Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-l69ms Total loading time: 1.221 Render date: 2022-08-08T10:03:29.678Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

PART II - Segmental Acquisition

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 January 2021

Ratree Wayland
Affiliation:
University of Florida
Get access

Summary

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Chapter
Information
Second Language Speech Learning
Theoretical and Empirical Progress
, pp. 193 - 246
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Altenberg, E. P., & Vago, R. M. (1983). Theoretical implications of an error analysis of second language phonology production. Language Learning, 33, 427447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Best, C. T. (1995). A direct realist view of cross-language speech perception. In Strange, W (Ed.), Speech perception and linguistic experience: Issues in cross-language research (pp. 171204). Timonium, MD: York Press.Google Scholar
Best, C.T., and Tyler, M. D. (2007). Nonnative and second-language speech perception: Commonalities and complementarities. In Bohn, O.-S. and Munro, M. J. (Eds.), Language experience in second language speech learning: In honor of James Emil Flege (pp. 1334). Amsterdam: Benjamin.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blevins, J. (2006). A theoretical synopsis of Evolutionary Phonology. Theoretical Linguistics, 32, 117166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brannen, K. (2002). The role of perception in differential substitution. Canadian Journal of Linguistics/Revue canadienne de linguistique, 47, 146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Broersma, M. (2005). Perception of familiar contrasts in unfamiliar positions. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 117, 38903901.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Broselow, E., Chen, S. I., & Wang, C. (1998). The emergence of the unmarked in second language phonology. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 20, 261280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Calabrese, A. (1995). A constraint-based theory of phonological markedness and simplification procedures. Linguistic Inquiry, 26, 373463.Google Scholar
Chao, K. Y., & Chen, L. M. (2008). A cross-linguistic study of voice onset time in stop consonant productions. Computational Linguistics and Chinese Language Processing, 13, 215232.Google Scholar
Cho, T., & Keating, P. A. (2001). Articulatory and acoustic studies on domain-initial strengthening in Korean. Journal of Phonetics, 29, 155190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cho, T., Jun, S. A., & Ladefoged, P. (2002). Acoustic and aerodynamic correlates of Korean stops and fricatives. Journal of Phonetics, 30, 193228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, E. V. (2009). First language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dinnsen, D. A., & Elbert, M. (1984). On the relationship between phonology and learning. ASHA Monographs, 22, 5968.Google Scholar
Eckman, F. R. (1977). Markedness and the contrastive analysis hypothesis. Language Learning, 27, 315330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eckman, F. R. (1981). On the naturalness of interlanguage phonological rules. Language Learning, 31, 195216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eckman, F. R. (1984). Universals, typologies, and interlanguages. In Rutherford, W. E. (Ed.), Language universals and second language acquisition (pp. 79105). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edwards, H. T. (2003). Applied phonetics: The sounds of American English (3rd ed.). Clifton Park, NY: Thomson-Delmar Learning.Google Scholar
Ferguson, C. A. (1978). Phonological processes. In Greenberg, J, Ferguson, C, & Moravcsik, E (Eds.), Universals of human language: Vol. 2. Phonology (pp. 403442). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Flege, J. E. (1987). The production of “new” and “similar” phones in a foreign language: Evidence for the effect of equivalence classification. Journal of Phonetics, 15, 4765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J. E. (1989). Chinese subjects’ perception of the word-final English /t/–/d/contrast: Performance before and after training. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 86, 16841697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J. E. (1993). Production and perception of a novel, second-language phonetic contrast. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 93, 15891608.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Flege, J. E. (1995). Second language speech learning: Theory, findings, and problems. In Strange, W (Ed.), Speech perception and linguistic experience: Issues in cross-language research (pp. 233277). Timonium, MD: York Press.Google Scholar
Flege, J. E., Munro, M. J., & Skelton, L. (1992). Production of the word-final English /t/-/d/ contrast by native speakers of English, Mandarin, and Spanish. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 92, 128143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greenberg, J. H. (1978). Some generalizations concerning initial and final consonant clusters. In Greenberg, J, Ferguson, C, & Moravcsik, E (Eds.), Universals of human language: Vol. 2. Phonology (pp. 243279). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Hanulikova, A., & Weber, A. (2010). Production of English interdental fricatives by Dutch, German, and English speakers. In New Sounds 2010: Sixth International Symposium on the Acquisition of Second Language Speech (pp. 173178). Poznan, Poland: Adam Mickiewicz University.Google Scholar
Harnsberger, J. D. (2001). On the relationship between identification and discrimination of non-native nasal consonants. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 110, 489503.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hawkins, J. A. (1987). Implicational universals as predictors of language acquisition. Linguistics, 25, 453473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hume, E. (2011). Markedness. In van Oostendorp, M, Ewen, C, Hume, E, & Rice, K (Eds.), Companion to phonology (Vol. 1, pp. 79106). Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Ingram, D., Christensen, L., Veach, S., & Webster, B. (1980). The acquisition of wordinitial fricatives and affricates in English between 2 and 6 years. In Yeni-Komshian, G, Kavanagh, J, & Ferguson, C (Eds.), Child phonology (pp. 169192). New York: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ingram, J. C., & Park, S. G. (1998). Language, context, and speaker effects in the identification and discrimination of English /r/ and /l/ by Japanese and Korean listeners. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 103, 11611174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jakobson, R. (1968). Child language aphasia and phonological universals. Paris: Mouton.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jongman, A., Wayland, R., & Wong, S. (2000). Acoustic characteristics of English fricatives. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 108, 12521263.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kang, K. H., & Guion, S. G. (2006). Phonological systems in bilinguals: Age of learning effects on the stop consonant systems of Korean-English bilinguals. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 119, 16721683.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Keating, P. A. (1984). Physiological effects on stop consonant voicing. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, 59, 2934.Google Scholar
Kim, H., & Jongman, A. (1996). Acoustic and perceptual evidence for complete neutralization of manner of articulation in Korean. Journal of Phonetics, 24, 295312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klatt, D. H. (1976). Linguistic uses of segmental duration in English: Acoustic and perceptual evidence. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 59, 12081221.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lombardi, L. (2003). Second language data and constraints on manner: Explaining substitutions for the English interdentals. Second Language Research, 19, 225250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lisker, L. (1986). “Voicing” in English: A catalogue of acoustic features signaling /b/ versus /p/ in trochees. Language and Speech, 29, 311.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maddieson, I. (1984). Patterns of sound. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maddieson, I. (2005). Presence of uncommon consonants. In Haspelmath, M, Dryer, M. S., Gil, D, & Comrie, B (Eds.), The world atlas of language structures (pp. 8283). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Major, R. C., & Faudree, M. C. (1996). Markedness universals and the acquisition of voicing contrasts by Korean speakers of English. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18, 6990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, G. A., & Nicely, P. E. (1955). An analysis of perceptual confusions among some English consonants. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 27, 338352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ohala, J. (1983). The origin of sound patterns in vocal tract constraints. In MacNeilage, P. F. (Ed.), The production of speech (pp. 189216). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Park, H., & de Jong, K. J. (2008). Perceptual category mapping between English and Korean prevocalic obstruents: Evidence from mapping effects in second language identification skills. Journal of Phonetics, 36, 704723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Polka, L. (1991). Cross-language speech perception in adults: Phonemic, phonetic, and acoustic contributions. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 89, 29612977.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Polka, L., Colantonio, C., & Sundara, M. (2001). A cross-language comparison of /d/-/ð/ perception: Evidence for a new developmental pattern. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 109, 21902201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raphael, L. J. (1972). Preceding vowel duration as a cue to the perception of the voicing characteristic of word-final consonants in American English. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 51, 12961303.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rau, D. V., Chang, H. H. A., & Tarone, E. E. (2009). Think or sink: Chinese learners’ acquisition of the English voiceless interdental fricative. Language Learning, 59, 581621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rochet, B. L., & Fei, Y. (1991). Effect of consonant and vowel context on Mandarin Chinese VOT: Production and perception. Canadian Acoustics, 19, 105106.Google Scholar
Schmidt, A. M. (1996). Cross-language identification of consonants. Part 1. Korean perception of English. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 99, 32013211.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simon, E. (2009). Acquiring a new second language contrast: An analysis of the English laryngeal system of native speakers of Dutch. Second Language Research, 25, 377408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Studebaker, G. A. (1985). A “rationalized” arcsine transform. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 28, 455462.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wardrip-Fruin, C. (1982). On the status of temporal cues to phonetic categories: Preceding vowel duration as a cue to voicing in final stop consonants. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 71, 187195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wester, F., Gilbers, D., & Lowie, W. (2007). Substitution of dental fricatives in English by Dutch L2 speakers. Language Sciences, 29, 477491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aoyama, K., Flege, J. E., Guion, S. G., Akahane-Yamada, R., & Yamada, T. (2004). Perceived phonetic dissimilarity and L2 speech learning: The case of Japanese /r/ and English /l/ and /r/. Journal of Phonetics, 32, 233250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aoyama, K., Flege, J. E., Akahane-Yamada, R., & Yamada, T. (2019a). An acoustic analysis of American English liquids by adults and children: Native English speakers and native Japanese speakers of English. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 146(4), 26712681.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aoyama, K., Flege, J. E., Yamada, T., & Akahane-Yamada, R. (2019b). Acoustical analysis of English voiceless fricatives by native Japanese adults and children (/f θ s/). Paper presented at the 130th meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, Louisville, KY.Google Scholar
Aoyama, K., & Guion, S. G. (2007). Prosody in second language acquisition: An acoustic analysis on duration and F0 range. In Bohn, O & Munro, M. J. (Eds.), Language experience in second language speech learning: In honor of James Emil Flege (pp. 281297). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aoyama, K., Guion, S. G., Flege, J. E., Yamada, T., & Akahane-Yamada, R. (2008). The first years in an L2-speaking environment: A comparison of Japanese children and adults learning American English. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 46, 6190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Best, C. T. (1995). A direct realist view of cross-language speech perception. In Strange, W (Ed.), Speech perception and linguistic experience: Issues in cross-language research (pp. 171204). Timonium, MD: York Press.Google Scholar
Best, C. T., & Tyler, M. D. (2007). Nonnative and second-language speech perception: Commonalities and complementarities. In Bohn, O.-S. & Munro, M (Eds.), Language experience in second language speech learning: In honor of James Emil Flege (pp. 1334). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boersma, P., & Weenink, D. (2019). Praat: Doing phonetics by computer (version 6.0.52) [Computer program]. Retrieved from www.praat.org/Google Scholar
Flege, J. E. (1987). The production of “new” and “similar” phones in a foreign language: Evidence for the effect of equivalence classification. Journal of Phonetics, 15, 4765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J. E. (1995). Second language speech learning: Theory, findings, and problems. In Strange, W (Ed.), Speech perception and linguistic experience: Issues in cross-language research (pp. 233277). Timonium, MD: York Press.Google Scholar
Guion, S. G. (2003). The vowel systems of Quichua-Spanish bilinguals age of acquisition effects on the mutual influence of the first and second languages. Phonetica, 60, 98128.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Guion, S. G. (2005). Knowledge of English word stress patterns in early and late Korean-English bilinguals. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 503533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guion, S. G., Flege, J. E., Akahane-Yamada, R., & Pruitt, J. C. (2000a). An investigation of current models of second language speech perception: The case of Japanese adults’ perception of English consonants. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 107, 27112724.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Guion, S. G., Flege, J. E., Liu, S. H., & Yeni-Komshian, G. H. (2000b). Age of learning effects on the duration of sentences produced in a second language. Applied Psycholinguistics, 21, 205228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guion, S. G., Flege, J. E., & Loftin, J. D. (2000c). The effect of L1 use on pronunciation in Quichua-Spanish bilinguals. Journal of Phonetics, 28, 2742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guion, S. G., Harada, T., & Clark, J. J. (2004). Early and late Spanish-English bilinguals’ acquisition of English word stress patterns. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 7, 207226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jongman, A., Wayland, R., & Wong, S. (2000). Acoustic characteristics of English fricatives. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 108, 12521263.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ladefoged, P., & Johnson, K. (2015). A course in phonetics (7th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.Google Scholar
Lee, B., Guion, S. G., & Harada, T. (2006). Acoustic analysis of the production of unstressed English vowels by early and late Korean and Japanese bilinguals. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28, 487513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, F. (2012). Language-specific developmental differences in speech production: A cross-language acoustic study. Child Development, 83, 13031315.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Li, F., Edwards, J., & Beckman, M. E. (2009). Contrast and covert contrast: The phonetic development of voiceless sibilant fricatives in English and Japanese toddlers. Journal of Phonetics, 37, 111124.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maniwa, K., Wade, T., & Jongman, A. (2009). Acoustic characteristics of clearly spoken English fricatives. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 125, 39623973.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oh, G. E., Guion-Anderson, S., Aoyama, K., Flege, J. E., Akahane-Yamada, R., & Yamada, T. (2011). A one-year longitudinal study of English and Japanese vowel production by Japanese adults and children in an English-speaking setting. Journal of Phonetics, 39, 156167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Piske, T., MacKay, I. R. A., & Flege, J. E. (2001). Factors affecting degree of foreign accent in an L2: A review. Journal of Phonetics, 29, 191215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vance, T. (1987). An introduction to Japanese phonology. New York: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
Wayland, R. P., & Guion, S. G. (2003). Perceptual discrimination of Thai tones by naïve and experienced learners of Thai. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 113129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beddor, P. S. (1993). The perception of nasal vowels. In Huffman, M. K. & Krakow, R. A. (Eds.), Nasals, nasalization, and the velum (Phonetics and Phonology Vol. 5, pp. 171196). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Beddor, P. S., & Krakow, R. A. (1999). Perception of coarticulatory nasalization by speakers of English and Thai: Evidence for partial compensation. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 106, 28682887.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beddor, P. S., Krakow, R. A., & Goldstein, L. M. (1986). Perceptual constraints and phonological change: A study of nasal vowel height. Phonology Yearbook, 3, 197217.Google Scholar
Best, C. T. (1994). The emergence of language-specific phonemic influences in infant speech perception. In Goodman, J. G. & Nusbaum, H. C. (Eds.), The development of speech perception (pp. 167224), Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Best, C. T. (1995). A direct realist view of cross-language speech perception. In Strange, W (Ed.), Speech perception and linguistic experience (pp. 171204). Baltimore: York Press.Google Scholar
Best, C. T., McRoberts, G. W., & Sithole, N. M. (1988). Examination of perceptual reorganization for nonnative speech contrasts: Zulu click discrimination by English-speaking adults and infants. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 14(3), 345360.Google ScholarPubMed
Bohn, O.-S., & Flege, J. (1992). The production of new and similar vowels by adult German learners of English. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 14, 131158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boomershine, A. (2013). The perception of English vowels by monolingual, bilingual, and heritage speakers of Spanish and English. In Selected proceedings of the 15th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium (pp. 103118). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.Google Scholar
Bundgaard-Nielsen, R., Best, C. T., & Tyler, M. D. (2011). Vocabulary size matters: The assimilation of second-language Australian English vowels to first-language Japanese vowel categories. Applied Psycholinguistics, 32, 5167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J. E. (1995). Second language speech learning theory, findings, and problems. In Strange, W (Ed.), Speech perception and linguistic experience (pp. 223277). Baltimore: York Press.Google Scholar
Flege, J. E., & MacKay, I. (2004). Perceiving vowels in a second language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fox, A. R., Flege, J. E., & Munro, M. J. (1995). The perception of English and Spanish vowels by native English and Spanish listeners: A multidimensional scaling analysis. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 97, 25402551.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frieda, E., & Nozawa, T. (2007). You are what you eat phonetically: The effect of linguistic experience on the perception of foreign vowels. In Bohn, O.-S. & Munro, M. J. (Eds.), Language experience in second language speech learning: In honor of James Emil Flege (pp. 7996). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harnsberger, J. D. (2001). On the relationship between identification and discrimination of non-native nasal consonants. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 110, 489503.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hillenbrand, J. M., Clark, M. J., & Nearey, T. M. (2001). Effects of consonant environment on vowel formant patterns. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 109, 748763.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ingram, J. C. L., & Park, S.-G. (1997). Cross-language vowel perception and production by Japanese and Korean learners of English. Journal of Phonetics, 25, 343370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, K. (1997). Acoustic and auditory phonetics. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Kasahara, K., Machida, N., Osada, E., Takahashi, T., & Yoshizawa, S. (2012). Vocabulary knowledge of 5th and 6th graders at elementary school: Connection between sound, meaning and spelling. JES Journal, 12, 90101.Google Scholar
Krakow, R. A., Beddor, P. S., Goldstein, L. M., & Fowler, C. A. (1988). Coarticulatory influence on the perceived height of nasal vowels. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 83, 11461158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Labov, W. (2010). Principles of linguistic change: Cognitive and cultural factors. West Sussex, England: Wiley-Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Labov, W., Ash, S., & Boberg, C. (2005). Atlas of North American English: Phonetics, phonology and sound change. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ladefoged, P. (2003). Phonetic data analysis: An introduction to fieldwork and instrumental techniques. Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Ladefoged, P. (2005). A course in phonetics (5th ed.). Boston: Thomson.Google Scholar
Lengeris, A. (2009). Perceptual assimilation and L2 learning: Evidence from the perception of southern British English vowels by native speakers of Greek and Japanese. Phonetica, 66, 169187.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levy, E. S. (2009). Language experience and consonantal context effects on perceptual assimilation of French vowels by American-English learners of French. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 125, 11381152.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morrison, G. S. (2002). Japanese listeners’ use of duration cues in the identification of English high front vowels. In Proceedings of the 28th annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society (pp. 189200).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nozawa, T. (2018). How native speakers of Japanese and American English label vowels of each other’s L1 in terms of their L1 vowel categories. Research on Phonetic Language, 12, 3954.Google Scholar
Nozawa, T. (2019). Effects of the manner of articulation of the syllable-final consonant on the perception of American English vowels by native Japanese speakers: Divergence between Japanese Speakers’ image of English vowels and what English vowels really sound like to them. PhD dissertation, Osaka University.Google Scholar
Nozawa, T., & Cheon, S. Y. (2017). Identification of vowels of two different varieties of English by native speakers of Japanese and Korean. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 141, 3519 (abstract).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nozawa, T., & Frieda, E. M. (2007). Perceptual similarity of American English and Japanese vowels for native speakers of American English and Japanese. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 122, 3529 (abstract).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nozawa, T., & Wayland, R. (2012). Effects of consonantal contexts on the discrimination and identification of American English vowels by native speakers of Japanese. Journal of the Japan Society of Speech Sciences, 13, 1939.Google Scholar
Olive, J. P., Greenwood, A., & Coleman, J. (1993). Acoustics of American English speech. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
Polka, L. (1992). Characterizing the influence of native language experience on adult speech perception. Perception and Psychophysics, 1, 3752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Polka, L. (1995). Linguistic influence in adult perception of non-native vowel contrasts. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 97, 12861296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Quackenbush, E. (1974). How Japanese English words. Linguistics – An Interdisciplinary Journal of the Language Sciences, 131, 5985.Google Scholar
Roeder, R. (2010). Effects of consonantal context on the pronunciation of /æ/ in the English of speakers of Mexican heritage from South Central Michigan. In Preston, D. R. & Niedzielski, N (Eds.), A reader in sociophonetics (pp. 7189). New York: De Gruyter Mouton.Google Scholar
Strange, W., Akahane-Yamada, R., Kubo, R., Trent, S. A., & Nishi, K. (2001). Effects of consonantal context on perceptual assimilation of American English vowels by Japanese listeners. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 109, 16911704.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Strange, W., Akahane-Yamada, R., Kubo, R., Trent, S. A., Nishi, K., & Jenkins, J. J. (1998). Perceptual assimilation of American English vowels by Japanese listeners. Journal of Phonetics, 26, 311344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tanowitz, J., & Beddor, P. S. (1997). Temporal characteristics of coarticulatory vowel nasalization in English. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 101, 3194 (abstract).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tyler, M. D., Best, C. T., Faber, A., & Levitt, A. G. (2014). Perceptual assimilation and discrimination of non-native vowel contrasts. Phonetica, 71, 421.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wright, J. T. (1986). The behavior of nasalized vowels in the perceptual vowel space. In Ohara, J. J. & Jaeger, J. J. (Eds.), Experimental phonology (pp. 4567). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×