A detailed neurological history allows one to focus on important components of the neurological examination and for saving time and resources. The important elements of a focused neurological examination include onset of symptoms, temporal relationships of symptoms, progression of symptoms, associated symptoms, exacerbating and alleviating factors, symptoms that indicate involvement of a particular region of central nervous system (CNS), history of similar event and history of medication use. This chapter describes the examination of mental status, cranial nerve function, motor function, deep tendon reflexes, cutaneous reflexes, and miscellaneous signs, sensory modalities, and pathological reflexes. The Glasgow Coma Scale is often used as a method of briefly quantitating neurological dysfunction. A simple method to remember the anatomic basis of neurological examination is to focus on five levels of the CNS, which are the brain, the brainstem, the spinal cord, the peripheral nerves, and the muscles.