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35 - Hypotonic Infant

from SECTION V - PEDIATRIC NEUROLOGICAL EMERGENCIES

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  06 August 2009

Marsha D. Rappley
Affiliation:
Michigan State University East Lansing, Michigan
Sid M. Shah
Affiliation:
Assistant Clinical Professor Michigan State University
Sid M. Shah
Affiliation:
Michigan State University
Kevin M. Kelly
Affiliation:
Drexel University, Philadelphia
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Summary

A focused history and a careful physical examination of a hypotonic infant distinguish hypotonia from weakness, essential to diagnosis and treatment. The differential diagnosis of infantile hypotonia can be generated by first determining whether hypotonia is associated with weakness. Global central nervous system (CNS) disorders are suggested by the loss of developmental milestones or evidence of mental retardation. The disorders associated with significant weakness and secondary hypotonia are: spinal muscular atrophy or Werdnig-Hoffmann syndrome, congenital muscular dystrophies, congenital myotonic dystrophy and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Hypotonia with weakness requires the use of electrophysiology and biopsy studies, interpreted in the context of the infant's age. Hospitalization is commonly required to observe a hypotonic infant and to continue with diagnostic evaluation. A pediatric neurologist is consulted to determine the need for further diagnostic procedures or to initiate treatment of an underlying neurological disorder.
Type
Chapter
Information
Principles and Practice of Emergency Neurology
Handbook for Emergency Physicians
, pp. 350 - 358
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2003

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References

Berman S. Infantile hypotonia. In Berman S, ed. Pediatric Decision Making. Philadelphia, Pa: BC Decker and CV Mosby; 1985: 137
Dubowitz V. The Floppy Infant. Philadelphia, Pa: JB Lippincott; 1980
Fanaroff A A, Martin R J, eds. Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Diseases of the Fetus and Infant, 7th ed. St. Louis, Mo: CV Mosby; 2002
Gay, C T, Bodensteiner, J B. The floppy infant: recent advances in understanding of disorders affecting the neuromuscular junction. Neurol Clin North Am. 1990; 8: 715–25Google Scholar
Menkes J H, Sarnat H B. Child Neurology, 6th ed. Baltimore, Md: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 2000
Miller G. Hypotonia and neuromuscular disease. In: Fanaroff A A, Martin R J, eds. Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Diseases of the Fetus and Infant. 6th Ed. St Louis, Mo: CV Mosby; 1997; 1
Spiro A J. Hypotonia. In: Hoekelman R A, Adam H M, Nelson N M, Weitzman M L, Wilson M H, eds. Primary Pediatric Care, 4th ed. St. Louis, Mo: CV Mosby: 2001

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  • Hypotonic Infant
  • Edited by Sid M. Shah, Michigan State University, Kevin M. Kelly, Drexel University, Philadelphia
  • Book: Principles and Practice of Emergency Neurology
  • Online publication: 06 August 2009
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511547256.036
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  • Hypotonic Infant
  • Edited by Sid M. Shah, Michigan State University, Kevin M. Kelly, Drexel University, Philadelphia
  • Book: Principles and Practice of Emergency Neurology
  • Online publication: 06 August 2009
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511547256.036
Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

  • Hypotonic Infant
  • Edited by Sid M. Shah, Michigan State University, Kevin M. Kelly, Drexel University, Philadelphia
  • Book: Principles and Practice of Emergency Neurology
  • Online publication: 06 August 2009
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511547256.036
Available formats
×