Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-544b6db54f-vq995 Total loading time: 0.373 Render date: 2021-10-17T04:50:27.721Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

2 - Wireless Networks and Resource Allocation

from Part I - Basics of Wireless Networks

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 May 2017

Ekram Hossain
Affiliation:
University of Manitoba, Canada
Mehdi Rasti
Affiliation:
Amir Kabir University of Technology
Long Bao Le
Affiliation:
Université du Québec, Montréal
Get access

Summary

Protocol Layers for Data Communication

Data communication between two processes (or applications) can be implemented by performing several tasks (i.e., modules) in a hierarchical manner. These modules, when arranged in a vertical stack, form a layered protocol stack. Each layer performs a subset of functions (related to transmission and/or reception) required for communication between the two processes. Such a layer depends on more primitive functions performed by its lower layer, and it also provides services to the upper layers. During the communication process between two processes, the peer layers in the corresponding devices communicate by using a defined set of rules or conventions. This set of rules or conventions is referred to as a protocol at the corresponding layer.

The open system interconnection (OSI) model proposed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) [2] defines a generic protocol stack for a data communication network. The OSI model consists of the following seven layers depicted in Figure 2.1: physical, data link, network, transport, session, presentation, and application layers. The lower layers are closer to hardware-based physical data transmission procedures, while the higher layers mostly perform software-based operations. Each layer communicates with its own counterpart; for example, the network layer in the transmitter communicates with the network layer in the receiver. This independently layered structure enables very versatile and reliable networks such as the Internet. In this section, we briefly discuss each of the layers in the OSI protocol stack.

Physical Layer

The physical layer is concerned with the transmission of individual bits over the transmission medium. That is, it is responsible for the modulation and demodulation of the signals at the transmitter and receiver, respectively. The modulation and demodulation techniques depend on the physical medium (e.g., whether it is a “wireline” or a “wireless” medium). For wireless communications, modulation techniques such as PSK, PAM, and QAM and their variants can be used (which were briefly discussed in Chapter 1). For communications over fiber optic cables, typical transmitters are laser diodes that can be modulated to switch between ON and OFF states, which correspond to transmission of 1 and 0, respectively.

Type
Chapter
Information
Radio Resource Management in Wireless Networks
An Engineering Approach
, pp. 49 - 114
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2017

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

[1] J. G., Proakis and M., Salehi, Digital Communications. 5th ed. McGraw-Hill, 2008.
[2] W., Stallings, Data and Computer Communications. 8th ed. Prentice-Hall, 2007.
[3] A., Goldsmith, Wireless Communications. Cambridge University Press, 2005.
[4] G. L., Stuber, Principles of Mobile Communication. 3rd ed. Springer, 2011.
[5] M., Schwartz, Mobile Wireless Communications. Cambridge University Press, 2005.
[6] C., Zacker, Network+ Certification: Textbook. 4th ed. Microsoft Press, 2006.
[7] S., Sesia, I., Toufik, and M., Baker, LTE – The UMTS Long Term Evolution. 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, 2009.
[8] M., Patzold, Mobile Fading Channels. John Wiley & Sons, 2003.
[9] V., Chandrasekhar, J. G., Andrews, and A., Gatherer, “Femtocell networks: A survey.” IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 46, no. 9, Sept. 2008, pp. 59–67.Google Scholar
[10] Q., Liu, S., Zhou, and G. B., Giannakis, “Cross-layer combining of adaptive modulation and coding with truncated ARQ over wireless links,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 3, no. 5, Sept. 2004, pp. 1746–1755.Google Scholar
[11] X., Tang, M., Alouini, and A. J., Goldsmith, “Effect of channel estimation error on MQAM BER performance in Rayleigh fading,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 47, no. 12, Dec. 1999, pp. 1856–1864.Google Scholar
[12] A. J., Goldsmith and S., Chua, “Variable-rate variable-power MQAM for fading channels,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 45, no. 10, Oct. 1997, pp. 1218–1230.Google Scholar
[13] T. S., Rappaport, Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice. 2nd ed. Prentice-Hall, 2002.
[14] R., Jain, D., Chiu, and W., Hawe, “A quantitative measure of fairness and discrimination for resource allocation in shared computer system,” Eastern Research Laboratory, Digital Equipment Corporation, 1984. http://books.google.ca/books?id=M2QLGwAACAAJ
[15] A. S., Tanenbaum and D. J., Wetherall, Computer Networks. 5th ed. Prentice-Hall, 2010.
[16] G., Bianchi, “Performance analysis of the IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 18, March 2000. pp. 535– 547.Google Scholar
[17] S., Lin and D. J., Costello, Error Control Coding. 2nd ed. Prentice-Hall, 2004.
[18] S. T., Chung and A. J., Goldsmith, “Degrees of freedom in adaptive modulation: A unified view,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 49, no. 9, Sept. 2001, pp. 1561–1571.Google Scholar
[19] M. S., Alouini and A. J., Goldsmith, “Adaptive modulation over Nakagami fading channels,” Kluwer Journal on Wireless Communications, vol. 13, no. 1, May 2000, pp. 119–143.Google Scholar
[20] P., Bender, P., Black, M., Grob, R., Padovani, N., Sindhushayana, and A., Viterbi, “CDMA/HDR: A bandwidth-efficient high-speed wireless data service for nomadic users,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 38, no. 7, July 2000, pp. 70–77.Google Scholar
[21] A., Doufexi, S., Armour, M., Butler, A., Nix, D., Bull, J., McGeehan, and P., Karlsson, “A comparison of the HIPERLAN/2 and IEEE 802.11a wireless lan standards,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 40, no. 5, May 2002, pp. 172–180.Google Scholar
[22] D., Astely, E., Dahlman, A., Furuskar, Y., Jading, M., Lindstrom, and S. Parkvall, “LTE: The evolution of mobile broadband,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 47, no. 4, April 2009, pp. 44–51.Google Scholar
[23] G. L., Stuber, Principles of Mobile Communication. 2nd ed. Kluwer Academic, 2001.
[24] H. S., Wang and N., Moayeri, “Finite-state Markov channel-a useful model for radio communication channels,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 44, no. 1, Feb. 1995, pp. 163–171.Google Scholar
[25] Q., Liu, S., Zhou, and G. B., Giannakis, “Queueing with adaptive modulation and coding over wireless link: Cross-layer analysis and design,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 4, no. 3, May 2005, pp. 1142–1153.Google Scholar
[26] J., Razavilar, K. J. R., Liu, and S. I., Marcus, “Jointly optimized bit-rate/delay control policy for wireless packet networks with fading channels,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 50, no. 3, Mar. 2002, pp. 484–494.Google Scholar
[27] R., Jurdak, C. V., Lopes, and P., Baldi, “A survey, classification and comparative analysis of medium access control protocols for ad hoc networks,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 6, no. 1, 2004.Google Scholar
[28] S., Stanczak, M., Wiczanowski, and H., Boche, Fundamentals of Resource Allocation in Wireless Networks: Theory and Algorithms. Springer, 2009.
[29] I., Katzela and M., Nagshineh, “Channel assignment schemes for cellular mobile telecommunication systems: A comprehensive survey,” IEEE Personal Communications. June 1996, pp. 10–31.Google Scholar
[30] E., Hossain, L. B., Le, and D., Niyato, Radio Resource Management in Multi-Tier Cellular Wireless Networks. Wiley, 2014.
[31] A., Bachir, M., Dohler, T., Watteyne, and K. K., Leung, “MAC essentials for wireless sensor networks,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 2, 2010.Google Scholar
[32] A., Chandra, V., Gummalla, and J. O., Limb, “Wireless medium access control protocols,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 3, no. 2, 2000.Google Scholar
[33] H. S., Chhaya and S., Gupta, “Performance of asynchronous data transfer methods of IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol,” ; IEEE Personal Communications, Oct. 1996, pp. 8–15.Google Scholar
[34] J., Mo and J., Walrand, “Fair end-to-end window-based congestion control,” IEEE/ACMTrans. Networking, vol. 8, no. 5, Oct. 2000, pp. 556–567.Google Scholar
[35] F. P., Kelly, A., Maulloo, and D., Tan, “Rate control for communication networks: Shadowing prices, proportional fairness, and stability,” J. Oper. Res. Soc., vol. 49, no. 3, Mar. 1998, pp. 237–252.Google Scholar
[36] T.-C., Hou and V. O. K., Li, “Transmission range control in multihop packet radio networks,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. COM-34, no. 1, Jan. 1986, pp. 38–44.Google Scholar
[37] M., Andrews, K., Kumaran, K., Ramanan, A., Stolyar, P., Whiting, and R., Vijayakumar, “Providing quality of service over a shared wireless link,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 39, Feb. 2001, pp. 150–154.Google Scholar
[38] J.-H., Rhee, J. M., Holtzman, and D. K., Kim, “Scheduling of real/non-real time services: Adaptive EXP/PF algorithm,” in Proc. of 57th IEEE Semi-annual Vehicular Technology Conference, vol. 1, 2003, pp. 462–466.Google Scholar
[39] J. C., Arnbak and W. V., Blitterswijk, “Capacity of slotted ALOHA in Rayleigh fading channels,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 5, 1987, pp. 261–269. Google Scholar
[40] C., Vanderplas and J. P. M., Linnartz, “Stability of mobile slotted ALOHA network with Rayleigh fading, shadowing, and near-far effect,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 39, Nov. 1990, pp. 359–366.Google Scholar
[41] M., Zorzi and R. R., Rao, “Capture and retransmission control in mobile radio,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. SAC-12, no. 8, Oct. 1994, pp. 1289–1298.Google Scholar
[42] J. H., Kim and J. K., Lee, “Capture effects of wireless CSMA/CA protocols in Rayleigh and shadow fading channels,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 48, no. 4, July 1999, pp. 1277–1286.Google Scholar
[43] V., Wong and C., Leung, “Effect of Rayleigh fading in a multihop mobile packet radio network with capture,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 44, no. 3, 1995, pp. 630– 637.Google Scholar
[44] C. T., Lau and C., Leung, “Capture models for model packet radio networks,” IEEE Journal on Communications, vol. 40, no. 5, May 1992, pp. 917–925.Google Scholar
[45] M., Zorzi, “Capture probabilities in random-access mobile communications in the presence of Rician fading,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 46, Feb. 1997, pp. 96– 101.Google Scholar
[46] R., Prasad and C.-Y., Liu, “Throughput analysis of some mobile packet radio protocols in Rician fading channels,” Proceedings of the Institute of Electrical Engineers, vol. 139, June 1992, pp. 297–302.Google Scholar
[47] W. C., Chan, Performance Analysis of Telecommunications and Local Area Networks. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.
[48] J. W., Mark and W., Zhuang, Wireless Communications and Networking. Prentice-Hall, USA, 2003.
[49] K. S. Gilhousen et, al., “On the capacity of a cellular CDMA system,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 40, no. 2, May 1991, pp. 303–311.Google Scholar
[50] E. S., Sousa and J. A., Silvester, “Optimum transmission ranges in a direct-sequence spreadspectrum multihop packet radio network,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 8, no. 5, June 1990, pp. 762–771.Google Scholar
[51] H., Holma and A., Toskala, WCDMA for UMTS – HSPA Evolution and LTE. John Wiley and Sons, 2007.
[52] 3GPP TS 36.213 version 9.3.0 Release 9, “LTE Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA): Physical layer procedures.”
[53] 3GPP TS 36.101 version 10.1.1 Release 10, “LTE Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA): User Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception.”
[54] E., Hossain, M., Rasti, H., Tabassum, and A., Abdelnasser, “Evolution toward 5G multi-tier cellular wireless networks: An interference management perspective,” IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 21, no. 3, 2014, pp. 118–127.Google Scholar
[55] D., Liu, L., Wang, Y., Chen, M., Elkashlan, K. K., Wong, R., Schober, and L., Hanzo, “User association in 5G networks: A survey and an outlook,” IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, vol. 18, no. 2, 2016, pp. 1018–1044.Google Scholar
[56] G. P., Pollini, “Trends in handover design,” IEEE Communications Magazine. Mar. 1996, pp. 82–90.Google Scholar
[57] D., Hong and S. S., Rappaport, “Traffic model and performance analysis for cellular mobile radio telephone systems with prioritized and non-prioritized handoff procedures,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. VT-35, Aug. 1986, pp. 77–92.Google Scholar
[58] B., Jabbari, “Teletraffic aspects of evolving and next-generation wireless communication networks,” IEEE Personal Communications, vol. 3, no. 6, Dec. 1996, pp. 4–9.Google Scholar
[59] K. T., Ko, and V. B., Iversen, “Performance modeling for heterogeneous wireless networks with multiservice overflow traffic,” IEEE Globecom 2009, Nov. 30-Dec. 4, 2009, pp. 1–7.Google Scholar
[60] P., Fitzpatrick, C. S., Lee, and B., Warfield, “Teletraffic performance of mobile radio networks with hierarchical cells and overflow,” IEEE IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 15, Oct. 1997, pp. 1549–1557.Google Scholar
[61] S. S., Rappaport and L. R., Hu, “Microcellular communications systems with hierarchical macro overlays: Traffic performance models and analysis,” Invited Paper of Proceedings of IEEE, vol. 82, Sept. 1994, pp. 1383–1397.Google Scholar
[62] K., Yeo and C., Jun, “Modeling and analysis of hierarchical cellular networks with general distributions of call and cell residence times,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 51, no. 6, Nov. 2002, pp. 1361–1374 Google Scholar
[63] B., Jabbari and W. F., Fuhrmann, “Teletraffic modeling and analysis of flexible hierarchical cellular networks with speed-sensitive handoff strategy,” IEEE IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 15, Oct. 1997, pp. 1539–1548.Google Scholar
[64] D., Niyato and E., Hossain, “Call admission control for QoS provisioning in 4G wireless networks: Issues and approaches,” IEEE Network, vol. 19, no. 5, Sept.–Oct. 2005, pp. 5–11.Google Scholar
[65] L. B., Le, D., Niyato, E., Hossain, D. I., Kim, and D. T., Hoang, “QoS-aware and energy-efficient resource management in OFDMA femtocells,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 12, no. 1, Jan. 2013, pp. 180–194 Google Scholar
1
Cited by

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×