Published online by Cambridge University Press: 17 February 2022
The last chapter focuses on the gradual transition that both the Iraqi Kurdish and Southern Sudanese liberation movements experienced, from relying solely on armed resistance to adopting other forms of liberation strategies. It shows that while guerrilla fighting continued throughout most of the 1980s, in the early 1990s, the second-generation liberation movements began shifting their strategic emphasis from guerrilla warfare to institution building and governance as forms of resistance. The Kurdish and Southern Sudanese leaders were exposed during that period to changing trends in liberation and self-determination struggles in the former Soviet and Yugoslav republics. Once again, they internalized these lessons and applied them to their cases. They did so by taking advantage of the opportunities brought by changing geopolitical circumstances. By showing that these transitions were the outcome of continued dialogue and interaction, the book further establishes them as essential sources of strategy and policymaking.