Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-684899dbb8-pcn4s Total loading time: 1.258 Render date: 2022-05-17T15:28:50.571Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

References

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 December 2021

Eduardo Moncada
Affiliation:
Barnard College, Columbia University
Get access

Summary

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Chapter
Information
Resisting Extortion
Victims, Criminals, and States in Latin America
, pp. 218 - 240
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2022

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Abrahams, Raphael Garvin. (1998). Vigilant Citizens: Vigilantism and the State. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
Abrahams, Ray. (2020). “Vigilantism in Comparative Perspective.” In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice. https://doi-org.ezproxy.cul.columbia.edu/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264079.013.585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Abrahamsen, Rita and Williams, Michael C.. (2010). Security Beyond the State: Private Security in International Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aburto, José Manuel, Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram, García-Guerrero, Víctor Manuel, and Canudas-Romo, Vladimir. (2016). “Homicides in Mexico Reversed Life Expectancy Gains for Men and Slowed Them for Women, 2000–2010.” Health Affairs 35(1): 8895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Acevedo, Carlos, Barry, Deborah, and Rosa, Herman. (1995). “El Salvador’s Agricultural Sector: Macroeconomic Policy, Agrarian Change and the Environment.” World Development 23(12): 21532172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aguilar, Jeannette. (2019). Las Políticas de Seguridad Pública en El Salvador: 2003–2018. San Salvador: Fundación Heinrich Böll.Google Scholar
Aguilar, Jeannette and Miranda, Lissette. (2006). “Entre la Articulación y la Competencia: Las Respuestas de la Sociedad Civil Organizada a las Pandillas en El Salvador.” In Maras y Pandillas en Centroamérica: Las Respuestas de la Sociedad Civil Organizada, edited by Cruz, José Miguel, 3764. San Salvador: UCA Editores.Google Scholar
Ahmad, Aisha. (2017). Jihad & Co.: Black Markets and Islamist Power. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Albarracín, Juan. (2018). “Criminalized Electoral Politics in Brazilian Urban Peripheries.” Crime, Law and Social Change 69(4): 553575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Almeida, Paul D. (2008). Waves of Protest: Popular Struggle in El Salvador, 1925–2005. Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
Amengual, Matthew. (2016). Politicized Enforcement in Argentina: Labor and Environmental Regulation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Angel, Amy. (2008). “Análisis de Mercado de Granos Básicos en Centroamérica: Enfoque en El Salvador.” World Food Program. Available at: https://amyangel.webs.com/ESfinal.pdf. Accessed on April 29, 2021.Google Scholar
Arana, Ana. (2005). “How the Street Gangs Took Central America.Foreign Affairs 84(3): 98110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arias, Enrique Desmond. (2006). Drugs & Democracy in Rio de Janeiro: Trafficking, Social Networks, & Public Security. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
Arias, Enrique Desmond (2013). “The Impacts of Differential Armed Dominance of Politics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.” Studies in Comparative International Development 48(3): 263284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arias, Enrique Desmond. (2017). Criminal Enterprises and Governance in Latin America and the Caribbean. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arias, Enrique Desmond and Ungar, Mark. (2009). “Community Policing and Latin America’s Citizen Security Crisis.” Comparative Politics 41(4): 409429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arjona, Ana. (2016). Rebelocracy: Social Order in the Colombian Civil War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arjona, Ana. (2017). “Civilian Cooperation and Non-cooperation with Non-state Armed Groups: The Centrality of Obedience and Resistance.” Small Wars & Insurgencies 28(4–5): 755778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arjona, Ana. (2019). “Subnational Units, the Locus of Choice, and Concept Formation.” In Inside Countries: Subnational Research in Comparative Politics, edited by Giraudy, Agustina, Moncada, Eduardo, and Snyder, Richard, 214242. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arjona, Ana and Kalyvas, Stathis N.. (2009). Rebelling against Rebellion: Comparing Insurgent and Counterinsurgent Recruitment. In Mobilisation for Political Violence: What Do We Know? Centre for Research on Inequality, Human Security and Ethnicity Workshop: Vol. 4, 436455.Google Scholar
Arjona, Ana, Kasfir, Nelson, and Mampilly, Zachariah (2015). Rebel Governance in Civil War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arnson, Cynthia J. (2000). “Window on the Past: A Declassified History of Death Squads in El Salvador.” In Death Squads in Global Perspective, edited by Campbell, Bruce and Brenner, Arthurd D, 85124. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arrow, Kenneth J. (1986). “Agency and the Market.” Handbook of Mathematical Economics 3: 11831195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Astorga, Luis. (1995). El Siglo de las Drogas. Mexico City: Plaza Janés.Google Scholar
Astorga, Luis and Shirk, David A.. (2010). “Drug Trafficking Organizations and Counter-drug Strategies in the US-Mexican Context.” Working Paper. San Diego: Center for US-Mexican Studies, University of California, San Diego. Available at: https://escholarship.org/uc/item/8j647429. Accessed on April 29, 2021.Google Scholar
Auyero, Javier. (2007). Routine Politics and Violence in Argentina: The Gray Zone of State Power. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Auyero, Javier (2012). Patients of the State: The Politics of Waiting in Argentina. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
Auyero, Javier (2015). “The Politics of Interpersonal Violence in the Urban Periphery.” Current Anthropology 56(S11): 169179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Auyero, Javier and Berti, María Fernanda. (2016). In Harm’s Way: The Dynamics of Urban Violence. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Ayres, Robert L. (1998). Crime and Violence as Development Issues in Latin America and the Caribbean. Washington, DC: World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bachrach, Peter and Baratz, Morton S.. (1962). “Two Faces of Power.” American Political Science Review 56(4): 947952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bada, Xóchitl and Feldmann, Andreas E.. (2019). “How Insecurity is Transforming Migration Patterns in the North American Corridor: Lessons from Michoacán.” In New Migration Patterns in the Americas, edited by Feldmann, Andreas E., Bada, Xóchitl, and Schutze, Stephanie, 5783. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bagley, Bruce Michael. (2012). Drug Trafficking and Organized Crime in the Americas: Major Trends in the Twenty-first Century. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Latin American Program.Google Scholar
Bailey, John and Taylor, Matthew M.. (2009). “Evade, Corrupt, or Confront? Organized Crime and the State in Brazil and Mexico.” Journal of Politics in Latin America 1(2): 329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bakke, Kristin M., Cunningham, Kathleen Gallagher, and Seymour, Lee J.M.. (2012). “A Plague of Initials: Fragmentation, Cohesion, and Infighting in Civil Wars.” Perspectives on Politics 10(2): 65283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Balcells, Laia. (2012). “The Consequences of Victimization on Political Identities: Evidence from Spain.” Politics & Society 40(3): 311347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bancroft, Hubert Howe. (1890). The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft. San Francisco: History Company.Google Scholar
Barnes, Nicholas. (2017). “Criminal Politics: An Integrated Approach to the Study of Organized Crime, Politics, and Violence.” Perspectives on Politics 15(4): 967987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barragán, Esteban. (1997). Con un Pie en el Estribo: Formación y Deslizamiento de las Sociedades Rancheras en la Construcción del México Moderno. Zamora, Mexico: El Colegio de Michoacán.Google Scholar
Bartell, Ernest and Payne, Leigh A., eds. (1995). Business and Democracy in Latin America. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
Bateson, Regina. (2012). “Crime Victimization and Political Participation.” American Political Science Review 106(3): 570587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bateson, Regina (2013). “Order and Violence in Postwar Guatemala.” PhD dissertation, Yale University.Google Scholar
Bateson, Regina (2020). “The Politics of Vigilantism.” Comparative Political Studies. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/0010414020957692. Accessed on April 29, 2021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bauer, Michal, Blattman, Christopher, Chytilová, Julie, Henrich, Joseph, Miguel, Edward, and Mitts, Tamar. (2016). “Can War Foster Cooperation?Journal of Economic Perspectives 30(3): 249274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baumeister, Eduardo. (2018). “Entre La Persistencia y La Transformación: Los Pequeños Productores en El Salvador.” Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios Rurales 3(6): 6993.Google Scholar
Bayat, Asef. (2000). “From Dangerous Classes to Quiet Rebels Politics of the Urban Subaltern in the Global South.” International Sociology 15(3): 533557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bayley, David H. (2005). Changing the Guard: Developing Democratic Police Abroad. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Becker, Anne and Markus-Michael, Müller. (2013). “The Securitization of Urban Space and the ‘Rescue’ of Downtown Mexico City: Vision and Practice.” Latin American Perspectives 40(2): 7794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beittel, June S. (2015). Mexico: Organized Crime and Drug Trafficking Organizations. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.Google Scholar
Bénit-Gbaffou, Claire, Didier, Sophie, and Morange, Marianne. (2008). “Communities, the Private Sector, and the State: Contested Forms of Security Governance in Cape Town and Johannesburg.” Urban Affairs Review 43(5): 691717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bennett, Andrew and Checkel, Jeffrey T., eds. (2015). Process Tracing: From Metaphor to Analytic Tool. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
BenYishay, Ariel and Pearlman, Sarah. (2014). “Crime and Microenterprise Growth: Evidence from Mexico.” World Development 56: 139152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bergman, Marcelo. (2018). More Money, More Crime: Prosperity and Rising Crime in Latin America. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bergmann, Adrian. (2019). “Violence, Migration, and the Perverse Effects of Gang Repression in Central America.” In Media, Central American Refugees, and the US Border Crisis, edited by Andersen, Robin and Bergmann, Adrian, 3658. New York and Abingdon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berman, Sheri. (1997). “Civil Society and the Collapse of the Weimar Republic.” World Politics 49(3): 401429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bertelsen, D. (1995). “The US Strawberry Industry.” Economic Research Service, US Department of Agriculture. Statistical Bulletin 914.Google Scholar
Binford, Leigh and Churchhill, Nancy. (2009). “Lynching and States of Fear in Urban Mexico.” Anthropologica 51(2): 301312.Google Scholar
Blaydes, Lisa. (2018). State of Repression: Iraq under Saddam Hussein. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blok, Anton. (1975). The Mafia of a Sicilian Village, 1860-1960: A Study of Violent Peasant Entrepreneurs. New York: Harper Collins Publishers.Google Scholar
Boone, Catherine. (2003). Political Topographies of the African State: Territorial Authority and Institutional Choice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boss, Pauline. (2002). Family Stress Management: A Contextual Approach. Thousand Oaks, London, and New Delhi: Sage Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bott, Sarah, Guedes, Alessandra, Ruiz-Celis, Ana P., and Mendoza., Jennifer Adams (2019). “Intimate Partner Violence in the Americas: A Systematic Review and Reanalysis of National Prevalence Estimates.” Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica 43(1): 112.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brenneman, Robert. (2011). Homies and Hermanos: God and Gangs in Central America. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brinks, Daniel M. (2007). The Judicial Response to Police Killings in Latin America: Inequality and the Rule of Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brinks, Daniel M., Levitsky, Steven, and Murillo, Maria Victoria. (2019). Understanding Institutional Weakness: Power and Design in Latin American Institutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, Richard Maxwell. (1975). Strain of Violence: Historical Studies of American Violence and Vigilantism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Burt, Martha R. (1980). “Cultural Myths and Supports for Rape.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 38(2): 217.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buur, Lars and Jensen, Steffen. (2004). “Introduction: Vigilantism and the Policing of Everyday life in South Africa.” African Studies 63(2): 139152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Caldeira, Teresa PR. (2000). City of Walls: Crime, Segregation, and Citizenship in São Paulo. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Calderón, M. (1994). Violencia Política y Elecciones Municipales. Zamora: COLMICH/Instituto Mora.Google Scholar
Calderón, Gabriela, Robles, Gustavo, Díaz-Cayeros, Alberto, and Magaloni, Beatriz. (2015). “The Beheading of Criminal Organizations and the Dynamics of Violence in Mexico.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 59(8): 14551485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Call, Charles T. (2003). “Democratisation, War and State-building: Constructing the Rule of Law in El Salvador.” Journal of Latin American Studies 35(4): 827862.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Calvin, Linda, Foster, William, Luis Solorzano, J. Mooney, Daniel, Flores, Luis, and Barrios, Veronica. (2002). “Response to a Food Safety Problem in Produce.” In Global Food Trade and Consumer Demand for Quality, edited by Krisoff, Barry, Bohman, Mary, and Caswell, Julie A., 101127. Boston, MA: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Campana, Paolo. (2011). “Eavesdropping on the Mob: The Functional Diversification of Mafia Activities Across Territories.” European Journal of Criminology 8(3): 213228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Campana, Paolo and Varese, Federico. (2012). “Listening to the Wire: Criteria and Techniques for the Quantitative Analysis of Phone Intercepts.” Trends in Organized Crime 15(1): 1330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Campbell, Howard. (2011). “No End in Sight: Violence in Ciudad Juárez.” NACLA Report on the Americas 44(3): 1922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cantor, David James. (2014). “The New Wave: Forced Displacement Caused by Organized Crime in Central America and Mexico.” Refugee Survey Quarterly 33(3): 3468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cano, Ignacio. (2013). “Violence and Organized Crime in Brazil: The Case of “Militias” in Rio de Janeiro.” In Transnational Organized Crime, edited by Stiftung, Heinrich-Böll and Schönenberg, Regine, 179188. Bielefeld, Germany: Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carey, Sabine C., Mitchell, Neil J, and Lowe, Will. (2013). “States, the Security Sector, and the Monopoly of Violence: A New Database on Pro-government Militias.Journal of Peace Research 50(2): 249258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cederman, Lars-Erik and Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede. (2009). “Introduction to Special Issue on ‘Disaggregating Civil War.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 53(4): 487495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Centeno, Miguel A., Kohli, Atul, and Yashar, Deborah J.. (2017). “Unpacking States in the Developing World: Capacity, Performance, and Politics.” In States in the Developing World, edited by Centeno, Miguel A., Kohli, Atul, Yashar, Deborah J., and Mistree, Dinsha, 134. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Centeno, Miguel Angel. (2002). Blood and Debt: War and the Nation-state in Latin America. Penn State University Press.Google Scholar
Centro para la Defensa del Consumidor. (2019). Estudio Sobre Costo de la Vida y Propuesta de Mejora para un Salario Mínimo. San Salvador, El Salvador: Centro para la Defensa del Consumidor.Google Scholar
Cernea, Michael. (1997). “The Risks and Reconstruction Model for Resettling Displaced Populations.” World Development 25(10): 15691587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chenoweth, Erica and Stephan, Maria J.. (2011). Why Civil Resistance Works: The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Chollett, Donna L. (2009). “From Sugar to Blackberries: Restructuring Agro-Export Production in Michoacán, Mexico.” Latin American Perspectives 36(3): 7992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Collazos, Daniela, García, Eduardo, Mejía, Daniel, Ortega, Daniel, and Santiago, Tobón. (2020). “Hot Spots Policing in a High-Crime Environment: An Experimental Evaluation in Medellín.” Journal of Experimental Criminology: 134. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11292-019-09390-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Collier, David, Brady, Henry E., and Seawright, Jason. (2004). “Sources of Leverage in Causal Inference: Toward an Alternative View of Methodology.” In Rethinking Social Inquiry: Diverse Tools, Shared Standards, 2nd ed., edited by Brady, Henry E. and Collier, David, 161–99. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
Collier, David. (1976). Squatters and Oligarchs: Authoritarian Rule and Policy Change in Peru. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Collier, David. (2011). “Understanding Process Tracing.” PS: Political Science & Politics 44(4): 823830.Google Scholar
Cooper-Knock, Sarah Jane and Owen, Olly. (2015). “Between Vigilantism and Bureaucracy: Improving Our Understanding of Police Work in Nigeria and South Africa.” Theoretical Criminology 19(3): 355375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coppedge, Michael. (1999). “Thickening Thin Concepts and Theories: Combining Large N and Small in Comparative Politics.” Comparative Politics 31(4): 465476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Correa-Cabrera, Guadalupe. (2017). Los Zetas Inc.: Criminal Corporations, Energy, and Civil War in Mexico. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cross, John Christopher. (1998). Informal Politics: Street Vendors and the State in Mexico City. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Cruz, José Miguel. (2006). “Violence, Citizen Insecurity, and Elite Maneuvering in El Salvador.” In Public Security and Police Reform in the Americas, edited by Bailey, John and Dammert, Lucia, 148168. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
Cruz, José Miguel (2010). “Central American Maras: From Youth Street Gangs to Transnational Protection Rackets.” Global Crime 11(4): 379398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cruz, José Miguel and Peña, Nelson Portillo. (1998). Solidaridad y Violencia en las Pandillas del Gran San Salvador: Más Allá de La Vida Loca. San Salvador, El Salvador: Uca Editores.Google Scholar
Cruz, José Miguel and Angélica, Durán-Martínez. (2016). “Hiding Violence to Deal with the State: Criminal Pacts in El Salvador and Medellin.” Journal of Peace Research 53(2): 197210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cruz, José Miguel and Rosen, Jonathan D.. (2020). “Mara Forever? Factors Associated with Gang Disengagement in El Salvador.” Journal of Criminal Justice. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2020.101705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cunningham, Kathleen Gallagher, Bakke, Kristin M., and Seymour, Lee J.M.. (2012). “Shirts Today, Skins Tomorrow: Dual Contests and the Effects of Fragmentation in Self-Determination Disputes.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 56(1): 6793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Curry, Alexander. (2020). Autodefensas and the Construction of Citizenship and State-Society Relations in Mexico. PhD thesis, University of London.Google Scholar
Cyr, Jennifer. (2016). “The Pitfalls and Promise of Focus Groups as a Data Collection Method.” Sociological Methods & Research 45(2): 231259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dal Bó, Ernesto, Pedro, Dal Bó, and Rafael, Di Tella. (2006). “‘Plata o Plomo?’: Bribe and Punishment in a Theory of Political Influence.” American Political Science Review 100(1): 4153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davis, Diane E. (2013). “Zero-tolerance Policing, Stealth Real Estate Development, and the Transformation of Public Space: Evidence from Mexico City.” Latin American Perspectives 40(2): 5376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
de Souza Martins, José. (2015). Linchamentos: A Justiça Popular no Brasil. Sao Paulo. Brazil: Editora Contexto.Google Scholar
Del Frate, Anna Alvazzi. (2004). “The International Crime Business Survey: Findings from Nine Central–Eastern European Cities.” European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research 10(2–3): 137161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dewey, Matías. (2018). “The Other Taxation: An Ethnographic Account of ‘Off-the-Books’ State Financing.” Latin American Research Review 53(4): 726740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Doner, Richard F. and Schneider, Ben Ross. (2000). “Business Associations and Economic Development: Why Some Associations Contribute More Than Others.” Business and Politics 2(3): 261288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dorff, Cassy. (2017). “Violence, Kinship Networks, and Political Resilience: Evidence from Mexico.” Journal of Peace Research 54(4): 558573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dudley, Steven S. (2010). Drug Trafficking Organizations in Central America: Transportistas, Mexican Cartels and Maras. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Mexico Institute.Google Scholar
Durán-Martínez, Angélica. (2017). The Politics of Drug Violence: Criminals, Cops and Politicians in Colombia and Mexico. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Durand, Francisco and Silva, Eduardo, eds. (1998). Organized Business, Economic Change, and Democracy in Latin America. Miami, FL: North-South Center Press.Google Scholar
Enriquez, Elaine and Centeno, Miguel Angel. (2012). “State Capacity: Utilization, Durability, and the Role of Wealth vs. History.” International and Multidisciplinary Journal of Social Sciences 1(2): 130162.Google Scholar
Epp, Charles R. (1998). The Rights Revolution: Lawyers, Activists, and Supreme Courts in comparative perspective. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Epp, Charles R., Maynard-Moody, Steven, and Haider-Markel, Donald P.. (2014). Pulled Over: How Police Stops Define Race and Citizenship. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Evans, Peter B. (1979). Embedded Autonomy: States and Industrial Transformation. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Evans, Peter (1989). “Predatory, Developmental, and Other Apparatuses: A Comparative Political Economy Perspective on the Third World State.” Sociological Forum 4(4): 561587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Evans, Peter. (1996). “Government Action, Social Capital and Development: Reviewing the Evidence on Synergy.” World Development 24(6): 1119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ewick, Patricia and Silbey, Susan S.. (1998). The Common Place of Law: Stories from Everyday Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fagan, Jeffrey and Tyler, Tom R.. (2005). “Legal Socialization of Children and Adolescents.” Social Justice Research 18(3): 217241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fairfield, Tasha. (2015). Private Wealth and Public Revenue. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feder, Ernest. (1977). El Imperialismo Fresa. Mexico City: Editorial Campesina.Google Scholar
Flom, Hernan. (2016). “Police, Politicians and the Regulation of Drug Trafficking in Latin America.” PhD dissertation. Berkeley: University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
Flores-Macías, Gustavo A. (2014). “Financing Security Through Elite Taxation: The Case of Colombia’s ‘Democratic Security Taxes.’” Studies in Comparative International Development 49(4): 477500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flores-Macías, Gustavo A. (2018). “The Consequences of Militarizing Anti-Drug Efforts for State Capacity in Latin America: Evidence from Mexico.” Comparative Politics 51(1): 120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flores-Macías, Gustavo A. and Zarkin, Jessica. (2019). “The Militarization of Law Enforcement: Evidence from Latin America.” Perspectives on Politics 19(2): 519-538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fourchard, Laurent. (2011). “The Politics of Mobilization for Security in South African Townships.” African Affairs 110(441): 607627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fox, Jonathan. (1996). “How Does Civil Society Thicken? The Political Construction of Social Capital in Rural Mexico.” World Development 24(6): 10891103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frühling, Hugo. (2009). “Research on Latin American Police: Where Do We Go from Here?Police Practice and Research: An International Journal 10(5–6): 465481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frühling, Hugo (2012). “A Realistic Look at Latin American Community Policing Programmes.” Policing and Society 22(1): 7688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frye, Timothy and Zhuravskaya, Ekaterina. (2000). “Rackets, Regulation, and the Rule of Law.” Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization 16(2): 478502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frye, Timothy. (2002). “Private Protection in Russia and Poland.” American Journal of Political Science 46(3): 572584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fu, Diana. (2018). Mobilizing Without the Masses: Control and Contention in China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Fuentes-Díaz, Antonio. (2015). “Narcotráfico y Autodefensa Comunitaria en” Tierra Caliente”, Michoacán, México.” CienciaUAT 10(1): 6882.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fuentes Díaz, Antonio and Pérez, Guillermo Paleta. (2015). “Violencia y Autodefensas Comunitarias en Michoacán, México.” Íconos: Revista de Ciencias Sociales 19/3(53): 171186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fujii, Lee Ann. (2010). “Shades of Truth and Lies: Interpreting Testimonies of War and Violence.” Journal of Peace Research 47(2): 231241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fujii, Lee Ann. (2017). Interviewing in Social Science Research: A Relational Approach. New York and Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
Fung, Archon. (2006). “Varieties of Participation in Complex Governance.” Public Administration Review 66: 6675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gallagher, Janice. (2017). “The Last Mile Problem: Activists, Advocates, and the Struggle for Justice in Domestic Courts.” Comparative Political Studies 50(12): 16661698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gallardo, M., Luna-Villanueva, F., Martínez-Barrera, R., Paz-Vega, R., García-Romero, A., and Escalante-Díaz, J.. (1987). “El Origen de la Producción de Aguacate en el Estado de Michoacán.” Fruticultura de Michoacán 1(12): 324.Google Scholar
Gambetta, Diego. (1996). The Sicilian Mafia: The Business of Private Protection. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Gammage, Sarah. (2006). “Exporting People and Recruiting Remittances: A Development Strategy for El Salvador?Latin American Perspectives 33(6): 75100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gans-Morse, Jordan. (2012). “Threats to Property Rights in Russia: From Private Coercion to State Aggression.” Post-Soviet Affairs 28(3): 263295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
García-Jiménez, Humberto and Gandlgruber, Bruno. (2014). Gobernanza y Acuerdos Institucionales en las Cadenas del Frijol y del Maíz en Centroamérica. Mexico City: CEPAL/FAO.Google Scholar
García Pinzón, Viviana and Rojas Ospina, Erika J. (2020). “La Política de Seguridad en El Salvador: La Construcción del Enemigo y sus Efectos en la Violencia y el Orden Social.” Revista de Estudios Sociales 73: 96108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
García-Ponce, Omar, Young, Lauren, and Zeitoff, Thomas. (2019). “Anger and Support for Retribution in Mexico’s Drug War.” Unpublished manuscript. https://omargarciaponce.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/GarciaPonce_Young_Zeitzoff.pdf.Google Scholar
García, Juan, Mejía, Daniel, and Ortega, Daniel. (2013). Police Reform, Training and Crime: Experimental Evidence from Colombia’s Plan Cuadrantes. Bogotá: Documento CEDE.Google Scholar
Garland, David. (2001). The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gauri, Varun and Brinks, Daniel M.. (2008). Courting Social Justice. Washington, DC: World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gaventa, John. (1980). Power and Powerlessness: Quiescence and Rebellion in an Appalachian Valley. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
Gaviria, Alejandro and Carmen, Pagés. (2002). “Patterns of Crime Victimization in Latin American Cities.” Journal of Development Economics 67(1): 181203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gaviria, Alejandro. (2002). “Assessing the Effects of Corruption and Crime on Firm Performance: Evidence from Latin America.” Emerging Markets Review 3(3): 245268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gereffi, Gary, Humphrey, John, and Sturgeon, Timothy. (2005). “The Governance of Global Value Chains.” Review of International Political Economy 12(1): 78104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gerring, John. (2007). “The Case Study: What It Is and What It Does.” In The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Politics, edited by Boix, Carles and Susan, C. Stokes, 90122. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Giraudy, Agustina, Moncada, Eduardo, and Snyder, Richard, eds. (2019). Inside Countries: Subnational Research in Comparative Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glass, Fausto Carbajal. (2020). “Where the Metal Meets the Flesh: Organized Crime, Violence, and the Illicit Iron Ore Economy in Mexico’s Michoacán State.” In Illegal Mining, edited by Zabyelina, Yuliya and Daan, van Uhm, 147183. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Godoy, Angelina Snodgrass. (2004). “When ‘Justice’ Is Criminal: Lynchings in Contemporary Latin America.” Theory and Society 33(6): 621651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldstein, Daniel M. (2003). “‘In Our Own Hands’: Lynching, Justice, and the Law in Bolivia.American Ethnologist 30(1): 2243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldstone, Jack Andrew and Tilly, Charles. (2001). “Threat (and Opportunity): Popular Action and State Response in the Dynamics of Contentious Action.” In Silence and Voice in the Study of Contentious Politics, edited by Aminzade, Ronald R., Goldstone, Jack A., McAdam, Doug, Perry, Elizabeth J., Sewell, William H., Tarrow, Sidney, and Tilly, Charles, 179194. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
González-Ramírez, María Guadalupe, Vinicio Santoyo-Cortés, Horacio, Arana-Coronado, José Jaime, and Muñoz-Rodríguez, Manrrubio. (2020). “The Insertion of Mexico into the Global Value Chain of Berries.” World Development Perspectives. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wdp.2020.100240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
González, Álvaro Artiga. (2004). “El Salvador: Maremoto Electoral en 2004.” Nueva Sociedad 192: 1222.Google Scholar
González, Yanilda María. (2020). Authoritarian Police in Democracy: Contested Security in Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grabosky, Peter N. (1992). “Law Enforcement and the Citizen: Non‐governmental Participants in Crime Prevention and Control.” Policing and Society: An International Journal 2(4): 249271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grant, Wynford P. (1987). Business and Politics in Britain. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire and London: The MacMillan Press, LTD.Google Scholar
Grajales, Jacobo. (2017). “Private Security and Paramilitarism in Colombia: Governing in the Midst of Violence.” Journal of Politics in Latin America 9(3): 2748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grayson, George W. (2011). La Familia Drug Cartel: Implications for US-Mexican Security. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, United States Army War College.Google Scholar
Grillo, Ioan. (2011). El Narco: Inside Mexico’s Criminal Insurgency. New York: Bloomsbury Press.Google Scholar
Groff, Elizabeth R., Kearley, Brook, Fogg, Heather, Beatty, Penny, Couture, Heather, and Wartell, Julie. (2005). “A Randomized Experimental Study of Sharing Crime Data with Citizens: Do Maps Produce More Fear?Journal of Experimental Criminology 1(1): 87115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guggenheim, Scott E. (1994). Involuntary Resettlement: An Annotated Reference Bibliography for Development Research. No. ENV64. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
Hayden, Tom. (2004). Street Wars: Gangs and the Future of Violence. New Press.Google Scholar
Heller, Patrick. (2012). “Democracy, Participatory Politics and Development: Some Comparative Lessons from Brazil, India and South Africa.” Polity 44(4): 643665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Helmke, Gretchen and Levitsky, Steven, eds. (2006). Informal Institutions and Democracy: Lessons from Latin America. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Herrigel, Gary. (2000). Industrial Constructions: The Sources of German Industrial Power. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Hidalgo, Daniel and Lessing, Benjamin. (2015). “Endogenous State Weakness in Violent Democracies: Paramilitaries at the Polls.” Unpublished manuscript. Available at: www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Endogenous-State-Weakness-in-Violent-Democracies-%3A-Hidalgo-Lessing/f2613b0459c1a514728e6ae7ffd924d30b613c41. Accessed on April 29, 2021.Google Scholar
Hirschman, Albert O. (1970). Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Holiday, David and Stanley, William. (1993). “Building the Peace: Preliminary Lessons from El Salvador.” Journal of International Affairs 46(2): 415438.Google Scholar
Holland, Alisha C. (2013). “Right of Crime? Conservative Party Politics and ‘Mano Dura’ Policies in El Salvador.” Latin American Research Review 48(1): 4467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holland, Alisha C. (2017). Forbearance as Redistribution: The Politics of Informal Welfare in Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hume, Mo. (2007). “Mano Dura: El Salvador Responds to Gangs.” Development in Practice 17(6): 739751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Humphreys, Macartan and Weinstein, Jeremy M.. (2006). “Handling and Manhandling Civilians in Civil War.” American Political Science Review 100(3): 429447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Humphreys, Macartan and Weinstein, Jeremy M. (2008). “Who Fights? The Determinants of Participation in Civil War.American Journal of Political Science 52(2): 436455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hurst, William. (2009). The Chinese Worker after Socialism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Idler, Annette. (2019). Borderland Battles: Violence, Crime, and Governance at the Edges of Colombia’s War. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
InSight Crime and Center for Latin American and Latino Studies (CLALS). (2018). MS-13 in the Americas. Washington, DC: American University.Google Scholar
Instituto de Derechos Humanos de la UCA (Iduhca). (2019). Condiciones Laborales de la Policía Nacional Civil, Enero-Mayo 2019. San Salvador: Iduhca.Google Scholar
International Crisis Group. (2018). “Life Under Gang Rule in El Salvador.” November 26, 2018. Available at www.crisisgroup.org/latin-america-caribbean/central-america/el-salvador/life-under-gang-rule-el-salvador. Accessed on May 10, 2021.Google Scholar
Jentzsch, Corinna, Kalyvas, Stathis N., and Schubiger, Livia Isabella. (2015). “Militias in Civil Wars.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 59(5): 755769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnston, Les. (1996). “What Is Vigilantism?The British Journal of Criminology 36(2): 220236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jung, Danielle F. and Cohen, Dara Kay. (2020). Lynching and Local Justice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kalyvas, Stathis N. (2006). The Logic of Violence in Civil War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kalyvas, Stathis N. (2008a). “Armed Collaboration in Greece, 1941–1944.” European Review of History—Revue européenne d’histoire 15(2): 129142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kalyvas, Stathis N. (2008b). “Promises and Pitfalls of an Emerging Research Program: The Microdynamics of Civil War.” In Order, Conflict, Violence, edited by Kalyvas, Stathis N., Shapiro, Ian, and Masoud, Tarek, 114. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kalyvas, Stathis N. (2015a). “Is ISIS a Revolutionary Group and if Yes, What Are the Implications?Perspectives on Terrorism 9(4): 4247.Google Scholar
Kalyvas, Stathis N. (2015b). “How Civil Wars Help Explain Organized Crime—and How They Do Not.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 59(8): 15171540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kapiszewski, Diana, MacLean, Lauren M., and Read, Benjamin L.. (2015). Field Research in Political Science: Practices and Principles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kapiszewski, Diana, MacLean, Lauren M., and Read, Benjamin L. (2018). “Reconceptualizing Field Research in Political Science.” In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.013.722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaplan, Oliver. (2017a). “The Art of Rhetorical Traps in Civilian Self-Protection.” Journal of Peacebuilding & Development 12(3): 111116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaplan, Oliver (2017b). Resisting War: How Communities Protect Themselves. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Katz, Charles M., Hedberg, Eric C., and Amaya, Luis Enrique. (2016). “Gang Truce for Violence Prevention, El Salvador.” Bulletin of the World Health Organization 94(9): 660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kearney, Kerri S. and Hyle, Adrienne E.. (2004). “Drawing out Emotions: The Use of Participant-produced Drawings in Qualitative Inquiry.” Qualitative Research 4(3): 361382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kelley, Robin DG. (1993). “‘We Are Not What We Seem’: Rethinking Black Working-class Opposition in the Jim Crow South.” The Journal of American History 48(1): 75112.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kenny, Paul D., Shrestha, Rashesh, and Aspinall, Edward. (2020). “Commodity Booms, Conflict and Organized Crime: Logic of Violence in Indonesia’s Oil Palm Plantation Economy.” Working Papers in Trade and Development, Australian National University. Available at: https://ideas.repec.org/p/pas/papers/2020-23.html. Accessed on April 29, 2021.Google Scholar
Kingstone, Peter R. (1999). Crafting Coalitions for Reform: Business Preferences, Political Institutions, and Neoliberal Reform in Brazil. University Park, PA: Penn State University Press.Google Scholar
Konrad, Kai I. and Skaperdas, Stergios. (1998). “Extortion.” Economica 65(260): 461477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koonings, Kees and Kruijt, Dirk, eds. (2015). Violence and Resilience in Latin American Cities. London: Zed Books Ltd.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kramer, Roderick M., Brewer, Marilynn B., and Hanna, Benjamin A.. (1996). “Collective Trust and Collective Action.” In Trust in Organizations: Frontiers of Theory and Research, edited by Krame, Roderick M. and Brewer, Marilynn B., 357389. Thousand Oaks, CA: Safe Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krause, Jana. (2018). Resilient Communities: Non-violence and Civilian Agency in Communal War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Laitin, David D. (1995). “National Revivals and Violence.” Archives Européennes de Sociologie/European Journal of Sociology/Europäisches Archiv für Soziologie: 36(1): 343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Larkins, Erika Robb. (2015). The Spectacular Favela: Violence in Modern Brazil. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Larkins, Erika Robb (2017). “Guarding the Body: Private Security Work in Rio de Janeiro.” Conflict and Society 3(1): 6172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lawrence, Adria. (2013). Imperial Rule and the Politics of Nationalism: Anti-Colonial Protest in the French Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lavezzi, Andrea Mario. (2008). “Economic Structure and Vulnerability to Organised Crime: Evidence from Sicily.” Global Crime 9(3): 198220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, Rebekah and Seekings, Jeremy. (2002). “Vigilantism and Popular Justice after Apartheid.” In Informal Criminal Justice, edited by Feenen, Dermot, 99116. Farnham, Burlington: Ashgate.Google Scholar
Leeds, Elizabeth. (1996). “Cocaine and Parallel Polities in the Brazilian Urban Periphery: Constraints on Local-level Democratization.” Latin American Research Review 31(3): 4783.Google Scholar
Lessing, Benjamin and Willis, Graham Denyer. (2019). “Legitimacy in Criminal Governance: Managing a Drug Empire from Behind Bars.” American Political Science Review 113(2): 584606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lerman, Amy E. and Weaver, Vesla M.. (2014). Arresting Citizenship: The Democratic Consequences of American Crime Control. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lessing, Benjamin. (2017). Making Peace in Drug Wars: Crackdowns and Cartels in Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levi, Margaret. (1988). Of Rule and Revenue. Berkeley University of California Press.Google Scholar
Ley, Sandra. (2018). “To Vote or Not to Vote: How Criminal Violence Shapes Electoral Participation.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 62(9): 19631990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lindbloom, Charles E. (1977). Politics and Markets: The World’s Political-Economic System. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
Linz, Juan J. (1988). “Legitimacy of Democracy and the Socioeconomic System.” In Comparing Pluralist Democracies: Strains on Legitimacy, edited by Dogan, Mattei, 65113. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
Lipsky, Michael. (1980). Street-level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Service. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
Locke, Richard M. (1995). Remaking the Italian Economy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Lonsway, Kimberly A. and Fitzgerald, Louise F.. (1994). “Rape Myths. In Review.” Psychology of Women Quarterly 18(2): 133164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loveman, Mara. (1998). “High-risk Collective Action: Defending Human Rights in Chile, Uruguay, and Argentina.” American Journal of Sociology 104(2): 477525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lukes, Steven. (2004). Power: A Radical View. London: Macmillan International Higher Education.Google Scholar
Lupu, Noam and Peisakhin, Leonid. (2017). “The Legacy of Political Violence Across Generations.” American Journal of Political Science 61(4): 836851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacLean, Lauren M., Posner, Elliot, Thomson, Susan, and Wood, Elisabeth Jean. (2019). “Research Ethics and Human Subjects: A Reflexive Openness Approach.” American Political Science Association Organized Section for Qualitative and Multi-Method Research, Qualitative Transparency Deliberations, Working Group Final Reports, Report I 2. Available at: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3332887. Accessed on May 10, 2021.Google Scholar
Magaloni, Beatriz, Franco-Vivanco, Edgar, and Melo, Vanessa. (2020). “Killing in the Slums: Social Order, Criminal Governance, and Police Violence in Rio de Janeiro.” American Political Science Review 114(2): 552572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Magaloni, Beatriz, Robles, Gustavo, Matanock, Aila M, Diaz-Cayeros, Alberto, and Romero, Vidal. (2020). “Living in Fear: The Dynamics of Extortion in Mexico’s Drug War.” Comparative Political Studies 53(7): 11241174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maldonado, Salvador. (2010). Los Márgenes del Estado Mexicano: Territorios Ilegales, Desarrollo y Violencia en Michoacán. Zamora: El Colegio de Michoacán.Google Scholar
Maldonado, Salvador (2012). “Drogas, Violencia y Militarización en el México Rural: El Caso de Michoacán.” Revista Mexicana de Sociología 74(1): 539.Google Scholar
Maldonado, Salvador (2013). “Stories of Drug Trafficking in Rural Mexico: Territories, Drugs and Cartels in Michoacán.” European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies/Revista Europea de Estudios Latinoamericanos Y Del Caribe 94: 4366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malkin, Victoria. (2001). “Narcotráfico, Migración y Modernidad.” In La Tierra Caliente de Michoacán, edited by Hernández, Eduardo Zaráte, 549585. Zamora,: El Colegio de Michoacán/Gobierno del Estado.Google Scholar
Mampilly, Zachariah Cherian. (2012). Rebel Rulers: Insurgent Governance and Civilian Life During War. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Mampilly, Zachariah. (2015). “Performing the Nation-state: Rebel Governance and Symbolic Processes.” In Rebel Governance in Civil War, edited by Arjona, Ana, Kasfir, Nelson, and Mampilly, Zachariah, 7497. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Manwaring, Max G. (2006). “Gangs and Coups D’Streets in the New World Disorder: Protean Insurgents in Post-modern War.” Global Crime 7(3–4): 505543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marston Jr, Jerome F. (2020). “Resisting Displacement: Leveraging Interpersonal Ties to Remain despite Criminal Violence in Medellín, Colombia.” Comparative Political Studies. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0010414020912276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martín-Baró, Ignacio. (1989). “Political Violence and War as Causes of Psychosocial Trauma in El Salvador.” International Journal of Mental Health 18(1): 320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marx, Gary T. and Archer, Dane. (1971). “Citizen Involvement in the Law Enforcement Process: The Case of Community Police Patrols.” American Behavioral Scientist 15(1): 5272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Masullo, Juan. (2020). “Civilian Contention in Civil War: How Ideational Factors Shape Community Responses to Armed Groups.” Comparative Political Studies. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0010414020912285Google Scholar
Matanock, Aila M. and Staniland, Paul. (2018). “How and Why Armed Groups Participate in Elections.” Perspectives on Politics 16(3): 710727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mattiace, Shannan, Ley, Sandra, and Trejo, Guillermo. (2019). “Indigenous Resistance to Criminal Governance: Why Regional Ethnic Autonomy Institutions Protect Communities from Narco Rule in Mexico.” Latin American Research Review 54(1): 181.Google Scholar
Maxfield, Sylvia and Schneider, Ben Ross, eds. (1997). Business and the State in Developing Countries. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
McAdam, Doug. (1982). Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency, 1930-1970. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
McAdam, Doug (1986). “Recruitment to High-risk Activism: The Case of Freedom Summer.” American Journal of Sociology 92(1): 6490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McNamara, Patrick J. (2017). “Political Refugees from El Salvador: Gang Politics, the State, and Asylum Claims.” Refugee Survey Quarterly 36(4): 124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McWeeney, Sean M. (1987). “The Sicilian Mafia and its Impact on the United States.” FBI L. Enforcement Bull. 56: 110.Google Scholar
Meagher, Kate. (2007). “Hijacking Civil Society: The Inside Story of the Bakassi Boys Vigilante Group of South-Eastern Nigeria.” Journal of Modern African Studies 45(1): 89115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Medina Franco, Gilberto. (2006). Una Historia de las Milicias de Medellín. Medellín: Instituto Popular de Capacitación.Google Scholar
Medina, Leandro and Schneider, Friedrich. (2018). “Shadow Economies Around the World: What Did We Learn over the Last 20 Years?” IMF Working Paper No 18/17. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.Google Scholar
Meerow, Sara, Newell, Joshua P., and Stults, Melissa. (2016). “Defining Urban Resilience: A Review.” Landscape and Urban Planning 147: 3849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Metelits, Claire. (2009). Inside Insurgency: Violence, Civilians, and Revolutionary Group Behavior. New York: New York University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meyer, David S. and Minkoff, Debra C.. (2004). “Conceptualizing Political Opportunity.” Social Forces 82(4): 14571492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Michel, Verónica and Sikkink, Kathryn. (2013). “Human Rights Prosecutions and the Participation Rights of Victims in Latin America.” Law & Society Review 47(4): 873907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Migdal, Joel S. (1988). Strong Societies and Weak States: State-Society Relations and State Capabilities in the Third World. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Migdal, Joel S., Kohli, Atul, and Shue, Vivienne. (1994). State Power and Social Forces: Domination and Transformation in the Third World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ministerio de Economía (2009). IV Censo Agropecuario 2007–2008: Resultados Nacionales. San Salvador: Ministerio de Economía.Google Scholar
Ministerio de Trabajo y Previsión Social. (2018). Tarifas de Salarios Mínimos Vigentes a Partir del 1 de Enero de 2018. San Salvador: Ministerio de Trabajo y Previsión Social.Google Scholar
Minnaar, Anthony. (2001). “The New Vigilantism in Post-April 1994 South Africa: Crime Prevention or an Expression of Lawlessness.” Institute for Human Rights and Criminal Justice Studies, May (2001).Google Scholar
Misse, Michel. (2007). “Mercados Ilegais, Redes de Proteção e Organização Local do Crime no Rio de Janeiro.” Estudos Avançados 21(61): 139157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moe, Terry M. (1984). “The New Economics of Organization.” American Journal of Political Science 28(4): 739777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moncada, Eduardo. (2009). “Toward Democratic Policing in Colombia? Institutional Accountability through Lateral Reform.” Comparative Politics 41(4): 431449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moncada, Eduardo (2013). “The Politics of Urban Violence: Challenges for Development in the Global South.” Studies in Comparative International Development 48(3): 217239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moncada, Eduardo (2016). Cities, Business, and the Politics of Urban Violence in Latin America. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Moncada, Eduardo (2017). “Varieties of Vigilantism: Conceptual Discord, Meaning and Strategies.” Global Crime 18(4): 403423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moncada, Eduardo (2019). “Resisting Protection: Rackets, Resistance, and State Building.” Comparative Politics 51(3): 321339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moncada, Eduardo (2020). “The Politics of Criminal Victimization: Pursuing and Resisting Power.” Perspectives on Politics 18(3): 706721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morales, Maria Cristina, Prieto, Pamela, and Bejarano, Cynthia. (2014). “Transnational Entrepreneurs and Drug War Violence between Ciudad Juárez and El Paso.” Journal of Urban Research 10. https://doi.org/10.4000/articulo.2597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morris, Stephen D. (2012). “Corruption, Drug Trafficking, and Violence in Mexico.” The Brown Journal of World Affairs 18(2): 2943.Google Scholar
Moser, Caroline ON and Cathy, McIlwaine. (2004). Encounters with Violence in Latin America: Urban Poor Perceptions from Columbia and Guatemala. New York and London: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
Moskos, Peter. (2008). Cop in the Hood: My Year Policing Baltimore’s Eastern District. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Mugellini, Giulia. (2013). Measuring and Analyzing Crime Against the Private Sector: International Experiences and the Mexican Practice. Aguascalientes, Mexico: Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía.Google Scholar
Murillo, Maria Victoria. (2001). Labor Unions, Partisan Coalitions, and Market Reforms in Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nilan, Pamela. (2002). “Dangerous Fieldwork Re-examined: the Question of Researcher Subject Position.” Qualitative Research 2(3): 363386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nussio, Enzo and Clayton, Govinda. (2020). Strong Communities, Weak States. Lynching in Latin America. Research Project. ETH Zurich.Google Scholar
O’Brien, Kevin J. (1996). “Rightful Resistance.” World Politics 49(1): 3155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
O’Donnell, Guillermo. (1993). “On the State, Democratization and Some Conceptual Problems: A Latin American View with Glances at Some Postcommunist Countries.” World Development 21(8): 13551369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Obert, Jonathan and Mattiacci, Eleonora. (2018). “Keeping Vigil: The Emergence of Vigilance Committees in Pre-Civil War America.” Perspectives on Politics 16(3): 600616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ochberg, Frank. (1978). “The Victim of Terrorism: Psychiatric Considerations.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 1(2): 147168.Google Scholar
Olson, Mancur. (1993). “Dictatorship, Democracy, and Development.” American Political Science Review 87(3): 567576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Osorio, Javier. (2015). “The Contagion of Drug Violence: Spatiotemporal Dynamics of the Mexican War on Drugs.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 59(8): 14031432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Osorio, Javier, Schubiger, Livia Isabella, and Weintraub, Michael. (2021). “Legacies of Resistance: Mobilization against Organized Crime in Mexico.” Comparative Political Studies. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0010414021989761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Osterhoudt, Sarah R. (2020). “‘Nobody Wants to Kill’: Economies of Affect and Violence in Madagascar’s Vanilla Boom.American Ethnologist 47(3): 249263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ostrom, Elinor. (1990). Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ostrom, Elinor (1992). “Community and the Endogenous Solution of Commons Problems.” Journal of Theoretical Politics 4(3): 343351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ostrom, Elinor (1996). “Crossing the Great Divide: Coproduction, Synergy, and Development.” World Development 24(6): 10731087.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parkinson, Sarah E. (2016). “Money Talks: Discourse, Networks, and Structure in Militant Organizations.” Perspectives on Politics 14(4): 976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pasotti, Eleonora. (2020). Resisting Redevelopment: Protest in Aspiring Global Cities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Paz-Vega, Ramón. (1986). “El Aguacate en Estados Unidos: Un Mercado Cercano Pero Inaccesible.” Fruticultura de Michoacán 1(3): 2426.Google Scholar
Peceny, Mark and Durnan, Michael. (2006). “The FARC’s Best Friend: US Antidrug Policies and the Deepening of Colombia’s Civil War in the 1990s.” Latin American Politics and Society 48(2): 95116.Google Scholar
Penglase, R. Ben. (2014). Living with Insecurity in a Brazilian Favela: Urban Violence and Daily Life. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
Peritore, N. Patrick. (1990). “Reflections on Dangerous Fieldwork.” The American Sociologist 21(4): 359372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perramond, Eric P. (2008). “The Rise, Fall, and Reconfiguration of the Mexican Ejido.” Geographical Review 98(3): 356371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Petersen, Roger D. (2001). Resistance and Rebellion: Lessons from Eastern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pfeifer, Michael James. (2004). Rough Justice: Lynching and American Society, 1874–1947. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
Phillips, Brian J. (2015). “How Does Leadership Decapitation Affect Violence? The Case of Drug Trafficking Organizations in Mexico.” The Journal of Politics 77(2): 324336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Phillips, Brian J. (2017). “Inequality and the Emergence of Vigilante Organizations: The Case of Mexican Autodefensas.” Comparative Political Studies 50(10): 13581389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Phillips, Everard M. (2011). “Pain, Suffering, and Humiliation: The Systemization of Violence in Kidnapping for Ransom.” Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma 20(8): 845869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Policía Nacional Civil (PNC). (2015). Plan Estratégico Institucional, 2015–2019. San Salvador: PNC.Google Scholar
Popkin, Margaret. (2010). Peace Without Justice: Obstacles to Building the Rule of Law in El Salvador. University Park, PA: Penn State University Press.Google Scholar
Portes, Alejandro and Landolt, Patricia. (2000). “Social Capital: Promise and Pitfalls of its Role in Development.” Journal of Latin American Studies 32(2): 529547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Portes, Alejandro and Hoffman, Kelly. (2003). “Latin American Class Structures: Their Composition and Change During the Neoliberal Era.” Latin American Research Review 38(1): 4182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prado, Mariana Mota, Trebilcock, Michael, and Hartford, Patrick. (2012). “Police Reform in Violent Democracies in Latin America.” Hague Journal on the Rule of Law 4(2): 252285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Putnam, Robert D., Leonardi, Robert, and Nanetti, Raffaella Y.. (1994). Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Ragin, Charles C. and Schneider, Garrett Andrew. (2011). “Case-Oriented Theory Building and Theory Testing.” In The Sage Handbook of Innovation in Social Research Methods, edited by Williams, Malcolm and Vogt, W. Paul, 150166. Thousand Oaks: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ramírez, Max Yuri Gil. (2013). “Medellín 1993–2013: Una Ciudad que no Logra Encontrar el Camino para Salir Definitivamente del Laberinto.” Available at: www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/media/documents/publication/GilRamirez-Colombia-2013.pdf. Accessed on April 29, 2021.Google Scholar
Reno, William. (2006). “Insurgencies in the Shadow of State Collapse.” In Violence, Political Culture and Development in Africa, edited by Kaarshold, Preben, 8596. Oxford: James Currey Publishers.Google Scholar
Rettberg, Angelika. (2008). Explorando el Dividendo de la Paz: Impactos del Conflicto Armado en el Sector Privado Colombiano: Resultados de una Encuesta Nacional. Bogotá: Ediciones Uniandes-Universidad de los Andes.Google Scholar
Reuter, Peter. (1983). Disorganized Crime: The Economics of the Visible Hand. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Revista Antioqueña de Economía y Desarrollo (RAED). (2019). “Una Aproximación a la Caracterización de las Empresas Informales en Medellín.” 22. Medellín: RAED.Google Scholar
Ríos, Viridiana. (2013). “Why did Mexico Become so Violent? A Self-reinforcing Violent Equilibrium Caused by Competition and Enforcement.” Trends in Organized Crime 16(2): 138155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ríos, Viridiana (2014). “The Role of Drug-Related Violence and Extortion in Promoting Mexican Migration: Unexpected Consequences of a Drug War.” Latin American Research Review 49: 199217.Google Scholar
Rithmire, Meg E. (2015). Land Bargains and Chinese Capitalism: The Politics of Property Rights under Reform. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roberts, Kenneth M. (2002). “Social Inequalities Without Class Cleavages in Latin America’s Neoliberal Era.” Studies in Comparative International Development 36(4): 333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rock, David. (1972). “Machine Politics in Buenos Aires and the Argentine Radical Party, 1912-1930.” Journal of Latin American Studies 4(2): 233256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rodríguez Guillén, Raúl. (2011). “Linchamientos en Zonas Urbanas: Estado de México y Distrito Federal.” El Cotidiano 26: 2738.Google Scholar
Romero, Mauricio. (2000). “Changing Identities and Contested Settings: Regional Elites and the Paramilitaries in Colombia.” International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society 14(1): 5169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosaldo, Manuel. (2016). “Revolution in the Garbage Dump: The Political and Economic Foundations of the Colombian Recycler Movement, 1986–2011.” Social Problems 63(3): 351372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rozema, Ralph. (2007). “Paramilitares y Violencia Urbana en Medellín, Colombia.Foro Internacional 47(3): 535550.Google Scholar
Sabet, Daniel. (2012). Police Reform in Mexico: Informal Politics and the Challenge of Institutional Change. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Samara, Tony Roshan. (2011). Cape Town after Apartheid: Crime and Governance in the Divided City. Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sánchez de la Sierra, Raúl. (2020). “On the Origins of the State: Stationary Bandits and Taxation in Eastern Congo.” Journal of Political Economy 128(1): 3274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sanguinetti, Pablo, Ortega, Daniel, Berniell, Lucila, Álvarez, Fernando, Mejía, Daniel, Castillo, Juan Camilo, and Brassiolo, Pablo. (2015). Towards a Safer Latin America. A New Perspective to Prevent and Control Crime. Bogota: Andean Development Corporation.Google Scholar
Santacruz, María, Concha-Eastman, Alberto, and Cruz, José Miguel. (2001). Barrio Adentro: La Solidaridad Violenta de las Pandillas. San Salvador: IUDOP-UCA.Google Scholar
Savenije, Wim and Chris, Van der Borgh. (2006). “Youth Gangs, Social Exclusion and the Transformation of Violence in El Salvador.” In Armed Actors: Organised Violence and State Failure in Latin America, edited by Koonings, Kees and Kruijt, Dirk, 155171. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
Savenije, Wim. (2014). “Políticas de Seguridad en El Salvador.” Cuestiones de Sociología. 10: 113.Google Scholar
Schattschneider, Elmer Eric. (1960). Party Government. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
Schatz, Edward, ed. (2013). Political Ethnography: What Immersion Contributes to the Study of Power. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Scheingold, Stuart A. (1974). “The Politics of Rights: Lawyers.” Public Policy, and Political Change. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Schelling, Thomas C. (1971). “What Is the Business of Organized Crime?The American Scholar 40(4): 643652.Google Scholar
Schmitter, Philippe C. and Streeck, Wolfgang. (1981). “The Organization of Business Interests: A Research Design to Study the Associative Action of Business in the Advanced Industrial Societies of Western Europe.” Discussion Paper, IIM/LMP 81-13, Berlin: Wissenschaftszentrum.Google Scholar
Schneider, Ben Ross. (1998). “Elusive Synergy: Business-Government Relations and Development.” Comparative Politics 31(1): 101122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schneider, Ben Ross (2002). “Why Is Mexican Business So Organized?Latin American Research Review 37(10): 77118.Google Scholar
Schneider, Ben Ross (2004). Business Politics and the State in Twentieth-Century Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schneider, Ben Ross (2008). “Economic Liberalization and Corporate Governance: the Resilience of Business Groups in Latin America.” Comparative Politics 40(4): 379397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scott, James C. (1977). The Moral Economy of the Peasant: Rebellion and Subsistence in Southeast Asia. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Scott, James C. (1985). Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Scott, James C. (1989). “Everyday Forms of Resistance.” The Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies 4: 33–33.Google Scholar
Scott, James C. (1990). Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Secretaría, de Economía. (2012). Monografía del Sector Aguacate en México: Situación Actual y Oportunidades de Mercado. Ciudad México: Dirección General de Industrias Básicas.Google Scholar
Serrano, Alfredo. (2013). La Multinacional del Crimen. Bogotá: Debate.Google Scholar
Shaw, Mark. (2016). “A Tale of Two Cities: Mafia Control, the Night Time Entertainment Economy and Drug Retail Markets in Johannesburg and Cape Town, 1985–2015.” Police Practice and Research 17(4): 353363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shelley, Louise. (2001). “Corruption and Organized Crime in Mexico in the Post-PRI Transition.” Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 17(3): 213231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shelley, Louise (2010). Human Trafficking: A Global Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shirk, David A. (2010). “Drug Violence in Mexico: Data and Analysis from 2001-2009.” Trends in Organized Crime 13(2–3): 167174.Google Scholar
Simmons, Erica S. and Smith, Nicholas Rush. (2019). “The Case for Comparative Ethnography.” Comparative Politics 51(3): 341359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sinha, Aseema. (2005). The Regional Roots of Developmental Politics in India: A Divided Leviathan. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
Skaperdas, Stergios. (2001). “The Political Economy of Organized Crime: Providing Protection When the State Does Not.” Economics of Governance 2(3): 173202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skarbek, David. (2011). “Governance and Prison Gangs.” American Political Science Review 105(4): 702716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skarbek, David (2014). The Social Order of the Underworld: How Prison Gangs Govern the American Penal System. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skogan, Wesley G. (2004). Community Policing: Can It Work? Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.Google Scholar
Smith, Nicholas Rush. (2019). Contradictions of Democracy: Vigilantism and Rights in Post-Apartheid South Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smutt, Marcela and Jenny Lissette, E. Miranda. (1998). El Fenómeno de las Pandillas en El Salvador. San Salvador: UNICEF.Google Scholar
Snyder, Richard and Angelica, Durán-Martínez. (2009). “Does Illegality Breed Violence? Drug Trafficking and State-sponsored Protection Rackets.” Crime, Law and Social Change 52(3): 253273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Soifer, Hillel and Hau, Matthias Vom. (2008). “Unpacking the Strength of the State: The Utility of State Infrastructural Power.” Studies in Comparative International Development 43(3–4): 219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Soss, Joe. (2002). Unwanted Claims: The Politics of Participation in the US Welfare System. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
Stanford, Lois. (1998). “Mexico’s Empresario in Export Agriculture: Examining the Avocado Industry of Michoacán.” 1998 Meeting of the Latin American Studies Association (LASA), The Palmer House Hilton Hotel, Chicago, Illinois.Google Scholar
Stanford, Lois (2002). “Constructing ‘Quality’: The Political Economy of Standards in Mexico’s Avocado Industry.” Agriculture and Human Values 19(4): 293310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Staniland, Paul. (2012). “States, Insurgents, and Wartime Political Orders.” Perspectives on Politics 10(2): 243264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Staniland, Paul (2014). Networks of Rebellion: Explaining Insurgent Cohesion and Collapse. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Staniland, Paul (2017). “Armed Politics and the Study of Intrastate Conflict.” Journal of Peace Research 54(4): 459467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stanley, William. (1996). The Protection Racket State: Elite Politics, Military Extortion, and Civil War in El Salvador. Philadelphia, NJ: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
Stanley, William (1999). “Building New Police Forces in El Salvador and Guatemala: Learning and Counter‐learning.” International Peacekeeping 6(4): 113134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Starn, Orin. (1999). Nightwatch: The Politics of Protest in the Andes. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
Stephenson, Svetlana. (2015). Gangs of Russia: From the Streets to the Corridors of Power. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sung, Hung‐En. (2006). “Police Effectiveness and Democracy: Shape and Direction of the Relationship.Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 29(2): 347367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sunshine, Jason and Tyler, Tom. (2003). “Moral Solidarity, Identification with the Community, and the Importance of Procedural Justice: The Police as Prototypical Representatives of a Group’s Moral Values.” Social Psychology Quarterly 66(2): 153165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Superintendencia, de Competencia. (2013). Caracterización de la Agroindustria del Frijol Rojo y Sus Condiciones de Competencia en El Salvador (2007–2014). San Salvador, El Salvador: Superintendencia de Competencia.Google Scholar
Tankebe, Justice. (2009). “Public Cooperation with the Police in Ghana: Does Procedural Fairness Matter?Criminology 47(4): 12651293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tankebe, Justice (2013). “Viewing Things Differently: The Dimensions of Public Perceptions of Police Legitimacy.” Criminology 51(1): 103135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tarrow, Sidney. (1994). Power in Movement: Social Movements, Collective Action and Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Taylor, Michael. (1988). “Rationality and Revolutionary Collective Action.” In Rationality and Revolution, edited by Taylor, Michael, 6397. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Tellez, Juan Fernando, Wibbels, Erik, and Krishna, Anirudh. (2020). “Local Order, Policing, and Bribes: Evidence from India.” World Politics 72(3): 377410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tendler, Judith. (1997). Good Government in the Tropics. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Przeworski, Adam and Teune, Henry. (1970). The Logic of Comparative Social Inquiry. New York: Wiley-Interscience.Google Scholar
Thachil, Tariq. (2018). “Improving Surveys through Ethnography: Insights from India’s Urban Periphery.” Studies in Comparative International Development 53(3): 281299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thale, Geoff and Falkenburger, Elsa. (2006). Youth Gangs in Central America: Issues in Human Rights, Effective Policing and Prevention. Washington, DC: Washington Office on Latin America.Google Scholar
Thaler, Kai M. (2019). “Reflexivity and Temporality in Researching Violent Settings: Problems with the Replicability and Transparency Regime.Geopolitics 26(1): 1844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thoumi, Francisco E. (2003). Illegal Drugs, Economy, and Society in the Andes. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press.Google Scholar
Tilly, Charles. (1982). Warmaking and Statemaking as Organized Crime. 256. CRSO Working Paper Series. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.Google Scholar
Tilly, Charles (1990). Coercion, Capital and European States, AD 990-1990. Basil Blackwell, 1990.Google Scholar
Tilly, Charles (2003). The Politics of Collective Violence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tolentino, José Ángel, Martínez, Gerson Elí, and Stanley, Sherry. (2006). El Salvador: Perspectivas de los Granos Básicos en el Tratado de Libre Comercio entre Centroamérica y Estados Unidos. San Salvador: Fundación Nacional para el Desarrollo.Google Scholar
Tolnay, Stewart Emory and Beck, Elwood M.. (1995). A Festival of Violence: An Analysis of Southern Lynchings, 1882–1930. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
Trejo, Guillermo and Ley, Sandra. (2018). “Why Did Drug Cartels Go to War in Mexico? Subnational Party alternation, the Breakdown of Criminal Protection, and the Onset of Large-Scale Violence.” Comparative Political Studies 51(7): 900937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Trejo, Guillermo and Ley, Sandra (2020). Votes, Drugs, and Violence: The Political Logic of Criminal Wars in Mexico. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Trelles, Alejandro and Carreras, Miguel. (2012). “Bullets and Votes: Violence and Electoral Participation in Mexico.” Journal of Politics in Latin America 4(2): 89123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Triantafyllou, Dinara, Wang, Chong, and North, Carol S.. (2016). “Correlates of Duration of Intimate Partner Violence among Women Seeking Services at a Domestic Violence Support Center.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260516647522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tsai, Lily L. (2007). Accountability without Democracy: Solidary Groups and Public Goods Provision in Rural China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tyler, Tom R. and Fagan, Jeffrey. (2008). “Legitimacy and Cooperation: Why Do People Help the Police Fight Crime in Their Communities.” Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law 6: 231275.Google Scholar
Tyler, Tom R. and Jackson, Jonathan. (2014). “Popular Legitimacy and the Exercise of Legal Authority: Motivating Compliance, Cooperation, and Engagement.” Psychology, Public Policy, and Law 20(1): 78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tyler, Tom R., Goff, Phillip Atiba, and MacCoun, Robert J.. (2015). “The Impact of Psychological Science on Policing in the United States: Procedural Justice, Legitimacy, and Effective Law Enforcement.” Psychological Science in the Public Interest 16(3): 75109.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ungar, Mark. (2002). Elusive Reform: Democracy and the Rule of Law in Latin America. Boulder and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
Ungar, Mark (2007). “The Privatization of Citizen Security in Latin America: From Elite Guards to Neighborhood Vigilantes.” Social Justice 34(3/4): 2037.Google Scholar
Ungar, Mark (2011). Policing Democracy: Overcoming Obstacles to Citizen Security in Latin America. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC). (2018). Report of the Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions on her mission to El Salvador. A_HRC_38_44_Add-2-EN.Google Scholar
Van der Borgh, Chris and Savenije, Wim. (2019). “The Politics of Violence Reduction: Making and Unmaking the Salvadorean Gang Truce.” Journal of Latin American Studies 51(4): 905928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Varese, Federico. (2001). The Russian Mafia: Private Protection in a New Market Economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Varese, Federico (2014). “Protection and Extortion.” In Handbook of Organized Crime, edited by Paoli, Letizia, 343358. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Varshney, Ashutosh. (2002). Ethnic Conflict and Civic Life: Hindus and Muslims in India. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Visconti, Giancarlo. (2019). “Policy Preferences after Crime Victimization: Panel and Survey Evidence from Latin America.” British Journal of Political Science 50(4): 115.Google Scholar
Vogel, David. (2003). Fluctuating Fortunes: The Political Power of Business in America. Washington, DC: Beard Books.Google Scholar
Volkov, Vadim. (2000). “The Political Economy of Protection Rackets in the Past and the Present.” Social Research 67(3): 709744.Google Scholar
Volkov, Vadim (2002). Violent Entrepreneurs: The Use of Force in the Making of Russian Capitalism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Ward, Thomas W. (2013). Gangsters Without Borders: An Ethnography of a Salvadoran Street Gang. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Weber, Max. (1946). “Politics as Vocation.” In From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, translated by Gerth, H. H. and Wright Mills, C., 77128. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Wedeen, Lisa. (1999). Ambiguities of Domination: Politics, Rhetoric, and Symbols in Contemporary Syria. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Weinstein, Jeremy M. (2006). Inside Rebellion: The Politics of Insurgent Violence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weintraub, Michael, Vargas, Juan F., and Flores, Thomas E.. (2015). “Vote Choice and Legacies of Violence: Evidence From the 2014 Colombian Presidential Elections.” Research & Politics 2(2): https://doi.org/10.1177/2053168015573348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weyland, Kurt. (1996). “Neopopulism and Neoliberalism in Latin America: Unexpected Affinities.Studies in Comparative International Development 31(3): 331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams, Gary W. and Hanselka, Dan. (2018). “2018 Update: the US national and state-level economic benefits of avocado imports from Mexico.”Google Scholar
Williams, Robert Gregory. (1994). States and Social Evolution: Coffee and the Rise of National Governments in Central America. Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
Willis, Graham Denyer. (2015). The Killing Consensus: Police, Organized Crime, and the Regulation of Life and Death in Urban Brazil. Berkeley: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilson, Ian Douglas. (2015). The Politics of Protection Rackets in Post-New Order Indonesia: Coercive Capital, Authority and Street Politics. London and New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wolff, Michael Jerome. (2015). “Building Criminal Authority: A Comparative Analysis of Drug Gangs in Rio de Janeiro and Recife.” Latin American Politics and Society 57(2): 2140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wood, Elisabeth Jean. (2000). Forging Democracy from Below: Insurgent Transitions in South Africa and El Salvador. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Wood, Elisabeth Jean (2003). Insurgent Collective Action and Civil War in El Salvador. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wood, Elisabeth Jean (2009). “Armed Groups and Sexual Violence: When is Wartime Rape Rare?Politics & Society 37(1): 131161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
World Health Organization (WHO). (2005). Multi-Country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence against Women. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
World Health Organization (WHO) (2012). Understanding and Addressing Violence against Women: Intimate Partner Violence. No. WHO/RHR/12.36. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
Worrall, John L. (1999). “Public Perceptions of Police Efficacy and Image: The ‘Fuzziness’ of Support for the Police.” American Journal of Criminal Justice 24(1): 4766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yashar, Deborah J. (2018). Homicidal Ecologies: Illicit Economies and Complicit States in Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zald, Mayer N. and McCarthy, John D.. (1987). Social Movements in an Organizational Society. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
Zaluar, Alba and Conceição, Isabel Siqueira. (2007). “Favelas sob o Controle das Milícias no Rio de Janeiro: ¿Que Paz?São Paulo em Perspectiva 21(2): 89102.Google Scholar
Zechmeister, Elizabeth J. (2014). The Political Culture of Democracy in the Americas, 2014: Democratic Governance Across 10 Years of the Americas Barometer. LAPOP/Vanderbilt University.Google Scholar
Zilberg, Elana. (2011). Space of Detention: The Making of a Transnational Gang Crisis between Los Angeles and San Salvador. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
Zubillaga, Verónica, Llorens, Manuel, and Souto, John. (2019). “Micropolitics in a Caracas Barrio: The Political Survival Strategies of Mothers in a Context of Armed Violence.” Latin American Research Review 54(2): 429443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar