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Chapter 2 - Assisted reproductive technologies

from Section 1 - Background

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 November 2009

Joyce Harper
Affiliation:
University College London
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Summary

In vitro fertilization (IVF) was initially developed to treat patients with damaged Fallopian tubes. IVF treatment has since been extended far beyond tubal infertility to treat a whole host of indications, including unexplained infertility, endometriosis, and male infertility. Infertility treatments include timed intercourse, ovulation induction, intrauterine insemination (IUI), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT), IVF, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Standard stimulation protocols require pituitary desensitization with a GnRH agonist, and this strategy has become almost a universal practise in assisted conception clinics with the induced hypogonadotropic hypogonadism enabling almost complete control over follicular development. The presence of endometrial polyps, submucous fibroids, and intrauterine adhesions may be associated with reduction in pregnancy rates and increase in risk of miscarriage with IVF. Cryopreservation of supernumerary good-quality embryos is vital to optimize pregnancy rates per cycle started without the need to superovulate the patient again.
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Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2009

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