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48 - Lymphatic filariasis and loa loa

from Section 8 - Helminth infections

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 March 2013

David Mabey
Affiliation:
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Geoffrey Gill
Affiliation:
University of Liverpool
Eldryd Parry
Affiliation:
Tropical Health Education Trust
Martin W. Weber
Affiliation:
World Health Organization, Jakarta
Christopher J. M. Whitty
Affiliation:
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
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Summary

The problem in Africa

Lymphatic filariasis is a leading cause of permanent and long-term disability. It will continue to be a major problem in some areas of Africa for many years to come. The outlook for the control of lymphatic filariasis has, however, markedly improved recently. In the long term, filariasis is a potential candidate for elimination from Africa.

Loiasis exclusively occurs in Africa where millions of people are infected. In some endemic regions it is one of the commonest causes for medical consultations. Loiasis has recently gained attention due to severe complications observed in individuals co-infected with O. volvulus who were treated with antifiarial drugs.

Organism, life cycle and vector

Both lymphatic filariasis and loiasis are vector-borne infections caused by filarial nematodes.

In Africa lymphatic filariasis is almost exclusively caused by Wuchereria bancrofti. Microfilariae of W. bancrofti are ingested by female mosquitoes (Anopheles, Culex and Aedes spp.) during feeding. L.loa is transmitted by small blood-sucking Chrysops-flies, that live in or near forested and muddy areas.

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Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2013

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References

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