Review 7(1): 189–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaufmann, Chaim. 2004. “Threat Inflation and the Failure of the Marketplace of Ideas: The Selling of the Iraq War.” International Security 29(1): 5–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaushal, Asha. 2009. “Revisiting History: How the Past Matters for the Present Backlash against the Foreign Investment Regime.” Harvard International Law Journal 50(2): 491–534.Google Scholar
Keohane, Robert and Nye, Joseph. 2002. “The Club Model of Multilateral Cooperation and Problems of Democratic Legitimacy.” In Power and Governance in a Partially Globalized World, ed. Keohane, Robert. New York: Routledge, ch. 10.Google Scholar
Keohane, Robert O. 1984. After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keohane, Robert O. 2005. “Abuse of Power.” Harvard International Review 27(2): 48.Google Scholar
Kerr, Paul. 2004. “Libya Vows to Dismantle WMD Program.” Arms Control Today 34(1): 29.Google Scholar
Khan, Feroz. 2012. Eating Grass: The Making of the Pakistani Bomb. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim, Andrew Eungi and Lie, John. 2007. “South Korea in 2006: Nuclear Standoff, Trade Talks, and Population Trends.” Asian Survey 47(1): 52–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim, In Song, et al. 2019. “Firms and Global Value Chains: Identifying Firms’ Multidimensional Trade Preferences.” International Studies Quarterly 63(1): 153–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kitts, James A. 2003. “Egocentric Bias or Information Management? Selective Disclosure and the Social Roots of Norm Misperception.” Social Psychology Quarterly 66(3): 222–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knake, Robert K. 2010. Internet Governance in an Age of Cyber Insecurity. New York: Council on Foreign Relations.Google Scholar
Knudson, John Immanuel. 1938. A History of the League of Nations. Atlanta, GA: TE Smith.Google Scholar
Koenig-Archibugi, Mathias. 2004. “International Governance as New Raison d’ Etat? The Case of the EU Common Foreign and Security Policy.” European Journal of International Relations 10(2): 147–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kono, Daniel Y. 2006. “Optimal Obfuscation: Democracy and Trade Policy Transparency.” American Political Science Review 100(3): 369–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koppell, Jonathan G. S. 2010. World Rule: Accountability, Legitimacy, and the Design of Global Governance. Chicago, IL: of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koremenos, Barbara, Lipson, Charles and Snidal, Duncan. 2001. “The Rational Design of International Institutions.” International Organization 55(4): 761–799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koskenniemi, Martti. 2004. “Intelligence Agencies and War Crimes Prosecution: Allen Dulles’s Involvement in Witness Testimony at Nuremberg.” Journal of International Criminal Justice 2(3): 826–854.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krasner, Stephen D. 1991. “Global Communications and National Power: Life on the Pareto Frontier.” World Politics 43(3): 336–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kreier, Jesse. 2005. “Contingent Trade Remedies and WTO Dispute Settlement: Some Particularities.” Key Issues in WTO Dispute Settlement: The First Ten Years. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 46–62.Google Scholar
Krepon, Michael. 1992. “Verifying the Chemical Weapons Convention.” Arms Control Today 22(8): 19–24.Google Scholar
Kreps, Sarah E. and Fuhrmann, Matthew. 2011. “Attacking the Atom: Does Bombing Nuclear Facilities Affect Proliferation?” Journal of Strategic Studies 34(2): 161–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krishna, Vijay and Morgan, John. 2001. “A Model of Expertise.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 116(2): 747–775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kroenig, Matthew. 2014. “Force or Friendship? Explaining Great Power Nonproliferation Policy.” Security Studies 23(1): 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kuperman, Alan J. 2004. The Limits of Humanitarian Intervention: Genocide in Rwanda. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
Kurbalija, Jovan. 1999. “Diplomacy in the Age of Information Technology.” In Innovation in Diplomatic Practice, ed. Melissen, Jan. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
Kurizaki, Shuhei. 2007. “Efficient Secrecy: Public versus Private Threats in Crisis Diplomacy.” American Political Science Review 101(3): 543–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kux, Dennis. 2001. Disenchanted Allies: The United States and Pakistan, 1947–2000. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Kydd, Andrew and Saunders, Elizabeth. 2018. “Why Bureaucrats Leak.” Paper Presented at the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting.Google Scholar
Kydd, Andrew H. 2006. “When Can Mediators Build Trust?” American Political Science Review 100(3): 449–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lall, Ranjit. 2017. “Beyond Institutional Design: Explaining the Performance of International Organizations.” International Organization 71(2): 245–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lechner, Michael et al. 2011. “The Estimation of Causal Effects by Difference-in-Difference Methods.” Foundations and Trends in Econometrics 4(3): 165–224.Google Scholar
Leeds, Brett Ashley. 2005. “Alliance Treaty Obligations and Provisions (ATOP).” Houston, TX: Rice University, Department of Political Science.Google Scholar
Lefebvre, Stéphane. 2003. “The Difficulties and Dilemmas of International Intelligence Cooperation.” International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 16(4): 527–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leventhal, Paul. 1992. Averting a Latin American Nuclear Arms Race: New Prospects and Challenges for Argentine-Brazil Nuclear Co-operation. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Libicki, Martin. 2016. Cyberspace in Peace and War. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press.Google Scholar
Liebeskind, Julia Porter. 1997. “Keeping Organizational Secrets: Protective Institutional Mechanisms and Their Costs.” Industrial and Corporate Change 6(3): 623–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lindley, Dan. 2004. “Avoiding Tragedy in Power Politics: The Concert of Europe, Transparency, and Crisis Management.” Security Studies 13(2): 195–229.Google Scholar
Lindley, Dan. 2007. Promoting Peace with Information: Transparency as a Tool of Security Regimes. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Lipscy, Phillip Y. 2017. Renegotiating the World Order: Institutional Change in International Relations. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lipson, Charles. 1984. “International Cooperation in Economic and Security Affairs.” World Politics 37(1): 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Litfin, Karen T. 2001. “The Globalization of Transparency: The Use of Commercial Satellite Imagery by Nongovernmental Organizations.” In Commercial Observation Satellites at the Leading Edge of Global Transparency, eds. Baker, John C., O’Connell, Kevin M., and Williamson, Ray. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, ch. 22.Google Scholar
Lord, Kristin M. 2012. The Perils and Promise of Global Transparency: Why the Information Revolution May Not Lead to Security, Democracy, or Peace. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
Louka, Elli. 2011. Nuclear Weapons, Justice and the Law. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loyle, Cyanne E. and Davenport, Christian. 2016. “Transitional Injustice: Subverting Justice in Transition and Postconflict Societies.” Journal of Human Rights 15(1): 126–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maggi, Giovanni. 1999. “The Role of Multilateral Institutions in International Trade Cooperation.” American Economic Review 89(1): 190–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malatesta, Alberto and Sali, Rinaldo. 2013. The Rise of Transparency in International Arbitration. Huntington, NY: Juris Publishing.Google Scholar
Mallard, Grégoire. 2014. Fallout: Nuclear Diplomacy in an Age of Global Fracture. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Manning, Dean. 2000. Srebrenica Investigation: Summary of Forensic Evidence-Execution Points and Mass Graves. United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia.Google Scholar
Mansfield, Edward D., Milner, Helen V. and Rosendorff, B. Peter. 2002. “Why Democracies Cooperate More: Electoral Control and International Trade Agreements.” International Organization 56(3): 477–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mansfield, E. D. and Pevehouse, J. C.. 2008. “Democratization and the Varieties of International Organizations.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 52(2): 269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Manulak, Michael W. 2018. “A Bird in the Hand: Temporal Focal Points and Change in International Institutions.” The Review of International Organizations 15(1): 1–27. Scholar
Marquardt, James J. 2007. “Transparency and Security Competition: Open Skies and America’s Cold War Statecraft, 1948–1960.” Journal of Cold War Studies 9(1): 55–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mastro, Oriana Skylar. 2016. “The Vulnerability of Rising Powers: The Logic Behind China’s Low Military Transparency.” Asian Security 12(2): 63–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mattes, Michaela and Savun, Burcu. 2010. “Information, Agreement Design, and the Durability of Civil War Settlements.” American Journal of Political Science 54(2): 511–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCarthy. 2000. “Intelligence in Arms Control and Disarmament.” Verification Yearbook pp. 249–263.Google Scholar
Mearsheimer, John J. 1994. “The False Promise of International Institutions.” International Security 19(3): 5–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meier-Kaienburg, Nils. 2006. “The WTO’s Toughest Case: An Examination of the Effectiveness of the WTO Dispute Resolution Procedure in the Airbus-Boeing Dispute over Aircraft Subsidies.” Journal of Air Law and Commerce 71(2): 191–250Google Scholar
Melvern, Linda. 2006. Conspiracy to Murder: The Rwandan Genocide. New York: Verso.Google Scholar
Menaker, Andrea. 2010. Piercing the Veil of Confidentiality: The Recent Trend towards Greater Public Participation and Transparency in Investor-state Arbitration. In Arbitration Under International Investment Agreements: A Guide to the Key Issues, ed. Yannaca-Small, Katia. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Merke, Fredrico. 2016. “Argentina in a Changing Nuclear Order: An Appraisal.” In Perspectives on the Evolving Nuclear Order, eds. Dalton, Toby, Kassenova, Togzhan, and Williams, Lauryn. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.Google Scholar
Milgrom, Paul R., North, Douglass C. et al. 1990. “The Role of Institutions in the Revival of Trade: The Law Merchant, Private Judges, and the Champagne Fairs.” Economics & Politics 2(1): 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, Nicholas L. 2014a. “Nuclear Dominoes: A Self-Defeating Prophecy?” Security Studies 23(1): 33–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, Nicholas L. 2014b. “The Secret Success of Nonproliferation Sanctions.” International Organization 68(4): 913–944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mitchell, Ronald B. 1994. “Regime Design Matters: Intentional Oil Pollution and Treaty Compliance.” International Organization 48(3): 425–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mitchell, Ronald B. 1998. “Sources of Transparency: Information Systems in International Regimes.” International Studies Quarterly 42(1): 109–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mitrany, David. 1944. A Working Peace System: An Argument for the Functional Development of International Organization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Mitzen, Jennifer. 2013. Power in Concert: The Nineteenth-Century Origins of Global Governance. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mitzen, Jennifer and Schweller, Randall L.. 2011. “Knowing the Unknown Unknowns: Misplaced Certainty and the Onset of War.” Security Studies 20(1): 2–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moe, Terry M. 2005. “Power and Political Institutions.” Perspectives on Politics 3(2): 215–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Monteiro, Nuno P. and Debs, Alexandre. 2014. “The Strategic Logic of Nuclear Proliferation.” International Security 39(2): 7–51. Available at Scholar
Montgomery, Alexander H. and Mount, Adam. 2014. “Misestimation: Explaining US Failures to Predict Nuclear Weapons Programs.” Intelligence and National Security 29(3): 357–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moon, Chung-in and Lee, Sangkeun. 2009. “Military Spending and the Arms Race on the Korean Peninsula.” Asian Perspective 33(4): 69–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moore, Wilbert E. and Tumin, Melvin M.. 1949. “Some Social Functions of Ignorance.” American Sociological Review 14(6): 787–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moranchek, Laura. 2006. “Protecting National Security Evidence While Prosecuting War Crimes: Problems and Lessons for International Justice from the ICTY.” Yale Journal of International Law 31(2): 477–501.Google Scholar
Morrow, James D. 2007. “When Do States Follow the Laws of War?” American Political Science Review 101(3): 559–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morrow, James D. 2014. Order within Anarchy: The Laws of War as an International Institution. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Møse, Erik. 2005. “Main Achievements of the ICTR.” Journal of International Criminal Justice 3(4): 920–943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nasheri, Hedieh. 2005. Economic Espionage and Industrial Spying. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
National Intelligence Council. 1982. “National Intelligence Estimate, NIE-482, Nuclear Proliferation Trends Through 1987.” US Embassy in Seoul, Wilson Center Digital Archive, July 1982.Google Scholar
National Security Archive. 1991. “Algerian and Chinese Statements Help Ease Proliferation Concerns.” Document 7: Memorandum from JohnGoogle Scholar
Kelly, H., Kennedy, Richard T., and E.U. Curtis Bohlen to Under Secretary of State for International Security Affairs Reginald Bartholomew. Secret/Noforn, Excised Copy.Google Scholar
Needell, Jeffrey D. 2015. Emergent Brazil: Key Perspectives on a New Global Power. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Neumann, Thore and Simma, Bruno. 2013. Transparency in International Adjudication.Google Scholar
Nickles, David Paull. 2003. Under the Wire: How the Telegraph Changed Diplomacy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Norheim-Martinsen, Per Martin and Ravndal, Jacob Aasland. 2011. “Towards Intelligence-Driven Peace Operations? The Evolution of UN and EU Intelligence Structures.” International Peacekeeping 18(4): 454–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Norris, Amanda L. and Metzidakis, Katina E.. 2010. “Public Protests, Private Contracts: Confidentiality in ICSID Arbitration and the Cochabamba Water War.” Harvard Negotiation Law Review 15(1): 31–75.Google Scholar
North, Douglass C. and Weingast, Barry R.. 1989. “Constitutions and Commitment: The Evolution of Institutions Governing Public Choice in Seventeenth-Century England.” The Journal of Economic History 49(4): 803–832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nunn, Nathan. 2007. “Relationship-Specificity, Incomplete Contracts, and the Pattern of Trade.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 122(2): 569–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nye, Joseph S., Jr., 2017. “Deterrence and Dissuasion in Cyberspace.” International Security 41(3): 44–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oberdorfer, Don and Carlin, Robert. 2013. The Two Koreas: A Contemporary History. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
Ogilvie-White, Tanya. 2014. “The IAEA and the International Politics of Nuclear Intelligence.” Intelligence and National Security 29(3): 323–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olsen, Tricia D, Payne, Leigh A. and Reiter, Andrew G.. 2010. “The Justice Balance: When Transitional Justice Improves Human Rights and Democracy.” Human Rights Quarterly 32(4): 980–1007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
O’Rourke, Lindsey A. 2018. Covert Regime Change: America’s Secret Cold War. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pandya, Sonal S. 2016. “Political Economy of Foreign Direct Investment: Globalized Production in the Twenty-first Century.” Annual Review of Political Science 19(1): 455–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pape, Robert A. 1997. “Why Economic Sanctions Do Not Work.” International Security 22(2): 90–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Paul, Thazha Varkey. 2000. Power versus Prudence: Why Nations Forgo Nuclear Weapons. Montréal, Québec: McGill–Queen’s University Press.Google Scholar
Pauwelyn, Joost. 2015. “WTO Panelists Are from Mars, ICSID Arbitrators Are from Venus.” Geneva: Graduate Institute. Scholar
Pearson, Graham S. 1999. The UNSCOM Saga: Chemical and Biological Weapons Non-Proliferation. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pelc, Krzysztof J. 2017. “What Explains the Low Success Rate of InvestorState Disputes?” International Organization 71(3): 559–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pelopidas, Benoit. 2013. “Over the Horizon Proliferation Threats.” Intelligence and National Security 28(6): 926–928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perkovich, George. 2001. India’s Nuclear Bomb: The Impact on Global Proliferation. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Peskin, Victor. 2005. “Beyond Victor’s Justice? The Challenge of Prosecuting the Winners at the International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda.” Journal of Human Rights 4(2): 213–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pevehouse, Jon, Nordstrom, Timothy and Warnke, Kevin. 2004. “The Correlates of War 2 International Governmental Organizations Data Version 2.0.” Conflict Management and Peace Science 21(2): 101–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pierson, Paul. 2011. Politics in Time: History, Institutions, and Social Analysis. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Pillar, Paul R. 2006. “Intelligence, Policy, and the War in Iraq.” Foreign Affairs 85(2): 15–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Plautz, Jason. 2015. “CIA Shuts Down Climate Research Program.” National Journal Online. Scholar
Poorooye, Avinash and Feehily, Ronan. 2016. “Confidentiality and Transparency in International Commercial Arbitration: Finding the Right Balance.” Harvard Negotiation Law Review 22(2): 275–324.Google Scholar
Popp, Roland. 2014. “Introduction: Global Order, Cooperation between the Superpowers, and Alliance Politics in the Making of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Regime.” The International History Review 36(2): 195–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Posner, Eric A. and Yoo, John C.. 2005. “Judicial Independence in International Tribunals.” California Law Review 93(1): 1–74Google Scholar
Povinec, Pavel P., Bokuniewicz, Henry, Burnett, William C., Cable, Jaye E., Charette, Matthew E., Comanducci, J.-F., Kontar, Evgeny A., Moore, Willard S., Oberdorfer, June A., Oliveira, Joselene De et al. 2008. “Isotope Tracing of Submarine Groundwater Discharge Offshore Ubatuba, Brazil: Results of the IAEA–UNESCO SGD Project.” Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 99(10): 1596–1610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Power, Samantha. 2001. “Bystanders to Genocide.” Atlantic Monthly 288(2): 84–108.Google Scholar
Pozen, David. 2018. “Transparency’s Ideological Drift.” The Yale Law Journal 128(1): 100–165.Google Scholar
Pozen, David E. 2013. “The Leaky Leviathan: Why the Government Condemns and Condones Unlawful Disclosures of Information.” Harvard Law Review 127(2): 512–635.Google Scholar
Pratt, Tyler. 2018. “Deference and Hierarchy in International Regime Complexes.” International Organization 72(3): 561–590.Google Scholar
Prost, Olivier. 2005. Confidentiality Issues under the DSU: Fact-Finding Process versus Confidentiality. In Key Issues in WTO Dispute Settlement: The First Ten Years, eds. Yerxa, Rufus and Wilson, Bruce. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 190–205.Google Scholar
Putnam, Robert D. 1988. “Diplomacy and Domestic Politics: The Logic of Two-level Games.” International Organization 42(3): 427–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Quester, George H. 1983. “Nuclear Weapons and Israel.” Middle East Journal 37(4): 547–564.Google Scholar
Rabinowitz, Or and Miller, Nicholas L.. 2015. “Keeping the Bombs in the Basement: US Nonproliferation Policy toward Israel, South Africa, and Pakistan.” International Security 40(1): 47–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ramjoué, Melanie. 2011. “Improving UN Intelligence through Civil– Military Collaboration: Lessons from the Joint Mission Analysis Centres.” International Peacekeeping 18(4): 468–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rathbun, Brian C. 2007. “Uncertain about Uncertainty: Understanding the Multiple Meanings of a Crucial Concept in International Relations Theory.” International Studies Quarterly 51(3): 533–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rauf, Tariq and Kelley, Robert. 2015. “Assessing the IAEA ‘Assessment’ of ‘Possible Military Dimensions’ of Iran’s Nuclear Programme.” Arms Control Today 44(7): 8–17.Google Scholar
Redick, John R., Carasales, Julio C. and Wrobel, Paulo S.. 1995. “Nuclear Rapprochement: Argentina, Brazil, and the Nonproliferation Regime.” Washington Quarterly 18(1): 107–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
ReinischAugust, and Knahr, Christina. 2007. “Transparency versus Confidentiality in International Investment Arbitration – The Biwater Gauff Compromise.” The Law & Practice of International Courts and Tribunals 6(1): 97–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Renton, David, Seddon, David and Zeilig, Leo. 2007. The Congo: Plunder and Resistance. Zed Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Richelson, Jeffrey 1990. “The Calculus of Intelligence Cooperation.” International Journal of Intelligence and Counter Intelligence 4(3): 307–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Richelson, Jeffrey. 1995. The US Intelligence Community. New York: Ballinger Publishing.Google Scholar
Richelson, Jeffery T. 1997. A Century of Spies: Intelligence in the Twentieth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Richelson, Jeffrey. 2007. Spying on the Bomb: American Nuclear Intelligence from Nazi Germany to Iran and North Korea. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
Rid, Thomas and Buchanan, Ben. 2015. “Attributing Cyber Attacks.” Journal of Strategic Studies 38(1–2): 4–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rittenhouse Green, Brendan and Long, Austin. 2016. “The Role of Clandestine Capabilities in World Politics.” Working Paper.Google Scholar
Ritter, Emily Hencken and Wolford, Scott. 2012. “Bargaining and the Effectiveness of International Criminal Regimes.” Journal of Theoretical Politics 24(2): 149–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robbins, Carla Anne. 2003. “Cargo Seizure Fueled Libya Arms Shift.” Wall Street Journal, December 31, 2003.Google Scholar
Roberts, Anthea. 2018. “Incremental, Systemic, and Paradigmatic Reform of Investor-state Arbitration.” American Journal of International Law 112(3): 410–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rockwood, Laura. 2007. “Safeguards and Nonproliferation: The First Half-Century from a Legal Perspective.” Journal of Nuclear Materials Management 35(4): 7.Google Scholar
Rockwood, Laura. 2013. “Legal Framework for IAEA Safeguards.” Available at Scholar
Rolington, Alfred. 2013. Strategic Intelligence for the 21st Century: The Mosaic Method. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Rose-Ackerman, Susan and Tobin, Jennifer. 2005. “Foreign Direct Investment and the Business Environment in Developing Countries: The Impact of Bilateral Investment Treaties.” William Davidson Institute Working Paper Series 587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenblum, Peter and Maples, Susan. 2009. Contracts Confidential: Ending Secret Deals in the Extractive Industries. New York: Revenue Watch Institute.Google Scholar
Rovner, Joshua. 2011. Fixing the Facts: National Security and the Politics of Intelligence. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rublee, Maria Rost. 2009. Nonproliferation Norms: Why States Choose Nuclear Restraint. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.Google Scholar
Rudolph, Christopher. 2001. “Constructing an Atrocities Regime: The Politics of War Crimes Tribunals.” International Organization 55(3): 655–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruggie, John Gerard. 1982. “International Regimes, Transactions, and Change: Embedded Liberalism in the Postwar Economic Order.” International Organization 36(2): 379–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruzicka, Jan and Wheeler, Nicholas J.. 2010. “The Puzzle of Trusting Relationships in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.” International Affairs 86(1): 69–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sagan, Scott D. 2011. “The Causes of Nuclear Weapons Proliferation.” Annual Review of Political Science 14(1): 225–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sagan, Scott D. 1996. “Why Do States Build Nuclear Weapons? Three Models in Search of a Bomb.” International Security 21(3): 54–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sagar, Rahul. 2016. Secrets and Leaks: The Dilemma of State Secrecy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Schabas, William A. 2006. The UN International Criminal Tribunals: The Former Yugoslavia, Rwanda and Sierra Leone. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scheffer, David. 2012. All the Missing Souls: A Personal History of the War Crimes Tribunals. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Schmitt, Michael N. 2013. “Below the Threshold Cyber Operations: The Countermeasures Response Option and International Law.” Virginia Journal of International Law 54(3): 697–732.Google Scholar
Schudson, Michael. 2015. The Rise of the Right to Know: Politics and the Culture of Transparency, 1945–1975. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schuessler, John M. 2015. Deceit on the Road to War: Presidents, Politics, and American Democracy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Schultz, Thomas and Dupont, Cédric. 2014. “Investment Arbitration: Promoting the Rule of Law or Over-empowering Investors? A Quantitative Empirical Study.” European Journal of International Law 25(4): 1147–1168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sepuldeva, M., Banning, Th Van and Genugten, Willem van. 2004. Human Rights Reference Handbook. San Jose, Costa Rica: University for Peace.Google Scholar
Shea, Thomas E. 2015. “The Verification Challenge: Iran and the IAEA.” Arms Control Today 45(5): 8.Google Scholar
Shirlow, Esmé. 2014. “Les Laboratoires Servier, SAA, and others v. Republic of Poland: Defining the Nature of the Police Powers? Defence? and the Deference Applicable in Regulatory Expropriation Cases.” ICSID Review-Foreign Investment Law Journal 29(3): 559–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shirlow, Esmé. 2016. “Dawn of a New Era? The UNCITRAL Rules and UN Convention on Transparency in Treaty-Based Investor-State Arbitration.” ICSID Review-Foreign Investment Law Journal 31(3): 622–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sikkink, Kathryn and Joon Kim, Hun. 2013. “The Justice Cascade: The Origins and Effectiveness of Prosecutions of Human Rights Violations.” Annual Review of Law and Social Science 9(1): 269–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Siler, Michael Joe. 1992. “Explaining Variation in Nuclear Outcomes Among Southern States: Bargaining Analysis of U.S. Non-Proliferation Policies Towards Brazil, Egypt, India, and South Korea” (Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Southern California).Google Scholar
Simmons, Beth A. and Danner, Allison. 2010. “Credible Commitments and the International Criminal Court.” International Organization 64(2): 225–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sinai, Joshua. 1997. “Libya’s Pursuit of Weapons of Mass Destruction.” The Nonproliferation Review 4(3): 92–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Slantchev, Branislav L. 2010. “Feigning Weakness.” International Organization 64(3): 357–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sluiter, Goran. 2005. “The ICTR and the Protection of Witnesses.” Journal of International Criminal Justice 3(4): 962–976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sluiter, Göran, Friman, Håkan, Linton, Suzannah, Vasiliev, Sergey and Zappalà, Salvatore. 2013. International Criminal Procedure: Principles and Rules. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Smith, Gerard C. and Cobban, Helena. 1988. “A Blind Eye to Nuclear Proliferation.” Foreign Affairs 68(3): 53–70.Google Scholar
Solingen, Etel. 2009. Nuclear Logics: Contrasting Paths in East Asia and the Middle East. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sommerer, Thomas and Tallberg, Jonas. 2016. “Transnational Access to International organizations 1950–2010: A New Data Set.” International Studies Perspectives 18(3): 247–266.Google Scholar
Sommerer, Thomas and Tallberg, Jonas. 2019. “Diffusion across International Organizations: Connectivity and Convergence.” International Organization 73(2): 399–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sotomayor, Arturo C. 2013. “Brazil and Mexico in the Nonproliferation Regime: Common Structures and Divergent Trajectories in Latin America.” The Nonproliferation Review 20(1): 81–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spaniel, William and Poznansky, Michael. 2018. “Credible Commitment in Covert Affairs.” American Journal of Political Science 62(3): 668–681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
St John, Taylor. 2018. The Rise of Investor-State Arbitration: Politics, Law, and Unexpected Consequences. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stahn, Carsten and Sluiter, Göran. 2009. The Emerging Practice of the International Criminal Court. Leiden, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stasavage, David. 2004. “Open-Door or Closed-Door? Transparency in Domestic and International Bargaining.” International Organization 58(4): 667–703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steinbach, Armin. 2013. “The Treatment of Confidential Information in WTO Dispute Settlement Proceedings.” American Review of International Arbitration 24(4): 591–610.Google Scholar
Stiglitz, Joseph E. 2003. “Democratizing the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank: Governance and Accountability.” Governance 16(1): 111–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stone, Randall W. 2011. Controlling Institutions: International Organizations and the Global Economy. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stover, Eric, Peskin, Victor and Koenig, Alexa. 2016. Hiding in Plain Sight: The Pursuit of War Criminals from Nuremberg to the War on Terror. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tallberg, Jonas. 2003. “The Agenda-Shaping Powers of the EU Council Presidency.” Journal of European Public Policy 10(1): 1–19.Google Scholar
Tallberg, Jonas, Sommerer, Thomas and Squatrito, Theresa. 2013. The Opening Up of International Organizations. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tallberg, Jonas, Sommerer, Thomas, Squatrito, Theresa and Jönsson, Christer. 2014. “Explaining the Transnational Design of International Organizations.” International Organization 68(4): 741–774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Terris, Daniel, Romano, Cesare P. R. and Swigart, Leigh. 2007. The International Judge: An Introduction to the Men and Women Who Decide the World’s Cases. Lebanon, NH: University Press of New England.Google Scholar
Thayer, Bradley A. 1995. “The Causes of Nuclear Proliferation and the Utility of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Regime.” Security Studies 4(3): 463–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
The National Security Burr. 2007. “The Algerian Nuclear Problem, 1991: Controversy over the Es Salam Nuclear Reactor.” The Nuclear Vault, September 10, 2007.Google Scholar
Thomas, Ward. 2000. “Norms and Security: The Case of International Assassination.” International Security 25(1): 105–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thompson, Alexander. 2006. “Coercion through IOs: The Security Council and the Logic of Information Transmission.” International Organization 60(1): 1–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thorne, Leslie. 1992. “IAEA Nuclear Inspections in Iraq.” IAEA Bulletin 1: 16–24.Google Scholar
Tiemessen, Alana. 2014. “The International Criminal Court and the Politics of Prosecutions.” The International Journal of Human Rights 18(4–5): 444–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Toniolo, Gianni and Clement, Piet. 2005. Central Bank Cooperation at the Bank for International Settlements, 1930–1973. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Totten, Samuel, Bartrop, Paul Robert and Jacobs, Steven L.. 2008. Dictionary of Genocide. Vol. 1. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.Google Scholar
UNCTAD. 2012. World Investment Report 2012. Geneva: United Nations. Vabulas, Felicity and Duncan Snidal. 2013.
Valeriano, Brandon and Maness, Ryan C.. 2014. “The Dynamics of Cyber Conflict between Rival Antagonists, 2001–11.” Journal of Peace Research 51(3): 347–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van der Meer, Sico. 2011. “Not That Bad: Looking Back on 65 Years of Nuclear Nonproliferation Efforts.” Security and Human Rights 22(1): 37–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Evera, Stephen. 1999. Causes of War: Power and the Roots of Conflict. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Van Wyk, Jo-Ansie. 2012. “Nuclear Diplomacy as Riche Diplomacy: South Africa’s Postapartheid Relations with the International Atomic Energy Agency.” South African Journal of International Affairs 19(2): 179–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van Wyk, Jo-Ansie. 2015. “Atoms, Apartheid, and the Agency: South Africa’s Relations with the IAEA, 1957–1995.” Cold War History 15(3): 395–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van Wyk, Jo-Ansie and van Wyk, Anna-Mart. 2015. “From the Nuclear Laager to the Non-Proliferation Club: South Africa and the NPT.” South African Historical Journal 67(1): 32–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Verdier, Daniel. 2008. “Multilateralism, Bilateralism, and Exclusion in the Nuclear Proliferation Regime.” International Organization 62(3): 439–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vinjamuri, Leslie and Snyder, Jack. 2004. “Advocacy and Scholarship in the Study of International War Crime Tribunals and Transitional Justice.” Annual Review of Political Science 7(1): 345–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vinjamuri, Leslie and Snyder, Jack. 2015. “Law and Politics in Transitional Justice.” Annual Review of Political Science 18(1): 303–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Voeten, Erik. 2005. “The Political Origins of the UN Security Council’s Ability to Legitimize the Use of Force.” International Organization 59(3): 527–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vreeland, James R. and Dreher, Axel. 2014. The Political Economy of the United Nations Security Council. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Wald, Patricia M. 2001. “The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugolsavia Comes of Age: Some Observations on Day-to-Day Dilemmas of an International Court.” Washington University Journal of Law & Policy 5(1): 87–118.Google Scholar
Wald, Patricia M. 2002a. “Dealing with Witnesses in War Crime Trials: Lessons from the Yugoslav Tribunal.” Yale Human Rights & Development Law Journal 5(1): 217–239.Google Scholar
Wald, Patricia M. 2002b. “General Radislav Krstic: A War Crimes Case Study.” Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics 16(3): 445–472.Google Scholar
Wald, Patricia M. 2011. “Apprehending War Criminals: Does International Cooperation Work?” American University International Law Review 27(2): 229–262.Google Scholar
Waldorf, Lars. 2009. “A Mere Pretense of Justice: Complementarity, Sham Trials, and Victor’s Justice at the Rwanda Tribunal.” Fordham International Law Journal 33(4): 1221–1277.Google Scholar
Walsh, James Igoe. 2010. The International Politics of Intelligence Sharing. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Wang, Ben, Raymond, Nathaniel, Gould, Gabrielle and Baker, Isaac. 2013. “Problems from Hell, Solution in the Heavens?: Identifying Obstacles and Opportunities for Employing Geospatial Technologies to Document and Mitigate Mass Atrocities.” Stability: International Journal of Security and Development 2(3): 1–18.Google Scholar
Warner, Michael. 2014. The Rise and Fall of Intelligence: an International Security History. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
Weaver, William G. and Pallitto, Robert M.. 2005. “State Secrets and Executive Power.” Political Science Quarterly 120(1): 85–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weisburd, A. Mark. 2010. Use of Force: The Practice of States since World War II. University Park, PA: Penn State University Press.Google Scholar
Wells, Christina E. 2010. “State Secrets and Executive Accountability.” Constitutional Commentary 26(3): 625–650.Google Scholar
Western, Jon. 2005. Selling Intervention and War: The Presidency, the Media, and the American Public. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Wheeler, Nicholas J. 2000. Saving Strangers: Humanitarian Intervention in International Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Wheeler, Nicholas J. 2018. Trusting Enemies: Interpersonal Relationships in International Conflict. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whiting, Alex. 2009. “Lead Evidence and Discovery before the International Criminal Court: the Lubanga Case.” UCLA Journal of International Law & Foreign Affairs 14(1): 207–233.Google Scholar
Wiebes, Cees. 2003. Intelligence and the War in Bosnia, 1992–1995. Vol. 1. Münster, Germany: LIT Verlag.Google Scholar
Williamson, Clint. 2007. “The Role of the United States in International Criminal Justice.” Penn State International Law Review 25(4): 819–832.Google Scholar
Wit, Joel S., Poneman, Daniel B. and Gallucci, Robert L.. 2004. Going Critical: The First North Korean Nuclear Crisis. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
Yago, Kazuhiko. 2013. The Financial History of the Bank for International Settlements. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yarhi-Milo, Keren. 2013. “Tying Hands behind Closed Doors: The Logic and Practice of Secret Reassurance.” Security Studies 22(3): 405–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yu, Hong-Lin. 2018. “Who Is In, Who Is Out? How the UNCITRAL Transparency Rules Can Influence the Upcoming Amendments of the ICSID Arbitration Rules.” Contemporary Asia Arbitration Journal 11(1): 45–72.Google Scholar
Zande, Daniel L. Vande. 2010. “Coercive Power and the Demise of the Star Chamber.” American Journal of Legal History 50(3): 326–349.Google Scholar
Zifferero, Maurizio. 1993. “The IAEA: Neutralizing Iraq’s Nuclear Weapons Potential.” Arms Control Today 23(3): 7–10.Google Scholar