Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-cd4964975-ppllx Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-03-28T13:20:36.706Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Part III - Analysis Methods

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 November 2019

Janice L. Bishop
SETI Institute, California
James F. Bell III
Arizona State University
Jeffrey E. Moersch
University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Get access
Remote Compositional Analysis
Techniques for Understanding Spectroscopy, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry of Planetary Surfaces
, pp. 287 - 348
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



Adams, J.B. & McCord, T.B. (1971a) Alteration of lunar optical properties: Age and composition effects. Science, 171, 567571.
Adams, J.B. & McCord, T.B. (1971b) Optical properties of mineral separates, glass, and anorthositic fragments from Apollo mare samples. Proceedings of the 2nd Lunar Sci. Conf., 2183–2195.
Basu, A. (1977) Steady state, exposure age, and growth of agglutinates in lunar soils. Proceedings of the 8th Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., 3617–3632.
Bauch, K.E., Hiesinger, H., & Helbert, J. (2011) Insolation and resulting surface temperatures of study regions on Mercury. 42nd Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., Abstract #2257.
Beck, P., Quirico, E., Montes-Hernandez, G., et al. (2010) Hydrous mineralogy of CM and CI chondrites from infrared spectroscopy and their relationship with low albedo asteroids. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 74, 48814892.
Beck, P., Schmitt, B., Cloutis, E.A., & Vernazza, P. (2015) Low-temperature reflectance spectra of brucite and the primitive surface of 1-Ceres? Icarus, 257, 471476.
Bennett, C.J., Pirim, C., & Orlando, T.M. (2013) Space weathering of Solar System bodies: A laboratory perspective. Chemical Reviews, 113, 90869150.
Bishop, J.L. & Pieters, C.M. (1995) Low-temperature and low atmospheric pressure infrared reflectance spectroscopy of Mars soil analog materials. Journal of Geophysical Research, 100, 53695379.
Blewett, D.T., Lucey, P.G., Hawke, B.R., Ling, G.G., & Robinson, M.S. (1997) A comparison of Mercurian reflectance and spectral quantities with those of the Moon. Icarus, 129, 217231.
Blewett, D.T., Vaughan, W.M., Xiao, Z., et al. (2013) Mercury’s hollows: Constraints on formation and composition from analysis of geological setting and spectral reflectance. Journal of Geophysical Research, 118, 10131032.
Borin, P., Cremonese, G., Marzari, F., Bruno, M., & Marchi, S. (2009) Statistical analysis of micrometeoroids flux on Mercury. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 503, 259264.
Bradley, J.P. (1994) Chemically anomalous, preaccretionally irradiated grains in interplanetary dust from comets. Science, 265, 925929.
Bradley, J.P., Sandford, S.A., & Walker, R.M. (1988) Interplanetary dust particles. In: Meteorites and the early Solar System (Kerridge, J.F. & Matthews, M.S., eds.). University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 861895.
Brownlee, D. (1985) Cosmic dust-collection and research. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 13, 147173.
Brunetto, R. & Strazzulla, G. (2005) Elastic collisions in ion irradiation experiments: A mechanism for space weathering of silicates. Icarus, 179, 265273.
Brunetto, R., Romano, F., Blanco, A., et al. (2006) Space weathering of silicates simulated by nanosecond pulse UV excimer laser. Icarus, 180, 546554.
Burns, R.G. (1993Mineralogical applications of crystal field theory, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Charette, M.P., Soderblom, L.A., Adams, J.B., Gaffey, M.J., & McCord, T.B. (1976) Age-color relationships in the lunar highlands. Proceedings of the 7th Lunar Sci. Conf., 2579–2592.
Christensen, P.R., Bandfield, J.L., Hamilton, V.E., et al. (2000) A thermal emission spectral library of rock-forming minerals. Journal of Geophysical Research, 105, 97359739.
Ciddor, P.E. (1996) Refractive index of air: New equations for the visible and near infrared. Applied Optics, 35, 15661573.
Cintala, M.J. (1992) Impact-induced thermal effects in the lunar and mercurian regoliths. Journal of Geophysical Research, 97, 947973.
Clark, R.N. (1981) The spectral reflectance of water-mineral mixtures at low temperatures. Journal of Geophysical Research, 86, 30743086.
Cloutis, E.A., Craig, M.A., Mustard, J.F., et al. (2007) Stability of hydrated minerals on Mars. Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L20202, DOI:10.1029/2007GL031267.
Cloutis, E.A., Craig, M.A., Kruzelecky, R.V., et al. (2008) Spectral reflectance properties of minerals exposed to simulated Mars surface conditions. Icarus, 195, 140168.
Cooper, J.F., Johnson, R.E., Mauk, B.H., Garrett, H.B., & Gehrels, N. (2001) Energetic ion and electron irradiation of the icy Galilean satellites. Icarus, 149, 133159.
Dalton, J.B. & Pitman, K.M. (2012) Low temperature optical constants of some hydrated sulfates relevant to planetary surfaces. Journal of Geophysical Research, 117, E09001, DOI:10.1029/2011JE004036.
Dalton, J.B., Prieto-Ballesteros, O., Kargel, J.S., Jamieson, C.S., Jolivet, J., & Quinn, R. (2005) Spectral comparison of heavily hydrated salts with disrupted terrains on Europa. Icarus, 177, 472490.
De Angelis, S., Carli, C., Tosi, F., et al. (2017) Temperature-dependent VNIS spectroscopy of hydrated Mg-sulfates. Icarus, 281, 444458.
De Sanctis, M.C., Ammannito, E., Raponi, A., et al. (2015) Ammoniated phyllosilicates with a likely outer Solar System origin on (1) Ceres. Nature, 528, 241244.
De Sanctis, M.C., Raponi, A., Ammannito, E., et al. (2016) Bright carbonate deposits as evidence of aqueous alteration on (1) Ceres. Nature, 536, 5457.
Delbo, M., Mueller, M., Emery, J.P., et al. (2015) Asteroid thermophysical modeling. In: Asteroids IV (Michel, P., De Meo, F.E., & Bottke, W.F. Jr., eds.). University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 107128.
Denevi, B.W. & Robinson, M.S. (2008) Mercury’s albedo from Mariner 10: Implication for the presence of ferrous iron. Icarus, 197, 239246.
Denevi, B.W., Robinson, M.S., Boyd, A.K., Sato, H., Hapke, B.W., & Hawke, B. (2014) Characterization of space weathering from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera ultraviolet observations of the Moon. Journal of Geophysical Research, 119, 976997.
Duke, M.B., Woo, C.C., Bird, M.L., Sellers, G.A., & Finkelman, R.B. (1970) Lunar soil: Size distribution and mineralogical constituents. Science, 167, 648650.
Dukes, C.A., Baragiola, R.A., & McFadden, L.A. (1999) Surface modification of olivine by H+ and He+ bombardment. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104 (E1) 1865–1872.
Dybwad, J. (1971) Radiation effects on silicates (5‐keV H+, D+, He+, N2+). Journal of Geophysical Research, 76, 40234029.
Fama, M., Loeffler, M.J., Raut, U., & Baragiola, R.A. (2010) Radiation-induced amorphization of crystalline ice. Icarus, 207, 314319.
Ferrari, S., Nestola, F., Massironi, M., et al. (2014) In-situ high-temperature emissivity spectra and thermal expansion of C2/c pyroxenes: Implications for the surface of Mercury. American Mineralogist, 99, 786792.
Fink, U. & Sill, G.T. (1982) The infrared spectral properties of frozen volatiles. In: Comets (Wilkening, L.L., ed.). University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 164202.
Fischer, E.M. & Pieters, C.M. (1994) Remote determination of exposure degree and iron concentration of lunar soils using VIS-NIR spectroscopic methods. Icarus, 111, 475488.
Fischer, E.M. & Pieters, C.M. (1996) Composition and exposure age of the Apollo 16 Cayley and Descartes regions from Clementine data: Normalizing the optical effects of space weathering. Journal of Geophysical Research, 101, 22252234.
Garenne, A., Beck, P., Montes-Hernandez, G., et al. (2014) The abundance and stability of “water” in type 1 and 2 carbonaceous chondrites (CI, CM and CR). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 137, 93112.
Garenne, A., Beck, P., Montes-Hernandez, G., et al. (2016) Bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy of carbonaceous chondrites: Implications for water quantification and primary composition. Icarus, 264, 172183.
Garrick-Bethell, I., Head, J.W., & Pieters, C.M. (2011) Spectral properties, magnetic fields, and dust transport at lunar swirls. Icarus, 212, 480492.
Gillis-Davis, J.J., Lucey, P.G., Bradley, J.P., et al. (2017) Incremental laser space weathering of Allende reveals non-lunar like space weathering effects. Icarus, 286, 114.
Gosling, J.T. (2007) The solar wind. In: Encyclopedia of the Solar System (McFadden, L.A., Weissman, P.R., & Johnson, T.V., eds.). Academic Press, Amsterdam, 99116.
Gundlach, B. & Blum, J. (2012) Outgassing of icy bodies in the Solar System – II: Heat transport in dry, porous surface dust layers. Icarus, 219, 618629.
Hamilton, V.E. (2010) Thermal infrared (vibrational) spectroscopy of Mg–Fe olivines: A review and applications to determining the composition of planetary surfaces. Chemie der Erde, 70, 733.
Hapke, B. (2001) Space weathering from Mercury to the asteroid belt. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, 1003910073.
Hapke, B.W., Cassidy, W.A., & Wells, E.N. (1975) Effects of vapor-phase deposition processes on the optical, chemical, and magnetic properties of the lunar regolith. Moon, 13, 339353.
Hapke, B.W., Wells, E., Wagner, J., & Partlow, W. (1981) Far-UV, visible, and near-IR reflectance spectra of frosts of H2O, CO2, NH3 and SO2. Icarus, 47, 361367.
Helbert, J., Müller, N., Kostama, P., Marinangeli, L., Piccioni, G., & Drossart, P. (2008) Surface brightness variations seen by VIRTIS on Venus Express and implications for the evolution of the Lada Terra region, Venus. Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L11201.
Helbert, J., Nestola, F., Ferrari, S., et al. (2013) Olivine thermal emissivity under extreme temperature ranges: Implication for Mercury surface. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 371372, 252257.
Hemingway, D.J., Garrick-Bethell, I., & Kreslavsky, M.A. (2015) Latitudinal variation in spectral properties of the lunar maria and implications for space weathering. Icarus, 261, 6679.
Hendrix, A.R. & Vilas, F. (2006) The effects of space weathering at UV wavelengths: S-class asteroids. The Astronomical Journal, 132, 13961404.
Hendrix, A.R., Retherford, K.D., Gladstone, G.R., et al. (2012) The lunar far‐UV albedo: Indicator of hydration and weathering. Journal of Geophysical Research, 117, E12001, DOI:10.1029/2012JE004252.
Hinrichs, J.L. & Lucey, P.G. (2002) Temperature-dependent near-infrared spectral properties of minerals, meteorites, and lunar soil. Icarus, 155, 169180.
Hiroi, T. & Sasaki, S. (2001) Importance of space weathering simulation products in compositional modeling of asteroids: 349 Dembowska and 446 Aeternitas as examples. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 36, 15871596.
Hiroi, T., Zolensky, M.E., Pieters, C.M., & Lipschutz, M.E. (1996) Thermal metamorphism of the C, G, B, and F asteroids seen from the 0.7 μm, 3 μm, and UV absorption strengths in comparison with carbonaceous chondrites. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 31, 321327.
Ip, W.H., Williams, D.J., McEntire, R.W., & Mauk, B.H. (1998) Ion sputtering and surface erosion at Europa. Geophysical Research Letters, 25, 829832.
Izawa, M.R.M., Applin, D.M., Mann, P., et al. (2013) Reflectance spectroscopy (200–2500 nm) of highly-reduced phases under oxygen- and water-free conditions. Icarus, 226, 16121617.
Kaluna, H.M., Ishii, H.A., Bradley, J.P., Gillis-Davis, J.J., & Lucey, P.G. (2017) Simulated space weathering of Fe- and Mg-rich aqueously altered minerals using pulsed laser irradiation. Icarus, 292, 245258.
Keller, L.P. & McKay, D.S. (1993) Discovery of vapor deposits in the lunar regolith. Science, 261, 13051307.
Keller, L.P. & McKay, D.S. (1994) The nature of agglutinitic glass in the fine-size fraction of lunar soil 10084. 25th Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., Abstract, 685–686.
Keller, L.P. & McKay, D.S. (1997), The nature and origin of rims on lunar soil grains, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 61, 23312341.
Kieffer, H.H. (1969) A reflectance spectrometer/environmental chamber for frosts. Applied Optics, 8, 24972500.
Kohout, T., Cuda, J., Filip, J., et al. (2014) Space weathering simulations through controlled growth of iron nanoparticles on olivine. Icarus, 237, 7583.
Koike, C., Chihara, H., Tsuchiyama, A., Suto, H., Sogawa, H., & Okuda, H. (2003) Compositional dependence of infrared absorption spectra of crystalline silicate—II. Natural and synthetic olivines. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 399, 11011107.
Lantz, C., Brunetto, R., Barucci, M.A., et al. (2017) Ion irradiation of carbonaceous chondrites: A new view of space weathering on primitive asteroids. Icarus, 285, 4357.
Lazzarin, M., Marchi, S., Moroz, L.V., et al. (2006) Space weathering in the main asteroid belt: The big picture. Astrophysical Journal, 647, L179L182.
Loeffler, M., Baragiola, R., & Murayama, M. (2008) Laboratory simulations of redeposition of impact ejecta on mineral surfaces. Icarus, 196, 285292.
Loeffler, M.J., Dukes, C.A., & Baragiola, R.A. (2009) Irradiation of olivine by 4 keV He+: Simulation of space weathering by the solar wind. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, E03003.
Loeffler, M.J., Dukes, C.A., Christoffersen, R., & Baragiola, R.A. (2016) Space weathering of silicates simulated by successive laser irradiation: In situ reflectance measurements of Fo90, Fo99+, and SiO2. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 51, 261275.
Logan, L.M., Hunt, G.R., Salisbury, J.W., & Balsamo, S.R. (1973) Compositional implications of Christiansen frequency maximums for infrared remote sensing applications. Journal of Geophysical Research, 78, 49835003.
Lucey, P.G. & Noble, S K. (2008) Experimental test of a radiative transfer model of the optical effects of space weathering. Icarus, 197, 348353.
Lucey, P.G. & Riner, M.A. (2011) The optical effects of small iron particles that darken but do not redden: Evidence of intense space weathering on Mercury. Icarus, 212, 451462.
Lucey, P.G., Keil, K., & Whitely, R. (1998) The influence of temperature on the spectra of the A-asteroids and implications for their silicate chemistry. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, 58655871.
Lucey, P.G., Blewett, D.T., Taylor, G.J., & Hawke, B.R. (2000) Imaging of lunar surface maturity. Journal of Geophysical Research, 105, 20,37720,386.
Mastrapa, R.M.E. & Brown, R.H. (2006) Ion irradiation of crystalline H2O-ice: Effect on the 1.65 µm band. Icarus, 183, 207214.
Matsuoka, M., Nakamura, T., Kimura, Y., et al. (2015) Pulse-laser irradiation experiments of Murchison CM2 chondrite for reproducing space weathering on C-type asteroids. Icarus, 254, 135143.
Maturilli, A., Helbert, J., St. John, J.M., et al. (2014a) Komatiites as Mercury surface analogues: Spectral measurements at PEL. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 398, 5865.
Maturilli, A., Shiryaev, A.A., Kulakova, I.I., & Helbert, J. (2014b) Infrared reflectance and emissivity spectra of nanodiamonds. Spectroscopy Letters, 47, 446450.
McKay, D., Fruland, R., & Heiken, G. (1974) Grain size and the evolution of lunar soils. Proceedings of the 5th Lunar Sci. Conf., 887–906.
McKay, D.S., Heiken, G., Basu, A., et al. (1991) The lunar regolith. In: Lunar sourcebook: A user’s guide to the Moon (Heiken, G.H., Vaniman, D.T., & French, B.M., eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 285365.
Michalski, G., Böhlke, J.K., & Thiemens, M. (2004) Long term atmospheric deposition as the source of nitrate and other salts in the Atacama Desert, Chile: New evidence from mass-independent oxygen isotopic compositions. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 68, 40234038.
Moroz, L.V., Fisenko, A.V., Semjonova, L.F., Pieters, C.M., & Korotaeva, N.N. (1996) Optical effect of regolith processes on S-asteroids as simulated by laser shot on ordinary chondrites and other mafic materials. Icarus, 122, 366382.
Moroz, L., Schade, U., & Wasch, R. (2000) Reflectance spectra of olivine-orthopyroxene-bearing assemblages at decreased temperatures: Implications for remote sensing of asteroids. Icarus, 147, 7993.
Moroz, L.V., Starukhina, L.V., Rout, S.S., et al. (2014) Space weathering in silicate regoliths with various FeO contents: New insights from laser irradiation experiments and theoretical spectral simulations. Icarus, 235, 187206.
Morris, R. (1980) Origins and size distribution of metallic iron particles in the lunar regolith. Proceedings of the 11th Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., 1697–1712.
Murchie, S.L., Klima, R.L., Denevi, B.W., et al. (2015) Orbital multispectral mapping of Mercury with the MESSENGER Mercury Dual Imaging System: Evidence for the origins of plains units and low-reflectance material. Icarus, 254, 287305.
Nash, D.B. (1967) Proton-irradiation darkening of rock powders – Contamination and temperature effects and applications to solar-wind darkening of Moon. Journal of Geophysical Research, 72, 30893104.
Nestola, F., Nimis, P., Ziberna, L., et al. (2011a) First crystal-structure determination of olivine in diamond: Composition and implications for provenance in the Earth’s mantle. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 305, 249255.
Nestola, F., Pasqual, D., Smyth, J.R., et al. (2011b) New accurate elastic parameters for the forsterite-fayalite solid solution. American Mineralogist, 96, 17421747.
Nesvorný, D., Jenniskens, P., Levison, H.F., Bottke, W.F., Vokrouhlický, D., & Gounelle, M. (2010) Cometary origin of the zodiacal cloud and carbonaceous micrometeorites: Implications for hot debris disks. The Astrophysical Journal, 713, 816836.
Nettles, J.W., Staid, M., Besse, S., et al. (2011) Optical maturity variation in lunar spectra as measured by Moon Mineralogy Mapper data. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116, E00G17, DOI:10.1029/2010JE003748.
Noble, S.K. & Pieters, C.M. (2003) Space weathering on Mercury: Implications for remote sensing. Solar System Research, 37, 3439.
Noble, S.K., Pieters, C.M., & Keller, J. (2007) An experimental approach to understanding the optical effects of space weathering. Icarus, 192, 629642.
Noble, S.K., Hiroi, T., Keller, L.P., Rahman, Z., Sasaki, S., & Pieters, C.M. (2011) Experimental space weathering of ordinary chondrites by nanopulse laser: TEM results. 42nd Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., Abstract #1382.
Noguchi, T., Nakamura, T., Kimura, M., et al. (2001) Incipient space weathering observed on the surface of Itokawa dust particles. Science, 333, 11211125.
Papike, J.J., Simon, S.B., White, C., & Laul, J.C. (1981) The relationship of the lunar regolith <10 μm fraction and agglutinates. Part I: A model for agglutinate formation and some indirect supportive evidence. Proceedings of the 12th Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., 409–420.
Peterson, R.C., Nelson, W., Madu, B., & Shurvell, H.F. (2007) Meridianiite: A new mineral species observed on Earth and predicted to exist on Mars. American Mineralogist, 92, 17561759.
Pieters, C.M. & Noble, S.K. (2016) Space weathering on airless bodies. Journal of Geophysical Research, 121, 18651884.
Pieters, C.M., Fischer, E.M., Rode, O., & Basu, A. (1993) Optical effects of space weathering: The role of the finest fraction. Journal of Geophysical Research, 98, 20,81720,824.
Pieters, C.M., Taylor, L.A., Noble, S.K., et al. (2000) Space weathering on airless bodies: Resolving a mystery with lunar samples. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 35, 11011107.
Pommerol, A., Schmitt, B., Beck, P., & Brissaud, O. (2009) Water sorption on martian regolith analogs: Thermodynamics and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Icarus, 204, 114136.
Roush, T.L. & Singer, R.B. (1986) Gaussian analysis of temperature effects on the reflectance spectra of mafic minerals in the 1-µm region. Journal of Geophysical Research, 91, 10,30110,308.
Roush, T.L. & Singer, R.B. (1987) Possible temperature variation effects on the interpretation of spatially resolved reflectance observations of asteroid surfaces. Icarus, 69, 571574.
Roush, T.L., Pollack, J.B., Witteborn, F.C., & Bregman, J.D. (1990) Ice and minerals on Callisto: A reassessment of the reflectance spectra. Icarus, 86, 355382.
Sasaki, S., Nakamura, K., Hamabe, Y., Kurahashi, E., & Hiroi, T. (2001), Production of iron nanoparticles by laser irradiation in a simulation of lunar-like space weathering. Nature, 410, 555557.
Sasaki, S., Kurahashi, E., Yamanaka, C., & Nakamura, K. (2003) Laboratory simulation of space weathering: Changes of optical properties and TEM/ESR confirmation of nanophase metallic iron. Advances in Space Research, 31, 25372542.
Schade, U. & Wasch, R. (1999) NIR reflectance spectroscopy of mafic minerals in the temperature range between 80 and 473 K. Advances in Space Research, 23, 12531256.
Shannon, R.D. (1976) Revised effective ionic radii and systematic studies of interatomic distances in halides and chalcogenides. Acta Crystallographica A, 32, 751767.
Sherman, D.M. (1985) SCF-Xα-SW MO study of Fe-O and Fe-OH chemical bonds; applications to Mössbauer spectra and magnetochemistry of hydroxyl-bearing Fe3+ oxides and silicates. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 12, 311314.
Shestopalov, D.I. Golubeva, L.F., & Cloutis, E.A. (2013) Optical maturation of asteroid surfaces. Icarus, 225, 781793.
Shkuratov, Y.G., Kaydash, V.G., & Opanasenko, N.V. (1999) Iron and titanium abundance and maturity degree distribution on the lunar nearside. Icarus, 137, 222234.
Singer, R.B. & Roush, T.L. (1985) Effects of temperature on remotely sensed mineral absorption features. Journal of Geophysical Research, 90, 12,43412,444.
Singh, S., Cornet, T. Chevrier, V.F., et al. (2016) Near-infrared spectra of liquid/solid acetylene under Titan relevant conditions and implications for Cassini/VIMS detections. Icarus, 270, 429434.
Smith, P.H., Lemmon, M.T., Lorenz, R.D., Sromovsky, L.A., Caldwell, J.J. & Allison, M.D. (1996) Titan’s surface, revealed by HST imaging. Icarus, 119, 336349.
Strom, R.G. & Sprague, A. (2003) Exploring Mercury: The iron planet. Springer-Verlag, London.
Takir, D., Emery, J.P., McSween, H.Y., et al. (2013) Nature and degree of aqueous alteration in CM and CI carbonaceous chondrites. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 48, 16181637.
Taylor, L.A., Pieters, C.M., Keller, L.P., Morris, R.V., & McKay, D.S. (2001) Lunar mare soils: Space weathering and the major effects of surface-correlated nanophase Fe. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, 27,98527,999.
Vaniman, D.T., Bish, D.L., Chipera, S.J., Fialips, C.I., Carey, J.W., & Feldman, W.C. (2004) Magnesium sulphate salts and the history of water on Mars. Nature, 431, 663665.
Vasavada, A., Paige, D.A., & Wood, S.E. (1999) Near-surface temperatures on Mercury and the Moon and the stability of polar ice deposits. Icarus, 141, 179193.
Vilas, F. & Hendrix, A.R. (2015) The UV/blue effects of space weathering manifested in S-complex asteroids. I. Quantifying change with asteroid age. The Astronomical Journal, 150, 64.
Vilas, F., Domingue, D., Helbert, J., et al. (2016) Mineralogical indicators of Mercury’s hollows composition in MESSENGER color observations. Geophysical Research Letters, 43, 14501456.
Walker, R.J. & Papike, J.J. (1981) The relationship of the lunar regolith <10 μm fraction and agglutinates. Part II: Chemical composition of agglutinate glass as a test of the “fusion of the finest fraction” (F3) model. Proceedings of the 12th Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., 421–432.
Wasiak, F.C., Luspay-Kuti, A., Welivitiya, W.D.D.P., et al. (2013) A facility for simulating Titan’s environment. Advances in Space Research, 51, 12131220.
Wilcox, B.B., Lucey, P.G., & Gillis, J.J. (2005) Mapping iron in the lunar mare: An improved approach. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, E11001, DOI:10.1029/2005JE002512.
Wu, H.B., Chan, M.N., & Chan, C.K. (2007) FTIR characterization of polymorphic transformation of ammonium nitrate. Aerosol Science and Technology, 41, 581588.
Yamada, M., Sasaki, S., Nagahara, H., et al. (1999) Simulation of space weathering of planet-forming materials: Nanosecond pulse laser irradiation and proton implantation on olivine and pyroxene samples. Earth, Planets and Space, 51, 12551265.


Adams, J.B., Smith, M.O., & Gillespie, A.R. (1993) Imaging spectroscopy: Interpretation based on spectral mixture analysis. In: Remote geochemical analysis: Elemental and mineralogical composition (Pieters, C.M. & Englert, , eds.). Cambridge University Press, New York, 145166.
Boardman, J.W. (1993) Automating spectral unmixing of AVIRIS data using convex geometry concepts. 4th JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, 1114.
Boardman, J.W. & Kruse, F.A. (1994) Automated spectral analysis: A geologic example using AVIRIS data, north Grapevine Mountains, Nevada. Proceedings of the 10th Thematic Conference on Geological Remote Sensing, ERIM, Ann Arbor, MI, I-407–418.
Boardman, J.W., Kruse, F.A., & Green, R.O. (1995) Mapping target signatures via partial unmixing of AVIRIS data. 5th Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop.
Boser, B.E., Guyon, I.M., & Vapnik, V.N. (1992) A training algorithm for optimal margin classifiers. Proceedings of the Annual Workshop on Computational Learning Theory, 144–152.
Brown, M., Lewis, H.G., & Gunn, S.R. (2000) Linear spectral mixture models and support vector machines for remote sensing. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 38, 23462360.
Bruzzone, L., Chi, M., & Marconcini, M. (2006) A novel transductive SVM for semisupervised classification of remote sensing images. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 44, 33633373.
Camps-Valls, G. & Bruzzone, L. (2005) Kernel-based methods for hyperspectral image classification, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 43, 13511362.
Camps-Valls, G., Gomez-Chova, L., Muñoz-Marí, J., Vila-Francs, J., & Calpe-Maravilla, J. (2006) Composite kernels for hyperspectral image classification. IEEE Geoscience Remote Sensing Letters, 3, 9397.
Camps-Valls, G., Shervashidze, N., & Borgwardt, K.M. (2010) Spatio-spectral remote sensing image classification with graph kernels. IEEE Geoscience Remote Sensing Letters, 7, 741745.
Chandrasekhar, S. (1960) Radiative transfer. Dover Publications, Mineola, NY.
Chang, C.-I. (2000) An information theoretic-based approach to spectral variability, similarity and discriminability for hyperspectral image analysis. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 46, 1927–1932.
Chen, J.Y. & Reed, I.S. (1987) A detection algorithm for optical targets in clutter. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace Electronic Systems, AES-23(1).
Combe, J.P., Le Mouelic, S., Sotin, C., et al. (2008) Analysis of OMEGA/Mars express data hyperspectral data using a multiple-endmember linear spectral unmixing model (MELSUM): Methodology and first results. Planetary and Space Science, 56, 951975.
Cortes, C. & Vapnik, V.N. (1995) Support-vector networksMachine Learning20(3), 273297.
Farrand, W.H. & Harsanyi, J.C. (1995) Discrimination of poorly exposed lithologies in imaging spectrometer data. Journal of Geophysical Research, 100, 15651578.
Farrand, W.H. & Harsanyi, J.C. (1997) Mapping the distribution of mine tailings in the Coeur d’Alene River Valley, Idaho through the use of a Constrained Energy Minimization technique. Remote Sensing of the Environment, 59, 6476.
Farrand, W.H., Bell, J.F. III, Johnson, J.R., et al. (2008a) Rock spectral classes observed by the Spirit rover’s Pancam on the Gusev crater plains and in the Columbia Hills. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, E12S38, DOI:10.1029/2008JE003237.
Farrand, W.H., Merényi, E., Johnson, J.R., & Bell, J.F., III (2008b) Comprehensive mapping of spectral classes in the imager for Mars Pathfinder Super Pan. Mars, 4, 33–55.
Fauvel, M., Tarabalka, Y., Benediktsson, J.A., Chanussot, J., & Tilton, J.C. (2013) Advances in spectral-spatial classification of hyperspectral images. Proceedings of the IEEE, 101, 652675.
Felder, M.P., Grumpe, A., & Wöhler, C. (2014) Automatic segmentation of spectrally similar lunar surface areas with emphasis on the spectral absorption features. 45th Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., Abstract # 2537.
Friedman, J.H. & Tukey, J.W. (1974) A projection pursuit algorithm for exploratory data analysis. IEEE Transactions on Computers, 23, 881890.
Gilmore, M.S., Bornstein, B., Merrill, M.D., Castaño, R., & Greenwood, J.P. (2008) Generation and performance of automated jarosite mineral detectors for visible/near-infrared spectrometers at Mars. Icarus, 195, 169183.
Gilmore, M.S., Thompson, D.R., Anderson, L.J., Karamzadeh, N., Mandrake, L., & Castaño, R. (2011) Superpixel segmentation for analysis of hyperspectral datasets, with application to CRISM data, M3 data, and Ariadnes Chaos, Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116, E07001, DOI:10.1029/2010JE003763.
Gomez-Chova, L., Camps-Valls, G., Muñoz-Marí, J., & Calpe, J. (2008) Semi-supervised image classification with Laplacian support vector machines. IEEE Geoscience Remote Sensing Letters, 5, 336340.
Green, A.A., Berman, M., Switzer, P., & Craig, M.D. (1988) A transformation for ordering multispectral data in terms of image quality with implications for noise removal, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 26, 6574.
Gruninger, J.H., Ratkowski, A.J., & Hoke, M.L. (2004) The sequential maximum angle convex cone (SMACC) endmember model. Proceedings of SPIE 5425, Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery X, 1, DOI:10.1117/12.543794.
Gualtieri, J.A. & Chettri, S. (2000) Support vector machines for classification of hyperspectral data. IGARSS 2000. IEEE 2000 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, IEEE 2000 International Support vector machines for classification of hyperspectral data, 2, 813815.
Hapke, B. (1981) Bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy: 1. Theory. Journal of Geophysical Research, 86, 30393054.
Hapke, B. (2012) Theory of reflectance and emittance spectroscopy. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Harsanyi, J.C. (1993) Detection and classification of subpixel spectral signatures in hyperspectral image sequences. PhD dissertation, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Maryland.
Hogan, R.C. & Roush, T.L. (2002) SOM classification of martian TES data. 23rd Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., Abstract #1693.
Howell, E.S., Merényi, E., & Lebofsky, L.A. (1994) Using neural networks to classify asteroid spectra. Journal of Geophysical Research, 99, 10,84710,865.
Kohonen, T. (1988) Self-organization and associative memory. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Kruse, F.A., Lefkoff, A.B., Boardman, J.W., et al. (1993) The spectral image processing system (SIPS)—interactive visualization and analysis of imaging spectrometer data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 44, 145163.
Kullback, S. (1968) Information theory and statistics. Dover, Gloucester, MA.
Li, J., Marpu, P.R., Plaza, A., Bioucas-Dias, J., & Benediktsson, J.A. (2013) Generalized composite kernel framework for hyperspectral image classification. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 51, 48164829.
Liu, Y., Glotch, T.D., Scudder, N., et al. (2016) End-member identification and spectral mixture analysis of CRISM hyperspectral data: A case study on southwest Melas Chasma, Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research, 121, 20042036.
Maulik, U. & Chakraborty, D. (2017) Remote Sensing Image Classification: A survey of support-vector-machine-based advanced techniques. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Magazine, 5(1), 3352.
Melgani, F. & Bruzzone, L. (2004) Classification of hyperspectral remote sensing images with support vector machines. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 42, 7781790.
Merényi, E., Farrand, W.H., Brown, R.H., Villmann, Th., & Fyfe, C. (2007) Information extraction and knowledge discovery from high-dimensional and high-volume complex data sets through precision manifold learning. Proceedings of NASA Science Technology Conference (NSTC2007), College Park, MD, June 1921, 2007.
Merényi, E., Taşdemir, K., & Zhang, L. (2009) Learning highly structured manifolds: Harnessing the power of SOMs. Similarity based clustering. (Biehl, M., Hammer, B., Verleysen, M., & Villmann, T., eds.). Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin and Heidelberg, 138168.
Merényi, E., Farrand, W.H., Taranik, J.V., & Minor, T.B. (2014) Classification of hyperspectral imagery with neural networks: Comparison to conventional tools, EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, 71, DOI:10.1186/1687-6180-2014-71.
Merényi, E., Taylor, J., & Isella, A. (2016) Mining complex hyperspectral ALMA cubes for structure with neural machine learning. Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium Series of Computational Intelligence and Data Mining, SSCI 2016, Athens, Greece, December 6–9, 2016, DOI:10.1109/SSCI.2016.7849952.
Moser, G., Serpico, S.B., & Benediktsson, J.A. (2013) Land-cover mapping by Markov modeling of spatial-contextual information. Proceedings of the IEEE, 101, 631651.
Poulet, F. & Erard, S. (2004) Nonlinear spectral mixing: Quantitative analysis of laboratory mineral mixtures. Journal of Geophysical Research, 109(E2), DOI:10.1029/2003JE002179.
Poulet, F., Cuzzi, J.N., Cruikshank, D.P., Roush, T., & Dalle Ore, C.M. (2002) Comparison between the Shkuratov and Hapke scattering theories for solid planetary surfaces: Application to the surface composition of two Centaurs. Icarus, 160, 313324.
Poulet, F., Bibring, J.-P., Langevin, Y., et al. (2009) Quantitative compositional analysis of martian mafic regions using MEx/OMEGA reflectance data: 1. Methodology, uncertainties and examples of application. Icarus, 201, 6983.
Ramsey, M.S. & Christensen, P.R. (1998) Mineral abundance determination: Quantitative deconvolution of thermal emission spectra, Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, 577596.
Reed, I.S. & Yu, X. (1990) Adaptive multiple-band CFAR detection of an optical pattern with unknown spectral distribution. IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 38, 17601770.
Ren, H. & Chang, C.I. (2000) A target-constrained interference-minimized filter for subpixel target detection in hyperspectral imagery. IGARSS 2000. IEEE 2000 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium. IEEE 2000 International Support vector machines for classification of hyperspectral data, 4. 15451547.
Richards, J.A. (2013) Supervised classification techniques. In: Remote sensing digital image analysis. Springer, Berlin and Heidelberg, 247318.
Roush, T.L. & Hogan, R.C. (2007) Automated classification of visible and near-infrared spectra using self-organizing maps. Proceedings of the IEEE Aerospace Conference 2007, 1–10, DOI:10.1109/AERO.2007.352701.
Roush, T.L., Helbert, J., Hogan, R.C., & Maturilli, A. (2007) Classification of Mars analogue mixtures and end-member minerals using self-organizing maps. 38th Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., Abstract #1291.
Schaum, A.P. (2001) Spectral subspace matched filtering. Proceedings of the SPIE 4381, Algorithms for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery VII, 1 (August 20, 2001), DOI:10.1117/12.436996.
Schowengerdt, R.A. (2012) Techniques for image processing and classifications in remote sensing. Academic Press, San Diego.
Shkuratov, Y.G., Starukhina, L., Hoffmann, H., & Arnold, G. (1999) A model of spectral albedo of particulate surfaces: Implications for optical properties of the Moon, Icarus, 137, 235246.
Singer, R.B. & McCord, T.B. (1979) Mars: Large scale mixing of bright and dark materials and implications for analysis of spectral bright regions on Mars. Proceedings of the 10th Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., 18251848.
Sklute, E.C., Glotch, T.D., Piatek, J., Woerner, W., Martone, A., & Kraner, M. (2015) Optical constants of synthetic potassium, sodium, and hydronium jarosite. American Minerologist, 100, 11101122.
Smith, M.O., Roberts, D.A., Hill, J., et al. (1994) A new approach to quantifying abundances of materials in multispectral images. Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 1994. IGARSS’94. Surface and Atmospheric Remote Sensing: Technologies, Data Analysis and Interpretation, International, 23722374.
Stocker, A., Reed, I.S., & Yu, X. (1990) Multidimensional signal processing for electro-optical target detection. Proceedings of SPIE 1305, Signal and Data Processing of Small Targets 1990, 218, DOI:10.1117/12.21593.
Taşdemir, K. & Merényi, E. (2008) Cluster analysis in remote sensing spectral imagery through graph representation and advanced SOM representation. 11th International Conference on Discovery Science, DS-2008, Budapest, Hungary, October 1316, 2008. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 5255/2008, 272–283.
Tuia, D. & Camps-Valls, G. (2009) Semi-supervised remote sensing image classification with cluster kernels. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 6, 224228.
Tuia, D., Camps-Valls, G., Matasci, G., & Kanevski, M. (2010) Learning relevant image features with multiple kernel classification. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 48, 37803791.
Tuia, D., Volpi, M., Copa, L., Kanevski, M., & Muñoz-Marí, J. (2011) A survey of active learning algorithms for supervised remote sensing image classification. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics on Signal Processing, 5, 606617.
Varshney, P.K. & Arora, M.K. (2004) Advanced image processing techniques for remotely sensed hyperspectral data. Springer Science+Business Media, New York.
Vieira, E.F. & Ponz, J.D (1998) Automated spectral classification using astronomical data analysis software and systems VII. A.S.P. Conference Series, 145, 508.
Winter, M.E. (1999) N-FINDR: An algorithm for fast autonomous spectral end-member determination in hyperspectral data. SPIE’s International Symposium on Optical Science, Engineering, and Instrumentation. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 266275.
Zhang, L., Merényi, E., Grundy, W.M., & Young, E.Y. (2010) Inference of surface parameters from near-infrared spectra of crystalline H2O ice with neural learning. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 122 (893), 839852.


Baldridge, A.M., Farmer, J.D., & Moersch, J.E. (2004) Mars remote-sensing analog studies in the Badwater Basin, Death Valley, California. Journal of Geophysical Research, 109, E12006, 118.
Bandfield, J.L. (2008) High‐silica deposits of an aqueous origin in western Hellas Basin, Mars. Geophysical Research Letters, 35, DOI:10.1029/2008GL033807.
Bandfield, J.L. (2009) Effects of surface roughness and graybody emissivity on martian thermal infrared spectra. Icarus, 202, 414428.
Bandfield, J.L. & Smith, M.D. (2003) Multiple emission angle surface-atmosphere separations of thermal emission spectrometer data. Icarus, 161, 4765.
Bandfield, J.L., Hamilton, V.E., & Christensen, P.R. (2000) A global view of martian surface compositions from MGS-TES. Science, 287, 16261630.
Bandfield, J.L., Edgett, K.S., & Christensen, P.R. (2002) Spectroscopic study of the Moses Lake dune field, Washington: Determination of compositional distributions and source lithologies. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107, DOI:10.1029/2000JE001469.
Bandfield, J.L., Glotch, T.D., & Christensen, P.R. (2003) Spectroscopic identification of carbonate minerals in the martian dust. Science, 301, 10841087.
Bandfield, J.L., Rogers, D., Smith, M.D., & Christensen, P.R. (2004) Atmospheric correction and surface spectral unit mapping using Thermal Emission Imaging System data. Journal of Geophysical Research, 109, DOI:10.1029/2004JE002289.
Bandfield, J.L., Ghent, R.R., Vasavada, A.R., Paige, D.A., Lawrence, S.J., & Robinson, M.S. (2011) Lunar surface rock abundance and regolith fines temperatures derived from LRO Diviner Radiometer data. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116, DOI:10.1029/2011JE003866.
Bandfield, J.L., Hayne, P.O., Williams, J.-P., Greenhagen, B.T., & Paige, D.A. (2015) Lunar surface roughness derived from LRO Diviner Radiometer observations. Icarus, 248, 357372.
Christensen, P.R. (1986) The spatial distribution of rocks on Mars. Icarus, 68, 217238.
Christensen, P.R., Bandfield, J.L., Clark, R.N., et al. (2000) Detection of crystalline hematite mineralization on Mars by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer: Evidence for near-surface water. Journal of Geophysical Research, 105, 96239642.
Christensen, P.R., Ruff, S.W., Fergason, R.L., et al. (2004) Initial results from the Mini-TES Experiment in Gusev crater from the Spirit rover. Science, 305, 837842.
Feely, K.C. & Christensen, P.R. (1999) Quantitative compositional analysis using thermal emission spectroscopy: Application to igneous and metamorphic rocks. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 24,19524,210.
Geladi, P. & Kowalski, B.R. (1986) Partial least-squares regression: A tutorial. Analytica Chimica Acta, 185, 117.
Geminale, A., Grassi, D., Altieri, F., et al. (2015) Removal of atmospheric features in near infrared spectra by means of principal component analysis and target transformation on Mars: I. Method. Icarus, 253, 5165.
Ghent, R.R., Hayne, P.O., Bandfield, J.L., et al. (2014) Constraints on the recent rate of lunar ejecta breakdown and implications for crater ages. Geology, 42, 10591062.
Gillespie, A. (1992) Spectral mixture analysis of multispectral thermal infrared images. Remote Sensing of Environment, 42, 137145.
Glotch, T.D. & Bandfield, J.L. (2006) Determination and interpretation of surface and atmospheric Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer spectral end‐members at the Meridiani Planum landing site. Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, E12S06, 1507–1509.
Glotch, T.D. & Rogers, A.D. (2013) Evidence for magma‐carbonate interaction beneath Syrtis Major, Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research, 118, 126137.
Glotch, T.D., Christensen, P.R., & Sharp, T.G. (2006a) Fresnel modeling of hematite crystal surfaces and application to martian hematite spherules. Icarus, 181, 408418.
Glotch, T.D., Bandfield, J.L., Christensen, P.R., et al. (2006b) Mineralogy of the light-toned outcrop at Meridiani Planum as seen by the Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer and implications for its formation. Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, E12S03, DOI:10.1029/2005JE002672.
Golombek, M., Huertas, A., Kipp, D., & Calef, F. (2012) Detection and characterization of rocks and rock size-frequency distributions at the final four Mars Science Laboratory landing sites. International Journal of Mars Science and Exploration, 7, 122.
Greenhagen, B.T., Lucey, P.G., Wyatt, M.B., et al. (2010) Global silicate mineralogy of the Moon from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer. Science, 329, 1507–1509.
Hamilton, V.E. & Christensen, P.R. (2000) Determining the modal mineralogy of mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks using thermal emission spectroscopy. Journal of Geophysical Research, 105, 97179733.
Hamilton, V.E. & Ruff, S.W. (2012) Distribution and characteristics of Adirondack-class basalt as observed by Mini-TES in Gusev crater, Mars and its possible volcanic source. Icarus, 218, 917949.
Hamilton, V.E., Christensen, P.R., & McSween, H.Y. (1997) Determination of martian meteorite lithologies and mineralogies using vibrational spectroscopy. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 2559325604.
Hecker, C., Dilles, J.H., van der Meijde, M., & van der Meer, F.D. (2012) Thermal infrared spectroscopy and partial least squares regression to determine mineral modes of granitoid rocks. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 13, Q03021, DOI:10.1029/2011GC004004.
Huang, J., Edwards, C.S., Ruff, S.W., Christensen, P.R., & Xiao, L. (2013) A new method for the semiquantitative determination of major rock‐forming minerals with thermal infrared multispectral data: Application to THEMIS infrared data. Journal of Geophysical Research, 118, 21462152.
Johnson, J.R., Staid, M.I., Titus, T.N., & Becker, K. (2006) Shocked plagioclase signatures in Thermal Emission Spectrometer data of Mars. Icarus, 180, 6074.
Lagerros, J.S. (1998) Thermal physics of asteroids. IV. Thermal infrared beaming. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 332, 11231132.
Lane, M.D. & Christensen, P.R. (1998) Thermal infrared emission spectroscopy of salt minerals predicted for Mars. Icarus, 135, 528536.
Lawson, C.L. & Hanson, R.J. (1974) Solving least squares problems. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Li, L. & Mustard, J.F. (2003) Highland contamination in lunar mare soils: Improved mapping with multiple end‐member spectral mixture analysis (MESMA). Journal of Geophysical Research, 108, DOI:10.1029/2002JE001917.
Malinowski, E.R. (1991) Factor analysis in chemistry, 2nd edn. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Nowicki, S. & Christensen, P. (2007) Rock abundance on Mars from the thermal emission spectrometer. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, DOI:10.1029/2006JE002798.
Pan, C., Rogers, A., & Michalski, J. (2015a) Thermal and near‐infrared analyses of central peaks of martian impact craters: Evidence for a heterogeneous martian crust. Journal of Geophysical Research, 120, 662688.
Pan, C., Rogers, A., & Thorpe, M. (2015b) Quantitative compositional analysis of sedimentary materials using thermal emission spectroscopy: 2. Application to compacted fine‐grained mineral mixtures and assessment of applicability of partial least squares methods. Journal of Geophysical Research, 120, 1984–2001.
Ramsey, M.S. (2002) Ejecta distribution patterns at Meteor Crater, Arizona: On the applicability of lithologic end‐member deconvolution for spaceborne thermal infrared data of Earth and Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107, DOI:10.1029/2001JE001827.
Ramsey, M.S. & Christensen, P.R. (1998) Mineral abundance determination: Quantitative deconvolution of thermal emission spectra. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, 577596.
Roberts, D.A., Gardner, M., Church, R., Ustin, S., Scheer, G., & Green, R. (1998) Mapping chaparral in the Santa Monica Mountains using multiple endmember spectral mixture models. Remote Sensing of Environment, 65, 267279.
Rogers, A. & Aharonson, O. (2008) Mineralogical composition of sands in Meridiani Planum determined from Mars Exploration Rover data and comparison to orbital measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, DOI:10.1029/2007JE002995.
Ruff, S.W. & Christensen, P.R. (2002) Bright and dark regions on Mars: Particle size and mineralogical characteristics based on Thermal Emission Spectrometer data. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107, 5119, DOI:10.1029/2001JE001580.
Ruff, S.W. & Hamilton, V.E. (2017) Wishstone to Watchtower: Amorphous alteration of plagioclase-rich rocks in Gusev crater, Mars. American Mineralogist, 102, 235251.
Sinton, W.M. (1981) The thermal emission spectrum of Io and a determination of the heat flux from its hot spots. Journal of Geophysical Research, 86, 31223128.
Smith, M.D., Bandfield, J.L., & Christensen, P.R. (2000) Separation of atmospheric and surface spectral features in Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) spectra. Journal of Geophysical Research, 105, 95899607.
Spencer, J.R. (1990) A rough-surface thermophysical model for airless planets. Icarus, 83, 2738.
Thomson, J.L. & Salisbury, J.W. (1993) The mid-infrared reflectance of mineral mixtures (7–14 μm). Remote Sensing of Environment, 45, 113.
Thorpe, M.T., Rogers, A.D., Bristow, T.F., & Pan, C. (2015) Quantitative compositional analysis of sedimentary materials using thermal emission spectroscopy: 1. Application to sedimentary rocks. Journal of Geophysical Research, 120, 19561983.
Wold, S., Sjöström, M., & Eriksson, L. (2001) PLS-regression: A basic tool of chemometrics. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, 58, 109130.
Wyatt, M.B., Hamilton, V.E., McSween, H.Y., Christensen, P.R., & Taylor, L.A. (2001a) Analysis of terrestrial and martian volcanic compositions using thermal emission spectroscopy: 1. Determination of mineralogy, chemistry, and classification strategies. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, 1471114732.
Wyatt, M.B., Hamilton, V.E., McSween, H.Y., Jr., Christensen, P.R., & Taylor, L.A. (2001b) Analysis of terrestrial and martian volcanic compositions using thermal emission spectroscopy, 1. Determination of mineralogy, chemistry, and classification strategies. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, 14,71114,732.


Bell, J. (2008) The martian surface: Composition, mineralogy, and physical properties. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Bishop, J.L., Noe Dobrea, E.Z., McKeown, N.K., et al. (2008) Phyllosilicate diversity and past aqueous activity revealed at Mawrth Vallis, Mars. Science, 321, 830833.Campbell, B.A., Hawke, B.R., Carter, L.M., Ghent, R.R., & Campbell, D.B. (2009) Rugged lava flows on the Moon revealed by Earth-based radar. Geophysical Research Letters, 36, 15.
Campbell, B.A., Ray Hawke, B., Morgan, G.A., Carter, L.M., Campbell, D.B., & Nolan, M. (2014) Improved discrimination of volcanic complexes, tectonic features, and regolith properties in Mare Serenitatis from Earth-based radar mapping. Journal of Geophysical Research, 119, 313330.
Cann, J.R. & Vine, F.J. (1966) An area on the crest of the Carlsberg Ridge: Petrology and magnetic survey. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 259, 198 LP217.
Carrier, W.D., Olhoeft, G.R., & Mendell, W. (1991) Physical properties of the lunar surface. In: Lunar sourcebook: A user’s guide to the Moon. Cambridge University Press, New York, 475594.
Carter, L.M., Campbell, B.A., Hawke, B.R., Campbell, D.B., & Nolan, M.C. (2009) Radar remote sensing of pyroclastic deposits in the southern Mare Serenitatis and Mare Vaporum regions of the Moon. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, 21562202.
Carter, L.M., Petro, N.E., Campbell, B.A., Baker, D.M.H., & Morgan, G.A. (2017) Earth-based radar and orbital remote sensing observations of mare basalt flows and pyroclastic deposits in Mare Nubium. 37th Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., Abstract #1736.
Christensen, P.R. (1986) The spatial distribution of rocks on Mars. Icarus, 68, 217238.
Condie, K.C. (1993) Chemical composition and evolution of the upper continental crust: Contrasting results from surface samples and shales. Chemical Geology, 104, 137.
Craddock, P.R., Dauphas, N., & Clayton, R.N. (2010) Mineralogical control on iron isotopic fractionation during lunar differentiation and magmatism. 41st Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., Abstract #1230.
Dauphas, N., Pourmand, A., & Teng, F.-Z. (2009) Routine isotopic analysis of iron by HR-MC-ICPMS: How precise and how accurate? Chemical Geology, 267, 175184.
Ehlmann, B.L., Mustard, J.F., Clark, R.N., Swayze, G.A., & Murchie, S.L. (2011a) Evidence for low-grade metamorphism, hydrothermal alteration, and diagenesis on Mars from phyllosilicate mineral assemblages. Clays and Clay Minerals, 59, 359377.
Ehlmann, B.L., Mustard, J.F., Murchie, S.L., et al. (2011b) Subsurface water and clay mineral formation during the early history of Mars. Nature, 479, 5360.
Fedo, C.M., Nesbitt, H.W., & Young, G.M. (1995) Unravelling the effects of potassium metasomatism in sedimentary rocks and paleosols, with implications for paleoweathering conditions and provenance. Geology, 23, 921924.
Gasnault, O., Jeffrey Taylor, G., Karunatillake, S., et al. (2010) Quantitative geochemical mapping of martian elemental provinces. Icarus, 207, 226247.
Giguere, T.A., Taylor, G.J., Hawke, B.R., & Lucey, P.G. (2000) The titanium contents of lunar mare basalts. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 35, 193200.
Hallis, L.J., Anand, M., Greenwood, R.C., Miller, M.F., Franchi, I.A., & Russell, S.S. (2010) The oxygen isotope composition, petrology and geochemistry of mare basalts: Evidence for large-scale compositional variation in the lunar mantle. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 74, 68856899.
Heiken, G.H., Vaniman, D.T., & French, B.M., eds. (1991) Lunar sourcebook: A user’s guide to the Moon. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Hurowitz, J.A. & Fischer, W.W. (2014) Contrasting styles of water–rock interaction at the Mars Exploration Rover landing sites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 127, 2538.
Hurowitz, J.A. & McLennan, S.M. (2007) A 3.5 Ga record of water-limited, acidic weathering conditions on Mars. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 260, 432443.
Jolliff, B.L., Wieczorek, M.A., Shearer, C.K., & Neal, C.R., eds. (2006) New views of the Moon. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry Series, 60. Mineralogical Society of America.
Karunatillake, S., Wray, J.J., Gasnault, O., et al. (2014) Sulfates hydrating bulk soil in the martian low and middle latitudes. Geophysical Research Letters, 41, 79877996.
Karunatillake, S., Wray, J.J., Gasnault, O., et al. (2016) The association of hydrogen with sulfur on Mars across latitudes, longitudes, and compositional extremes. Journal of Geophysical Research, 121, 129.
Kramer, J.R. (1968) Mineral-water equilibria in silicate weathering. International Geological Congress, 23rd session, 149160.
Liu, Y., Spicuzza, M.J., Craddock, P.R., et al. (2010) Oxygen and iron isotope constraints on near-surface fractionation effects and the composition of lunar mare basalt source regions. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 74, 62496262.
Lucey, P.G., Blewett, D.T., & Jolliff, B.L. (2000) Lunar iron and titanium abundance algorithms based on final processing of Clementine ultraviolet-visible images. Journal of Geophysical Research, 105, 2029720305.
Ming, D.W., Gellert, R., Morris, R.V., et al. (2008) Geochemical properties of rocks and soils in Gusev crater, Mars: Results of the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer from Cumberland Ridge to Home Plate. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, E12S39, DOI:10.1029/2008JE003195.
Morgan, G.A., Campbell, B.A., Campbell, D.B., & Hawke, B.R. (2016) Investigating the stratigraphy of Mare Imbrium flow emplacement with Earth-based radar. Journal of Geophysical Research, 121, 14981513.
Morris, R.V., Klingelhöfer, G., Schröder, C., et al. (2008) Iron mineralogy and aqueous alteration from Husband Hill through Home Plate at Gusev crater, Mars: Results from the Mössbauer instrument on the Spirit Mars Exploration Rover. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, E12S42, DOI:10.1029/2008JE003201.
Nesbitt, H.W. & Wilson, R.E. (1992) Recent chemical weathering of basalts. American Journal of Science, 292, 740777.
Nesbitt, H.W. & Young, G.M. (1982) Early Proterozoic climates and plate motions inferred from major element chemistry of lutites. Nature, 299, 715717.
Nesbitt, H.W. & Young, G.M. (1984) Prediction of some weathering trends of plutonic and volcanic rocks based on thermodynamic and kinetic considerations. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 48, 15231534.
Nowicki, S.A. & Christensen, P.R. (2007) Rock abundance on Mars from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, E05007, DOI:10.1029/2006JE002798.
Pettijohn, F.J., Potter, P.E., & Siever, R. (1987) Sand and sandstone. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Poulet, F., Mangold, N., Loizeau, D., et al. (2008) Abundance of minerals in the phyllosilicate-rich units on Mars. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 487, L41U193, DOI:10.1051/0004-6361:200810150.
Putzig, N., Mellon, M., Kretke, K., & Arvidson, R. (2005) Global thermal inertia and surface properties of Mars from the MGS mapping mission. Icarus, 173, 325341.
Ruff, S.W. & Christensen, P.R. (2002) Bright and dark regions on Mars: Particle size and mineralogical characteristics based on Thermal Emission Spectrometer data. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107, 5127, DOI:10.1029/2001JE001580.
Spicuzza, M.J., Day, J.M.D., Taylor, L.A., & Valley, J.W. (2007) Oxygen isotope constraints on the origin and differentiation of the Moon. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 253(1–2), 254265.
Sullivan, R., Arvidson, R., Bell, J.F., et al. (2008) Wind-driven particle mobility on Mars: Insights from Mars Exploration Rover observations at “El Dorado” and surroundings at Gusev crater. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, E06S07, DOI:10.1029/2008JE003101.
Taylor, G.J., Boynton, W.V., Brückner, J., et al. (2006) Bulk composition and early differentiation of Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112. E03S10, DOI:10.1029/2005JE002645.
Taylor, G.J., Martel, L.M.V., Karunatillake, S., Gasnault, O., & Boynton, W.V. (2010) Mapping Mars geochemically. Geology, 38, 183186.
Teng, F.-Z., Dauphas, N., & Helz, R.T. (2008) Iron isotope fractionation during magmatic differentiation in Kilauea Iki Lava Lake. Science, 320, 16201622.
Wray, J.J., Ehlmann, B.L., Squyres, S.W., Mustard, J.F., & Kirk, R.L. (2008) Compositional stratigraphy of clay-bearing layered deposits at Mawrth Vallis, Mars. Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L12202, DOI:10.1029/2008GL034385.

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats