Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-5959bf8d4d-km8cc Total loading time: 1.902 Render date: 2022-12-08T07:56:04.340Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Section 5 - Special Settings

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 April 2018

Ebbing Lautenbach
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
Preeti N. Malani
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Keith F. Woeltje
Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis
Jennifer H. Han
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
Emily K. Shuman
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Jonas Marschall
Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis
Get access


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2018

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



Jones, AL, Dwyer, LL, Bercovitz, AR, Strahan, GW. The National Nursing Home Survey: 2004 overview. Vital Health Stat 13. 2009(167):1155.Google ScholarPubMed
American Healthcare Association. Quality report, 2014. Available at: percent20Quality percent20Report percent20FINAL.pdf. Accessed October 22, 2015.
Knickman, JR, Snell, EK. The 2030 problem: caring for aging baby boomers. Health Serv Res. 2002;37(4):849884.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Strausbaugh, LJ, Joseph, CL. The burden of infection in long-term care. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2000;21(10):674679.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stevenson, KB, Moore, J, Colwell, H, Sleeper, B. Standardized infection surveillance in long-term care: interfacility comparisons from a regional cohort of facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2005;26(3):231238.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Koch, AM, Eriksen, HM, Elstrom, P, Aavitsland, P, Harthug, S. Severe consequences of healthcare-associated infections among residents of nursing homes: a cohort study. J Hosp Infect. 2009;71(3):269274.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority. 2013 Annual Report. Available at: Accessed September 9, 2015.
Richards, C. Infections in residents of long-term care facilities: an agenda for research: report of an expert panel. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002;50(3):570576.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, PW, Bennett, G, Bradley, S, et al SHEA/APIC guideline: infection prevention and control in the long-term care facility, July 2008. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2008;29(9):785814.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tsan, L, Langberg, R, Davis, C, et al. Nursing home-associated infections in Department of Veterans Affairs community living centers. Am J Infect Control. 2010;38(6):461466.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ahronheim, JC, Mulvihill, M, Sieger, C, Park, P, Fries, BE. State practice variations in the use of tube feeding for nursing home residents with severe cognitive impairment. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001;49(2):148152.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mitchell, SL, Kiely, DK, Gillick, MR. Nursing home characteristics associated with tube feeding in advanced cognitive impairment. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003;51(1):7579.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Finucane, TE, Christmas, C, Travis, K. Tube feeding in patients with advanced dementia: a review of the evidence. JAMA. 1999;282(14):13651370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cogen, R, Weinryb, J. Aspiration pneumonia in nursing home patients fed via gastrostomy tubes. Am J Gastroenterol. 1989;84(12):15091512.Google ScholarPubMed
CMS State Operations manual. Available at: Accessed September 10, 2015.
Roup, BJ, Roche, JC, Pass, M. Infection control program disparities between acute and long-term care facilities in Maryland. Am J Infect Control. 2006;34(3):122127.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
D’Agata, E, Loeb, MB, Mitchell, SL. Challenges in assessing nursing home residents with advanced dementia for suspected urinary tract infections. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013;61(1):6266.Google ScholarPubMed
High, KP, Bradley, SF, Gravenstein, S, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the evaluation of fever and infection in older adult residents of long-term care facilities: 2008 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48(2):149171.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Woodford, HJ, Graham, C, Meda, M, Miciuleviciene, J. Bacteremic urinary tract infection in hospitalized older patients: Are any currently available diagnostic criteria sensitive enough? J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011;59(3):567568.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stone, ND, Ashraf, MS, Calder, J, et al. Surveillance definitions of infections in long-term care facilities: revisiting the McGeer criteria. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2012;33(10):965977.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Loeb, M, Bentley, DW, Bradley, S, et al. Development of minimum criteria for the initiation of antibiotics in residents of long-term-care facilities: results of a consensus conference. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2001;22(2):120124.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Nursing homes and assisted living (long-term care facilities [LTCFs]). Available at: Accessed September 14, 2015.
Cohen, CC, Engberg, J, Herzig, CT, Dick, AW, Stone, PW. Nursing homes in states with infection control training or infection reporting have reduced infection control deficiency citations. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2015:12.Google ScholarPubMed
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) tracking infections in long-term care facilities. Availabe at: Accessed September 1, 2015.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The core elements of antibiotic stewardship for nursing homes. Available at: Accessed September 17, 2015.
Mylotte, JM, Tayara, A, Goodnough, S. Epidemiology of bloodstream infection in nursing home residents: evaluation in a large cohort from multiple homes. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35(12):14841490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ouslander, JG, Diaz, S, Hain, D, Tappen, R. Frequency and diagnoses associated with 7- and 30-day readmission of skilled nursing facility patients to a nonteaching community hospital. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2011;12(3):195203.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Warren, JW, Tenney, JH, Hoopes, JM, Muncie, HL, Anthony, WC. A prospective microbiologic study of bacteriuria in patients with chronic indwelling urethral catheters. J Infect Dis. 1982;146(6):719723.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nicolle, LE, Long-Term-Care-Committee S. Urinary tract infections in long-term-care facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2001;22(3):167175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gould, CV, Umscheid, CA, Agarwal, RK, Kuntz, G, Pegues, DA, Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory C. Guideline for prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections 2009. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2010;31(4):319326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marrie, TJ. Pneumonia in the long-term-care facility. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2002;23(3):159164.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, L, Lansing, B, Symons, K, et al. Infection rate and colonization with antibiotic-resistant organisms in skilled nursing facility residents with indwelling devices. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;31(8):17971804.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mehr, DR, Binder, EF, Kruse, RL, Zweig, SC, Madsen, RW, D’Agostino, RB. Clinical findings associated with radiographic pneumonia in nursing home residents. J Fam Pract. 2001;50(11):931937.Google ScholarPubMed
Matias, G, Taylor, R, Haguinet, F, Schuck-Paim, C, Lustig, R, Shinde, V. Estimates of mortality attributable to influenza and RSV in the United States during 1997–2009 by influenza type or subtype, age, cause of death, and risk status. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2014;8(5):507515.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Potter, J, Stott, DJ, Roberts, MA, et al. Influenza vaccination of health care workers in long-term-care hospitals reduces the mortality of elderly patients. J Infect Dis. 1997;175(1):16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carman, WF, Elder, AG, Wallace, LA, et al. Effects of influenza vaccination of health-care workers on mortality of elderly people in long-term care: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2000;355(9198):9397.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Black, CL YX, Ball, SW, Donahue, SM, et al. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Influenza vaccination coverage among health care personnel–United States, 2013–14 influenza season. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63(37):805811.Google ScholarPubMed
National Action Plan to Prevent Health Care-Associated Infections: Road Map to Elimination. April 2013. Available at: Accessed September 8, 2015.
Thrupp, L, Bradley, S, Smith, P, et al. Committee SL-T-C. Tuberculosis prevention and control in long-term-care facilities for older adults. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2004;25(12):10971108.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Menzies, D, Pai, M, Comstock, G. Meta-analysis: new tests for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection: areas of uncertainty and recommendations for research. Ann Intern Med. 2007;146(5):340354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frenzen, PD. Mortality due to gastroenteritis of unknown etiology in the United States. J Infect Dis. 2003;187(3):441452.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hall, AJ, Wikswo, ME, Pringle, K, Gould, LH, Parashar, UD, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Vital signs: foodborne norovirus outbreaks – United States, 2009–2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63(22):491495.Google Scholar
Cieslak, PR, Lee, LE, Papafragkou, E, An, N, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Recurring norovirus outbreaks in a long-term residential treatment facility–Oregon, 2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009;58:694698.Google Scholar
Lucado, J, Gould, C, Elixhauser, A. Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in hospital stays, 2009: Statistical Brief #124. 2006.
Archibald, LK, Banerjee, SN, Jarvis, WR. Secular trends in hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile disease in the United States, 1987–2001. J Infect Dis. 2004;189(9):15851589.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jarvis, WR, Schlosser, J, Jarvis, AA, Chinn, RY. National point prevalence of Clostridium difficile in US health care facility inpatients, 2008. Am J Infect Control. 2009;37(4):263270.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McDonald, LC, Owings, M, Jernigan, DB. Clostridium difficile infection in patients discharged from US short-stay hospitals, 1996–2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(3):409415.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kim, JH, Toy, D, Muder, RR. Clostridium difficile infection in a long-term care facility: hospital-associated illness compared with long-term care-associated illness. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2011;32(7):656660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guerrero, DM, Nerandzic, MM, Jury, LA, Chang, S, Jump, RL, Donskey, CJ. Clostridium difficile infection in a Department of Veterans Affairs long-term care facility. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2011;32(5):513515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mylotte, JM, Russell, S, Sackett, B, Vallone, M, Antalek, M. Surveillance for Clostridium difficile infection in nursing homes. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013;61(1):122125.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pawar, D, Tsay, R, Nelson, DS, et al. Burden of Clostridium difficile infection in long-term care facilities in Monroe County, New York. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2012;33(11):11071112.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mylotte, JM. Surveillance for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in long-term care facilities: what you get is not what you see. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2008;29(8):760763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lessa, FC, Mu, Y, Bamberg, WM, et al. Burden of Clostridium difficile infection in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(9):825834.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tjioe, M, Vissers, WH. Scabies outbreaks in nursing homes for the elderly: recognition, treatment options and control of reinfestation. Drugs Aging. 2008;25(4):299306.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nicolle, LE, Bentley, DW, Garibaldi, R, Neuhaus, EG, Smith, PW. Antimicrobial use in long-term-care facilities. SHEA Long-Term-Care Committee. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2000;21(8):537545.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
D’Agata, E, Mitchell, SL. Patterns of antimicrobial use among nursing home residents with advanced dementia. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168(4):357362.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Buul, LW, van der Steen, JT, Veenhuizen, RB et al. Antibiotic use and resistance in long term care facilities. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2013;13(6):568 e561-e513.Google Scholar
Daneman, N, Gruneir, A, Bronskill, SE, et al. Prolonged antibiotic treatment in long-term care: role of the prescriber. JAMA Intern Med. 2013;173(8):673682.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Peron, EP, Hirsch, AA, Jury, LA, Jump, RL, Donskey, CJ. Another setting for stewardship: high rate of unnecessary antimicrobial use in a veterans affairs long-term care facility. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013;61(2):289290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loeb, M, Simor, AE, Landry, L, et al. Antibiotic use in Ontario facilities that provide chronic care. J Gen Intern Med. 2001;16(6):376383.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stone, ND, Lewis, DR, Johnson, TM, 2nd. Southeast Veterans Affairs Long-Term Care Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Cooperative. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage in residents of Veterans Affairs long-term care facilities: role of antimicrobial exposure and MRSA acquisition. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2012;33(6):551557.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reynolds, C, Quan, V, Kim, D, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in 10 nursing homes in Orange County, California. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2011;32(1):9193.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mody, L, Kauffman, CA, Donabedian, S, Zervos, M, Bradley, SF. Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus colonization in nursing home residents. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46(9):13681373.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Manzur, A, Gudiol, F. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in long-term-care facilities. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15 Suppl 7:2630.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lautenbach, E, Marsicano, R, Tolomeo, P, Heard, M, Serrano, S, Stieritz, DD. Epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance among gram-negative organisms recovered from patients in a multistate network of long-term care facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2009;30(8):790793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Han, JH, Maslow, J, Han, X, e t al. Risk factors for the development of gastrointestinal colonization with fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli in residents of long-term care facilities. J Infect Dis. 2014;209(3):420425.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rooney, PJ, O’Leary, MC, Loughrey, AC, et al. Nursing homes as a reservoir of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009;64(3):635641.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kemper, P, Murtaugh, CM. Lifetime use of nursing home care. N Engl J Med. 1991;324(9):595600.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murtaugh, CM, Kemper, P, Spillman, BC, Carlson, BL. The amount, distribution, and timing of lifetime nursing home use. Med Care. 1997;35(3):204218.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Munoz-Price, LS. Long-term acute care hospitals. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49(3):438443.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kahn, JM, Benson, NM, Appleby, D, Carson, SS, Iwashyna, TJ. Long-term acute care hospital utilization after critical illness. JAMA. 2010;303(22):22532259.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Furuno, JP, Hebden, JN, Standiford, HC, et al. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii in a long-term acute care facility. Am J Infect Control. 2008;36(7):468471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gould, CV, Rothenberg, R, Steinberg, JP. Antibiotic resistance in long-term acute care hospitals: the perfect storm. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006;27(9):920925.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Endimiani, A, Depasquale, JM, Forero, S, et al. Emergence of blaKPC-containing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a long-term acute care hospital: a new challenge to our healthcare system. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009;64(5):11021110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar


National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: State and National Summary Tables (p. 105). Available at: Accessed August 28, 2012.
Barie, PS. Infection control practices in ambulatory surgical centers. JAMA. 2010;303:2295–227.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ambulatory Surgery in the United States, 2006. National Health Statistics Reports, No 11. Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009. Available at: Accessed August 28, 2015.
Guide to Infection Prevention for Outpatient Settings: Minimum Expectations for Safe Care. Available at: Accessed August 29, 2015.
Maki, DG, Crnich, CJ. History forgotten is history relived: nosocomial infection control is also essential in the outpatient setting. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:25652567.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
North Carolina Statewide Program for Infection Prevention and Epidemiology. Available at: Accessed October 26, 2015.
2007 Guideline for Isolation Precautions: Preventing Transmission of Infectious Agents in Healthcare Settings. Available at: Accessed August 31, 2015.
WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care. Available at: Accessed August 31, 2015.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings: Recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. MMWR. 2002;51: 145.
Hand Hygiene in Outpatient and Home-based Care and Long-term Care Facilities: A Guide to the Application of the WHO Multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy and the “My Five Moments for Hand Hygiene” Approach. Available at: Accessed August 31, 2015.
Cohen, HA, Kitai, E, Levy, I, Ben-Amitai, D. Handwashing patterns in two dermatology clinics. Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland). 2002;205:358361.Google ScholarPubMed
Cohen, HA, Matalon, A, Amir, J, Paret, G, Barzilai, A. Handwashing patterns in primary pediatric community clinics. Infection. 1998;26:4547.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arenas, MD, Sanchez-Paya, J, Barril, G, et al. A multicentric survey of the practice of hand hygiene in haemodialysis units: factors affecting compliance. Nephrol Dial. 2005;20:11641171.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bittle, MJ, LaMarche, S. Engaging the patient as observer to promote hand hygiene compliance in ambulatory care. Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety. 2009;35:519525.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Le-Abuyen, S, Ng, J, Kim, S, et al. Patient-as-observer approach: an alternative method for hand hygiene auditing in an ambulatory care setting. Am J Infect Control. 2014;42:439442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hlady, WG, Hopkins, RS, Ogilby, TE, Allen, ST. Patient-to-patient transmission of hepatitis B in a dermatology practice. Am J Pub Health. 1993;83:16891693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Canter, J, Mackey, K, Good, LS, et al. An outbreak of hepatitis B associated with jet injections in a weight reduction clinic. Arch Intern Med. 1990;150:19231927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lanini, S, Puro, V, Lauria, FN, Fusco, FM, Nisii, C, Ippolito, G. Patient to patient transmission of hepatitis B virus: a systematic review of reports on outbreaks between 1992 and 2007. BMC Med. 2009;7:15.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thompson, ND, Perz, JF, Moorman, AC, Holmberg, SD. Nonhospital health care–associated hepatitis B and C virus transmission: United States, 1998–2008. Ann Intern Medi. 2009;150:3339.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Macedo de Oliveira, A, White, KL, Leschinsky, DP, et al. An outbreak of hepatitis C virus infections among outpatients at a hematology/oncology clinic. Ann Intern Med. 2005;142: 898902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Acute hepatitis C virus infections attributed to unsafe injection practices at an endoscopy clinic–Nevada, 2007. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2008;57: 513517.
Invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections associated with pain injections and reuse of single-dose vials – Arizona and Delaware, 2012. MMWR. 2012;61: 501504.
Outbreaks and Patient Notifications in Outpatient Settings, Selected Examples, 2010–2014. Available at: Accessed October 19, 2015.
Mattner, F, Gastmeier, P. Bacterial contamination of multiple-dose vials: a prevalence study. Am J Infect Control. 2004;32:1216.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Motamedifar, M, Askarian, M. The prevalence of multidose vial contamination by aerobic bacteria in a major teaching hospital, Shiraz, Iran, 2006. Am J Infect Control. 2009;37:773777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schaefer, MK, Perz, JF. Outbreaks of infections associated with drug diversion by US health care personnel. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2014;89:878887.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huang, R, Mehta, S, Weed, D, Price, CS. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus survival on hospital fomites. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006;27:12671269.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hardy, KJ, Oppenheim, BA, Gossain, S, Gao, F, Hawkey, PM. A study of the relationship between environmental contamination with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and patients’ acquisition of MRSA. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006;27:127132.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Drees, M, Snydman, DR, Schmid, CH, et al. Prior environmental contamination increases the risk of acquisition of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:678685.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huang, SS, Datta, R, Platt, R. Risk of acquiring antibiotic-resistant bacteria from prior room occupants. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:19451951.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Martinez, JA, Ruthazer, R, Hansjosten, K, Barefoot, L, Snydman, DR. Role of environmental contamination as a risk factor for acquisition of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in patients treated in a medical intensive care unit. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163:19051912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weinstein, RA, Bridges, CB, Kuehnert, MJ, Hall, CB. Transmission of influenza: implications for control in health care settings. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37:10941101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Calder, RA, Duclos, P, Wilder, MH, Pryor, VL, Scheel, WJ. Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission in a health clinic. Bull Int Union Tuberculosis Lung Dis. 1991;66:103106.Google Scholar
Fischl, MA, Uttamchandani, RB, Daikos, GL, et al. An outbreak of tuberculosis caused by multiple-drug-resistant tubercle bacilli among patients with HIV infection. Ann Intern Med. 1992;117:177183.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beck-Sague, C, Dooley, SW, Hutton, MD, et al. Hospital outbreak of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections: factors in transmission to staff and HIV-infected patients. JAMA. 1992;268:12801286.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Couldwell, DL, Dore, GJ, Harkness, JL, et al. Nosocomial outbreak of tuberculosis in an outpatient HIV treatment room. AIDS (London, England) 1996;10:521–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Griffith, DE, Hardeman, JL, Zhang, Y, Wallace, RJ, Mazurek, GH. Tuberculosis outbreak among healthcare workers in a community hospital. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995;152:808811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tuberculosis outbreak in a community hospital–District of Columbia, 2002. MMWR Morbidity and mortality weekly report. 2004;53: 214216.
Lee, EH, Graham, PL, 3rd, O’Keefe, M, Fuentes, L, Saiman, L. Nosocomial transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a children’s hospital. Int J Tuberculosis Lung Dis. 2005;9:689692.Google Scholar
Moran, GJ, McCabe, F, Morgan, MT, Talan, DA. Delayed recognition and infection control for tuberculosis patients in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 1995;26:290295.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Orenstein, WA, Papania, MJ, Wharton, ME. Measles elimination in the United States. J Infect Dis. 2004;189:S1S3.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chen, SY, Anderson, S, Kutty, PK, et al. Health care–associated measles outbreak in the United States after an importation: challenges and economic impact. J Infect Dis. 2011;203:15171525.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Guideline for Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities, 2008. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008. Available at: Accessed October 26, 2015.
Spach, DH, Silverstein, FE, Stamm, WE. Transmission of infection by gastrointestinal endoscopy and bronchoscopy. Ann Intern Med. 1993;118:117128.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reprocessing of flexible gastrointestinal endoscopes. American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc. 1996;43: 540545.CrossRef
Petersen, BT, Chennat, J, Cohen, J, et al. Multisociety guideline on reprocessing flexible GI endoscopes: 2011. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2011;32:527537.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Epstein, L, Hunter, JC, Arwady, M, et al. New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase–producing carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli associated with exposure to duodenoscopes. JAMA. 2014;312:14471455.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Interim Duodenoscope Surveillance Protocol. Available at: Accessed October 23, 2015.
Aumeran, C, Poincloux, L, Souweine, B, et al. Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae outbreak after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Endoscopy. 2010;42:895899.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alrabaa, SF, Nguyen, P, Sanderson, R, et al. Early identification and control of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, originating from contaminated endoscopic equipment. Am J Infect Control. 2013;41:562564.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gastmeier, P, Vonberg, RP. Klebsiella spp. in endoscopy-associated infections: we may only be seeing the tip of the iceberg. Infection. 2014;42:1521.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
OSHA Compliance Document. Occupational Exposure to bloodborne pathogens; needlesticks and other sharp injuries; Final rule. 29 C.F.R. Part 1910 (January 18, 2001).
Kelen, GD, Green, GB, Purcell, RH, et al. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C in emergency department patients. N. Engl J Med. 1992;326:13991404.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kelen, GD, Hansen, KN, Green, GB, Tang, N, Ganguli, C. Determinants of emergency department procedure- and condition-specific universal (barrier) precaution requirements for optimal provider protection. Ann Emerg Med. 1995;25:743750.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
(2000) FNSaPAPL-.
Kelen, GD, Green, GB, Hexter, DA, et al. Substantial improvement in compliance with universal precautions in an emergency department following institution of policy. Arch Intern Med. 1991;151:20512056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, KE, Krol, RA, Losh, DP. Universal precautions in the family physician’s office. J Fam Pract. 1992;35:163168.Google ScholarPubMed
Jensen, PA, Lambert, LA, Iademarco, MF, Ridzon, R. Guidelines for preventing the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in health-care settings, 2005. MMWR Recommendations and reports. 2005;54:1141.Google ScholarPubMed
Alter, MJ, Tokars, JI, Arduino, MJ, Favero, MS. Nosocomial Infections Associated with Hemodialysis. In: Mayhall, CG, ed. Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2004:1139–60.Google Scholar
O’Grady, NP, Alexander, M, Burns, LA, et al. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52:e162e93.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sehulster, L, Chinn, RY. Guidelines for environmental infection control in health-care facilities. Recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). MMWR Recommendations and reports. 2003;52:142.Google Scholar
Recommendations for preventing transmission of infections among chronic hemodialysis patients. MMWR Recommendations and Reports. 2001;50: 143.
Infection control requirements for dialysis facilities and clarification regarding guidance on parenteral medication vials. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2008;57: 875876.
CDC Guidelines for Vaccinating Kidney Dialysis Patients and Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. Available at: Accessed October 26, 2015.
Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) Dialysis Standards Collection. Arlington, VA: Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation.; 2014.
Aitken, ML, Limaye, A, Pottinger, P, et al. Respiratory outbreak of mycobacterium abscessus subspecies massiliense in a lung transplant and cystic fibrosis center. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;185:231232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Biddick, R, Spilker, T, Martin, A, LiPuma, JJ. Evidence of transmission of Burkholderia cepacia, Burkholderia multivorans and Burkholderia dolosa among persons with cystic fibrosis. FEMS Microbiol Letters. 2003;228:5762.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aaron, SD, Vandemheen, KL, Ramotar, K, et al. Infection with transmissible strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and clinical outcomes in adults with cystic fibrosis. JAMA. 2010;304:21452153.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Saiman, LMDMPH, Siegel, JDMD, LiPuma, JJMD, et al. Infection Prevention and Control Guideline for Cystic Fibrosis: 2013 Update. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2014;35:S1S67.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maragakis, LL, Cosgrove, SE, Song, X, et al. An outbreak of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii associated with pulsatile lavage wound treatment. JAMA. 2004;292:30063011.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed


Burke, JP. Infection control – a problem for patient safety.N Engl J Med. 2003;348: 651656.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Christenson, M, Hitt, JA, Abbott, G, Septimus, EJ, Iversen, N. Improving patient safety: resource availability and application for reducing the incidence of healthcare- associated infection. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006;27:245251.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yokoe, DS, Classen, D. Improving patient safety through infection control: a new healthcare imperative. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2008;29(Suppl 1):S3S11.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Anderson, DJ, Kirkland, KB, Kaye, KS, et al. Underresourced hospital infection control and prevention programs: penny wise, pound foolish? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2007;28:767773.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
World Bank. Country and Lending Groups. Available at: Accessed October 25, 2015.
Mayon-White, RT, Ducel, G, Kereselidze, T, Tikomirov, E. An international survey of the prevalence of hospital-acquired infection. J Hosp Infect. 1988;11(Suppl A):4348.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Faria, S, Sodano, L, Gjata, A, et al. The first prevalence survey of nosocomial infections in the University Hospital Centre “Mother Teresa” of Tirana, Albania. J Hosp Infect. 2007; 65:244250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Farhat, CK. Nosocomial infection [in Portugese]. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2000;76:259260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rezende, EM, Couto, BR, Starling, CE, Modena, CM. Prevalence of nosocomial infections in general hospitals in Belo Horizonte. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1998; 19:872876.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kallel, H, Bahoul, M, Ksibi, H, et al. Prevalence of hospital-acquired infection in a Tunisian hospital. J Hosp Infect. 2005;59:343347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gosling, R, Mbatia, R, Savage, A, Mulligan, JA, Reyburn, H. Prevalence of hospital-acquired infections in a tertiary referral hospital in northern Tanzania. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2003;97:6973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Danchaivijitr, S, Judaeng, T, Sripalakij, S, Naksawas, K, Plipat, T. Prevalence of nosocomial infection in Thailand 2006. J Med Assoc Thai. 2007;90:15241529.Google ScholarPubMed
Ponce, de Leon-Rosales SP, Molinar-Ramos, F, Dominguez-, Cherit G, Rangel-Frausto, MS, Vazquez-Ramos, VG. Prevalence of infections in intensive care units in Mexico: a multi- center study. Crit Care Med. 2000;28:13161321.Google Scholar
Rosenthal, VD, Maki, DG, Mehta, A, et al. International Noso-comial Infection Control Consortium report, data summary for 2002–2007, issued January 2008. Am J Infect Control. 2008;36:627637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aygun, C, Sobreyra Oropeza, M, Rosenthal, VD, Villamil Gomez, W, Rodriguez Calderon, ME. Extra mortality of nosocomial infections in neonatal ICUs at eight hospitals of Argentina, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and Turkey: findings of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC). Am J Infect Control. 2006;34:E135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zaidi, AK, Huskins, WC, Thaver, D, Bhutta, ZA, Abbas, Z,Goldmann, DA. Hospital-acquired neonatal infections in developing countries. Lancet. 2005;365:11751188.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Horan, TC, Gaynes, RP. Surveillance of nosocomial infections. In: Mayall, CG, ed. Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins;2004:16591702.Google Scholar
Emori, TG, Culver, DH, Horan, TC, et al. National nosocomial infections surveillance system (NNIS): description of surveillance methods. Am J Infect Control. 1991;19:1935.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Klevens, RM, Edwards, JR, Richards, CL Jr, et al. Estimating health care–associated infections and deaths in U.S. hospitals, 2002. Public Health Rep. 2007;122:160166.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Danchaivijitr, S. Hospital infection control in Thailand. Can J Infect Control. 1991;6: 9799.Google ScholarPubMed
Danchaivijitr, S, Tangtrakool, T, Waitayapiches, S, Chokloikaew S. Efficacy of hospital infection control in Thailand 1988–1992. J Hosp Infect. 1996;32:147153.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ajenjo, MC. Infecciones intrahospitalarias: conceptos actuales de prevencion y control. Rev Chil Urol. 2006;72: 95101.Google Scholar
Marcel, JP, Alfa, M, Baquero, F, et al. Healthcare-associated infections: think globally, act locally. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2008;14:895907.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rosenthal, VD, Maki, DG, Graves, N. The International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC): goals and objectives, description of surveillance methods, and operational activities. Am J Infect Control. 2008;36: e1e12.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Starling, C. Infection control in developing countries. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2001;14:461466.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Newman, MJ. Infection control in Africa south of the Sahara. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2001;22: 6869.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pittet, D, Allegranzi, B, Storr, J, et al. Infection control as a major World Health Organization priority for developing countries. J Hosp Infect. 2008;68:285292.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Drain, PK, Hyle, EP, Noubary, F, et al. Diagnostic point-of-care tests in resource-limited settings. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014;14:239249.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
York, M. Challenges encountered when building laboratory capacity in limited-resource hospitals in Vietnam. Clin Microbiol Newsletter. 2012;34:169175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Archibald, LK, Reller, LB. Clinical microbiology in developing countries. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7:302305.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Suwantarat, N, Rutjanawech, S, Buppajarntham, A, Carroll, KC, Khawcharoenporn, T, Apisarnthanarak, A. Bacterial misidentification in a resource-limited microbiology laboratory setting and quality improvement strategies. J Patient Saf. 2015 Feb 24. [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
Siegel, J, Rhinehart, E, Jackson, M, et al. Management of Multidrug-Resistant Organisms in Healthcare Settings. Bethesda, MD:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2006.Google Scholar
Rand, KH, Tillan, M. Errors in interpretation of gram stains from positive blood cultures. Am J Clin Pathol. 2006;126:686690.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Apisarnthanarak, A, Buppunharun, W, Tiengrim, S, et al. An overview of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for gram-negative bacteria from the National Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Thailand (NARST) program from 2000 to 2005. J Med Assoc Thai. 2009;92:S91S94.Google ScholarPubMed
Dejsirilert, S, Tiengrim, S, Sawanpanyalert, P, et al. Antimicrobial resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii: six years of National Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Thailand (NARST) surveillance. J Med Assoc Thai. 2009;92:S34S45.Google ScholarPubMed
Apisarnthanarak, A, Pinitchai, U, Thongphubeth, K, et al. A multifaceted intervention to reduce pandrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii colonization and infection in 3 intensive care units in a Thai tertiary care center: a 3-year study. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47:760767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Suwantarat, N, Apisarnthanarak, A. Risks to healthcare workers with emerging diseases: lessons from MERS-CoV, Ebola, SARS, and Avian Flu. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2015;28:349361.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
World Health Organization. Ebola report on health worker infections – Special Ebola Situation Report. 20 May 2015. Available at: Accessed December 8, 2015.
Rosenthal, VD. Device-associated nosocomial infections in limited-resources countries: findings of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC). Am J Infect Control 2008;36:S171.e7e12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) Web site. Available at: Accessed September 30, 2009.
Starling, CE, Couto, BR, Pinheiro, SM. Applying the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Nosocomial Surveillance system methods in Brazilian hospitals. Am J Infect Control. 1997;25:303311.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lopes, JM, Tonelli, E, Lamounier, JA, et al. Prospective surveillance applying the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance methods in a Brazilian pediatric public hospital. Am J Infect Control. 2002;30:17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ercole, FF, Starling, CE, Chianca, TC, Carneiro, M. Applicability of the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system risk index for the prediction of surgical site infections: a review. Braz J Infect Dis. 2007;11:134141.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hernández, K, Ramos, E, Seas, C, Henostroza, G, Gotuzzo, E. Incidence of and risk factors for surgical-site infections in a Peruvian hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2005; 26:473477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Danchaivijitr, S, Rongrungruang, Y, Pakaworawuth, S, Jinta-nothaitavorn, D, Naksawas, K. Development of quality indicators of nosocomial infection control. J Med Assoc Thai. 2005;88(Suppl 10):S75S82.Google ScholarPubMed
Kasatpibal, N, Jamulitrat, S, Chongsuvivatwong, V. Standardized incidence rates of surgical site infection: a multicenter study in Thailand. Am J Infect Control. 2005;33:587594.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Coffin, SE, Klompas, M, Classen, D, et al. Strategies to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia in acute care hospitals.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2008;29(Suppl 1):S31S40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rosenthal, VD, Maki, DG, Mehta, Y, et al. International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) report, data summary of 43 countries for 2007–2012. Device-associated module. Am J Infect Control. 2014;42:942956.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rosenthal, VD, Richtmann, R, Singh, S, et al. Surgical site infections, International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium(INICC) report, data summary of 30 countries, 2005–2010. Crit Care Med. 2014;40:31213128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenthal, VD, Rodrigues, C, Álvarez-Moreno, C, et al. Effectiveness of a multidimensional approach for prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia in adult intensive care units from 14 developing countries of four continents: findings of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium. Crit Care Med. 2012;40: 31213128.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rosenthal, VD, Álvarez-Moreno, C, Villamil-Gómez, W, et al. Effectiveness of a multidimensional approach to reduce ventilator-associated pneumonia in pediatric intensive care units of 5 developing countries: International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium findings. Am J Infect Control. 2012;40:497501.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lo, E, Nicolle, L, Classen, D et al. Strategies to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infections in acute care hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2008;29(Suppl 1): S41S50.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marschall, J, Mermel, LA, Classen, D et al. Strategies to prevent central line–associated bloodstream infections in acute care hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2008; 29(Suppl 1):S22S30.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Anderson, DJ, Kaye, KS, Classen, D et al. Strategies to prevent surgical site infections in acute care hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2008;29(Suppl 1):S51S61.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gilio, AE, Stape, A, Pereira, CR, Cardoso, MF, Silva, CV, Troster, EJ. Risk factors for nosocomial infections in a critically ill pediatric population: a 25-month prospective cohort study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2000;21:340342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barnum, H. Public Hospitals in Developing Countries: Resource Use, Cost, Financing. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press; 1993.Google Scholar
Fica, A, Jemenao, MI, Bilbao, P, et al. Emergency of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus infections in a teaching hospital in Chile [in Spanish]. Rev Chilena Infectol. 2007;24:462471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zárate, MS, Gales, A, Jordá-Vargas, L, et al. Environmental contamination during a vancomycin-resistant enterococci outbreak at a hospital in Argentina [in Spanish]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2007;25:508512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Corso, AC, Gagetti, PS, Rodriguez, MM et al. Molecular epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in Argentina. Int J Infect Dis. 2007;11:6975.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lizaso, D, Aguilera, CK, Correa, M et al. Nosocomial bloodstream infections caused by gram-negative bacilli: epidemiology and risk factors for mortality [in Spanish]. Rev Chil Infect. 2008;25:368373.Google Scholar
Bello, H, González, G, Dominguez, M, Zemelman, R, Garcia, A, Mella, S. Activity of selected beta-lactams, ciprofloxacin, and amikacin against different Acinetobacter baumannii biotypes from Chilean hospitals. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1997; 28:183186.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dutta, P, Mitra, U, Rasaily, R et al. Prospective study of nosocomial enteric infections in a pediatric hospital, Calcutta. Indian Pediatr 1993;30:187194.Google Scholar
Tang, SS, Apisarnthanarak, A, Hsu, LY. Mechanisms of β-lactam antimicrobial resistance and epidemiology of major community- and healthcare-associated multidrug-resistant bacteria. Adv Drug Deliv. 2014, 78:313.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cotton, MF, Berkowitz, FE, Berkowitz, Z, Becker, PJ, Heney, C. Nosocomial infections in black South African children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1989;8:676683.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shekhawat, PS, Singh, RN, Shekhawat, R, Joshi, KR. Nosocomial infections in pediatric and neonatal ward of Umaid Hospital, Jodhpur: a cross-sectional study. Indian Pediatr. 1992;29:384385.Google ScholarPubMed
Aaby, P, Bukh, J, Lisse, IM, Smits, AJ. Introduction of measles into a highly immunised West African community: the role of health care institutions. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1985;39:113116.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Madhi, SA, Ismail, K, O’Reilly, C, Cutland, C. Importance of nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus infections in an African setting. Trop Med Int Health. 2004;9:491498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Avendaño, LF, Larrañaga, C, Palomino, MA et al. Community- and hospital-acquired respiratory syncytial virus infections in Chile. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1991;10:564568.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reichler, MR, Rakovsky, J, Slacikova, M et al. Spread of multi drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae among hospitalized children in Slovakia. J Infect Dis. 1996;173:374379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rodrigues, A, de Carvalho, M, Monteiro, S et al. Hospital surveillance of rotavirus infection and nosocomial transmission of rotavirus disease among children in Guinea-Bissau. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26:233237.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Abiodun, PO, Omoigberale, A. Prevalence of nosocomial rotavirus infection in hospitalized children in Benin City, Nigeria. Ann Trop Paediatr. 1994;14:8588.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gusmao, RH, Mascarenhas, JD, Gabbay, YB et al. Rotaviruses as a cause of nosocomial, infantile diarrhoea in northern Brazil: pilot study. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 1995; 90:743749.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Biellik, RJ, Clements, CJ. Strategies for minimizing nosocomial transmission of measles [in Spanish]. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 1998;4:350357.Google Scholar
Navarrete-Navarro, S, Avila-Figueroa, C, Ruiz-Gutiérrez, E, Ramírez-Galván, L, Santos, JI. Nosocomial measles: a proposal for its control in hospitals [in Spanish]. Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex 1990;47:495499.Google Scholar
Ritacco, V, Di Lonardo, M, Reniero, A et al. Nosocomial spread of human immunodeficiency virus-related multidrug- resistant tuberculosis in Buenos Aires. J Infect Dis. 1997;176:637642.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harries, AD, Kamenya, A, Namarika, D et al. Delays in diagnosis and treatment of smear-positive tuberculosis and the incidence of tuberculosis in hospital nurses in Blantyre, Malawi. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1997;91:1517.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wilkinson, D, Crump, J, Pillay, M, Sturm, AW. Nosocomial transmission of tuberculosis in Africa documented by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1997;91:318.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Joshi, R, Reingold, AL, Menzies, D, Pai, M. Tuberculosis among health-care workers in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e494.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ostrosky-Zeichner, L, Baez-Martinez, R, Rangel-Frausto, MS, Ponce-de-Leon, S. Epidemiology of nosocomial outbreaks: 14-year experience at a tertiary-care center. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2000;21:527529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wenzel, RP, Thompson, RL, Landry, SM, et al. Hospital-acquired infections in intensive care unit patients: an overview with emphasis on epidemics. Infect Control 1983; 4:371375.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simonsen, L, Kane, A, Lloyd, J, Zaffran, M, Kane, M. Unsafe injections in the developing world and transmission of blood-borne pathogens: a review. Bull World Health Organ 1999;77:789800.Google ScholarPubMed
Kane, A, Lloyd, J, Zaffran, M, Simonsen, L, Kane, M. Transmission of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency viruses through unsafe injections in the developing world: model-based regional estimates. Bull World Health Organ. 1999;77:801807.Google ScholarPubMed
Kermode, M. Unsafe injections in low-income country health settings: need for injection safety promotion to prevent the spread of blood-borne viruses. Health Promot Int. 2004; 19:95103.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kermode, M. Healthcare worker safety is a pre-requisite for injection safety in developing countries. Int J Infect Dis. 2004;8:325327.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hutin, YJ, Chen, RT. Injection safety: a global challenge. Bull World Health Organ. 1999;77:787788.Google ScholarPubMed
Lakshman, M, Nichter, M. Contamination of medicine injection paraphernalia used by registered medical practitioners in south India: an ethnographic study. Soc Sci Med. 2000; 51:1128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khan, AJ, Luby, SP, Fikree, F et al. Unsafe injections and the transmission of hepatitis B and C in a periurban community in Pakistan. Bull World Health Organ. 2000;78: 956963.Google Scholar
Dicko, M, Oni, AQ, Ganivet, S, Kone, S, Pierre, L, Jacquet, B. Safety of immunization injections in Africa: not simply a problem of logistics. Bull World Health Organ. 2000; 78:163169.Google ScholarPubMed
Siegel, JD, Rhinehart, E, Jackson, M, Chiarello, L. 2007 Guideline for isolation precautions: preventing transmission of infectious agents in health care settings. Am J Infect Control. 2007;35:S65S164.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mayhall, CG. In pursuit of ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention: the right path. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:712714.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Apisarnthanarak, A, Thongphubeth, K, Sirinvaravong, S et al. Effectiveness of multifaceted hospital-wide quality improvement programs featuring an intervention to remove unnecessary urinary catheters at a tertiary care center in Thailand. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2007;28:791798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Apisarnthanarak, A, Suwannakin, A, Maungboon, P, Warren, DK, Fraser, VJ. Long-term outcome of an intervention to remove unnecessary urinary catheters, with and without a quality improvement team, in a Thai tertiary care center. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2008;29:10941095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gastmeier, P, Sohr, D, Schwab, F et al. Ten years of KISS: the most important requirements for success. J Hosp Infect. 2008;70(Suppl 1):1116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gastmeier, P, Geffers, C, Brandt, C et al. Effectiveness of a nationwide nosocomial infection surveillance system for reducing nosocomial infections. J Hosp Infect. 2006;64:1622.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McKee, C, Berkowitz, I, Cosgrove, SE et al. Reduction of catheter-associated bloodstream infections in pediatric patients: experimentation and reality. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2008; 9:4046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lobo, RD, Levin, AS, Gomes, LM et al. Impact of an educational program and policy changes on decreasing catheter-associated bloodstream infections in a medical intensive care unit in Brazil. Am J Infect Control. 2005;33:8387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zack, JE, Garrison, T, Trovillion, E et al. Effect of an education program aimed at reducing the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Crit Care Med. 2002;30:24072412.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Babcock, HM, Zack, JE, Garrison, T et al. An educational intervention to reduce ventilator-associated pneumonia in an integrated health system: a comparison of effects. Chest. 2004;125:22242231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Resar, R, Pronovost, P, Haraden, C, Simmonds, T, Rainey, T, Nolan, T. Using a bundle approach to improve ventilator care processes and reduce ventilator-associated pneumonia. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2005;31:243248.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI). Implement the Ventilator Bundle. Available at: Care/IntensiveCare/Changes/ImplementtheVentilatorBundle.htm. Accessed September 29, 2009.
Huang, WC, Wann, SR, Lin, SL et al. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections in intensive care units can be reduced by prompting physicians to remove unnecessary catheters. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2004;25:974978.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rosenthal, VD, Guzman, S, Safdar, N. Effect of education and performance feedback on rates of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in intensive care units in Argentina. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2004;25:4750.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goetz, AM, Kedzuf, S, Wagener, M, Muder, RR. Feedback to nursing staff as an intervention to reduce catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Am J Infect Control. 1999;27:402404.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stephan, F, Sax, H, Wachsmuth, M, Hoffmeyer, P, Clergue, F, Pittet, D. Reduction of urinary tract infection and antibiotic use after surgery: a controlled, prospective, before-after intervention study. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42:15441551.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Saint, S, Kaufman, SR, Thompson, M, Rogers, MA, Chenoweth, CE. A reminder reduces urinary catheterization in hospitalized patients. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2005;31:455462.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Garibaldi, RA, Mooney, BR, Epstein, BJ et al. An evaluation of daily bacteriologic monitoring to identify preventable episodes of catheter-associated urinary tract infection. Infect Control. 1982;3:466470.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meddings, J, Macy, M, Rogers, MA. Reminder systems to reduce urinary catheter use and catheter-associated urinary tract infection in hospitalized patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. In: Program and abstracts of the 19th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America; March 1922, 2009; San Diego, CA. Abstract 141.
Parras, F, Ena, J, Bouza, E et al. Impact of an educational program for the prevention of colonization of intravascular catheters. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1994;15:239242.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maas, A, Flament, P, Pardou, A et al. Central venous catheter–related bacteraemia in critically ill neonates: risk factors and impact of a prevention programme. J Hosp Infect. 1998; 40:211224.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eggimann, P, Harbarth, S, Constantin, MN et al. Impact of a prevention strategy targeted at vascular-access care on incidence of infections acquired in intensive care. Lancet. 2000;355:18641868.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sherertz, RJ, Ely, EW, Westbrook, DM et al. Education of physicians-in-training can decrease the risk for vascular catheter infection. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132:641648.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Coopersmith, CM, Rebmann, TL, Zack, JE et al. Effect of an education program on decreasing catheter-related bloodstream infections in the surgical intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2002;30:5964.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Warren, DK, Zack, JE, Cox, MJ et al. An educational intervention to prevent catheter-associated bloodstream infections in a non-teaching, community medical center. Crit Care Med. 2003;31:19591963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenthal, VD, Guzman, S, Pezzotto, SM et al. Effect of an infection control program using education and performance feedback on rates of intravascular device–associated bloodstream infections in intensive care units in Argentina. Am J Infect Control. 2003;31:405409.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Warren, DK, Cosgrove, SE, Diekema, DJ et al. A multicenter intervention to prevent catheter-associated bloodstream infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006;27: 662669.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berenholtz, SM, Pronovost, PJ, Lipsett, PA et al. Eliminating catheter-related bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2004;32:20142020.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pronovost, P, Needham, D, Berenholtz, S et al. An intervention to decrease catheter-related bloodstream infections in the ICU. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:27252732.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Griffin, FA. 5 Million Lives Campaign: reducing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2007;33:726731.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kunaratanapruk, S, Silpapojakul, K. Unnecessary hospital infection control practices in Thailand: a survey. J Hosp Infect. 1998;40:5559.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gomez, MI, Acosta-Gnass, SI, Mosqueda-Barboza, L, Basualdo, JA. Reduction in surgical antibiotic prophylaxis expenditure and the rate of surgical site infection by means of a protocol that controls the use of prophylaxis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006;27:13581365.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hermsen, ED, Smith Shull, S, Puumala, SE, Rupp, ME. Improvement in prescribing habits and economic outcomes associated with the introduction of a standardized approach for surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2008;29:457461.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Apisarnthanarak, A, Jirajariyavej, S, Thongphubeth, K, Yuekyen, C, Warren, DK, Fraser, VJ. Outbreak of postoperative endophthalmitis in a Thai tertiary care center. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2008;29:564566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Apisarnthanarak, A, Greene, MT, Kennedy, EH, Khawcharoenporn, T, Krein, S, Saint, S. National survey of practices to prevent healthcare-associated infections in Thailand. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2012;33:711717.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sakamoto, F, Sakihama, T, Saint, S, Greene, MT, Ratz, D, Tokuda, Y. Health care-associated infection prevention in Japan: the role of safety culture. Am J Infect Control. 2014;42:888893.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Apisarnthanarak, A, Danchaivijitr, S, Bailey, TC, Fraser, VJ. Inappropriate antibiotic use in a tertiary care center in Thailand: an incidence study and review of experience in Thailand. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006;27:416420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Paterson, DL. The role of antimicrobial management programs in optimizing antibiotic prescribing within hospitals.Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42(Suppl 2):S90S95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Calfee, DP, Salgado, CD, Classen, D et al. Strategies to prevent transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in acute care hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2008;29(Suppl 1):S62S80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cohen, AL, Calfee, D, Fridkin, SK et al. Recommendations for metrics for multidrug-resistant organisms in healthcare settings: SHEA/HICPAC position paper. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2008;29:901913.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Apisarnthanarak, A, Warren, DK, Fraser, VJ. Creating a cohort area to limit transmission of pandrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a Thai tertiary care center. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:14871488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Apisarnthanarak, A, Danchaivijitr, S, Khawcharoenporn, T et al. Effectiveness of education and an antibiotic-control program in a tertiary care hospital in Thailand. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42:768775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Apisarnthanarak, A, Mundy, LM. Inappropriate use of carbapenems in Thailand: a need for better education on de-escalation therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47:858859.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Apisarnthanarak, A, Fraser, VJ. Feasibility and efficacy of infection-control interventions to reduce the number of nosocomial infections and drug-resistant microorganisms in developing countries: what else do we need? Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:2224.Google ScholarPubMed
Apisarnthanarak, A, Pinitchai, U, Thongphubeth, K et al. Effectiveness of an educational program to reduce ventilator-associated pneumonia in a tertiary care center in Thailand: a 4-year study. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:704711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peleg, AY, Seifert, H, Paterson, DL. Acinetobacter baumannii:emergence of a successful pathogen. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2008;21:538582CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Apisarnthanarak, A, Pinitchai, U, Warachan, B, Warren, DK, Khawcharoenporn, T, Hayden, MK. Effectiveness of infection prevention measures featuring advanced source control and environmental cleaning to limit transmission of extremely-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a Thai intensive care unit: an analysis before and after extensive flooding. Am J Infect Control. 2014;42:116121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khawcharoenporn, T, Apisarnthanarak, A, Mundy, LM. National survey of antimicrobial stewardship programs in Thailand. Am J Infect Control. 2013;41:8688.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Apisarnthanarak, A, Khawcharoenporn, T, Mundy, LM. Practices to prevent multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Thailand: a national survey. Am J Infect Control. 2013;41:416421.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rose, R, Hunting, KJ, Townsend, TR, Wenzel, RP. Morbidity/mortality and economics of hospital-acquired blood stream infections: a controlled study. South Med J. 1977;70:12671269.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spengler, RF, Greenough, WB 3rd. Hospital costs and mortality attributed to nosocomial bacteremias. JAMA. 1978;240:24552458.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kappstein, I, Schulgen, G, Beyer, U, Geiger, K, Schumacher, M, Daschner, FD. Prolongation of hospital stay and extra costs due to ventilator-associated pneumonia in an intensive care unit. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1992;11:504508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kappstein, I, Schulgen, G, Fraedrich, G, Schlosser, V, Schumacher, M, Daschner, FD. Added hospital stay due to wound infections following cardiac surgery. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1992;40:148151.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Poulsen, KB, Bremmelgaard, A, Sorensen, AI, Raahave, D, Petersen, JV. Estimated costs of postoperative wound infections: a case-control study of marginal hospital and social se- curity costs. Epidemiol. Infect. 1994;113:283295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pittet, D, Tarara, D, Wenzel, RP. Nosocomial bloodstream infection in critically ill patients: excess length of stay, extra costs, and attributable mortality. JAMA. 1994;271:15981601.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Coello, R, Glenister, H, Fereres, J et al. The cost of infection in surgical patients: a case-control study. J Hosp Infect. 1993;25:239250.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Girard, R, Fabry, J, Meynet, R, Lambert, DC, Sepetjan, M. Costs of nosocomial infection in a neonatal unit. J Hosp Infect. 1983;4:361366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Medina, M, Martínez-Gallego, G, Sillero-Arenas, M, Delgado-Rodríguez, M. Risk factors and length of stay attributable to hospital infections of the urinary tract in general surgery patients [in Spanish]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 1997;15:310314.Google Scholar
Digiovine, B, Chenoweth, C, Watts, C, Higgins, M. The attributable mortality and costs of primary nosocomial blood- stream infections in the intensive care unit. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;160:976981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Plowman, R, Graves, N, Griffin, MA et al. The rate and cost of hospital-acquired infections occurring in patients admitted to selected specialties of a district general hospital in England and the national burden imposed. J Hosp Infect. 2001; 47:198209.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pirson, M, Dramaix, M, Struelens, M, Riley, TV, Leclercq, P. Costs associated with hospital-acquired bacteraemia in a Belgian hospital. J Hosp Infect. 2005;59:3340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sheng, WH, Wang, JT, Lu, DC, Chie, WC, Chen, YC, Chang, SC. Comparative impact of hospital-acquired infections on medical costs, length of hospital stay and outcome between community hospitals and medical centres. J Hosp Infect. 2005;59:205214.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Warren, DK, Quadir, WW, Hollenbeak, CS, Elward, AM, Cox, MJ, Fraser, VJ. Attributable cost of catheter-associated bloodstream infections among intensive care patients in a non-teaching hospital. Crit Care Med. 2006;34:20842089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eickhoff, TC. General comments on the study on the efficacy of nosocomial infection control (SENIC Project). Am J Epidemiol. 1980;111:465469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haley, RW, Quade, D, Freeman, HE, Bennett, JV. Study on the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control (SENIC Project): summary of study design. Am J Epidemiol. 1980;111: 472485.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haley, RW, Culver, DH, White, JW, et al. The efficacy of infection surveillance and control programs in preventing nosocomial infections in US hospitals. Am J Epidemiol. 1985; 121:182205.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harbarth, S, Sax, H, Gastmeier, P. The preventable proportion of nosocomial infections: an overview of published reports. J Hosp Infect. 2003;54:258266.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wakefield, DS, Helms, CM, Massanari, RM, Mori, M, Pfaller, M. Cost of nosocomial infection: relative contributions of laboratory, antibiotic, and per diem costs in serious Staphylococcus aureus infections. Am J Infect Control. 1988;16:185189.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shulkin, DJ, Kinosian, B, Glick, H, Glen-Puschett, C, Daly, J, Eisenberg, JM. The economic impact of infections: an analysis of hospital costs and charges in surgical patients with cancer. Arch Surg. 1993;128:449452.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wenzel, RP. The Lowbury Lecture: the economics of nosocomial infections. J Hosp Infect. 1995;31:7987.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pittet, D, Sax, H, Hugonnet, S, Harbarth, S. Cost implications of successful hand hygiene promotion. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2004;25:264266.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Obasanjo, O, Perl, TM. Cost-benefit and effectiveness of nosocomial surveillance methods. Curr Clin Top Infect Dis. 2001;21:391406.Google ScholarPubMed
VandenBergh, MF, Kluytmans, JA, van Hout, BA et al. Cost- effectiveness of perioperative mupirocin nasal ointment in cardiothoracic surgery. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1996;17:786792.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Daschner, FD. How cost-effective is the present use of antiseptics? J Hosp Infect. 1988;11(Suppl A):227235.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Graves, N. Economics and preventing hospital-acquired infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:561566.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Graves, N, Halton, K, Lairson, D. Economics and preventing hospital-acquired infection: broadening the perspective. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2007;28:178184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nyamogoba, H, Obala, AA. Nosocomial infections in developing countries: cost effective control and prevention. East Afr Med J. 2002;79:435441.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Khan, MM, Celik, Y. Cost of nosocomial infection in Turkey: an estimate based on the university hospital data. Health Serv Manage Res. 2001;14:4954.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kothari, A, Sagar, V, Ahluwalia, V, Pillai, BS, Madan, M. Costs associated with hospital-acquired bacteraemia in an Indian hospital: a case-control study. J Hosp Infect. 2009;71: 143148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Puskas, JD, Williams, WH, Mahoney, EM et al. Off-pump vs. conventional coronary artery bypass grafting: early and 1-year graft patency, cost, and quality-of-life outcomes: a randomized trial. JAMA 2004;291:18411849.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Talaat, M, Kandeel, A, Rasslan, O et al. Evolution of infection control in Egypt: achievements and challenges. Am J Infect Control 2006;34:193200.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murphy, DM, Alvarado, CJ, Fawal, H. The business of infection control and epidemiology. Am J Infect Control. 2002; 30:7576.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scheckler, WE, Brimhall, D, Buck, AS et al. Requirements for infrastructure and essential activities of infection control and epidemiology in hospitals: a consensus panel report. Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1998;19:114124.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) Web site. Updated May 11, 2005. Available at: Accessed August 13, 2009.
Boyce, JM, Pittet, D. Guideline for hand hygiene in health-care settings: recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/ APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2002;23:S3S40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Issack, MI. Unnecessary hospital infection control practices in developing countries. J Hosp Infect. 1999;42:339341.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Picheansatian, W, Moongtui, W, Soparatana, P, Chittreecheur, J, Apisarnthanarak, A, Danchaivijitr, S. Evaluation of a training course in infection control for nurses. J Med Assoc Thai. 2005;88(Suppl 10):S171S176.Google ScholarPubMed
Pethyoung, W, Picheansathian, W, Boonchuang, P, Apisarnthanarak, A, Danchaivijitr, S. Effectiveness of education and quality control work group focusing on nursing practices for prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. J Med Assoc Thai. 2005;88(Suppl 10):S110S114.Google ScholarPubMed
Danchaivijitr, S, Chakpaiwong, S, Jaturatramrong, U, Wachiraporntip, A, Cherdrungsi, R, Sripalakij, S. Program on nosocomial infection in the curricula of medicine, dentistry, nursing and medical technology in Thailand. J Med Assoc Thai. 2005;88(Suppl 10):S150S154.Google ScholarPubMed
Danchaivijitr, S, Assanasen, S, Trakuldis, M, Waitayapiches, S, Santiprasitkul, S. Problems and obstacles in implementation of nosocomial infection control in Thailand. J Med Assoc Thai. 2005;88(Suppl 10):S70S74.Google ScholarPubMed
Perencevich, EN, Stone, PW, Wright, SB, Carmeli, Y, Fisman, DN, Cosgrove, SE. Raising standards while watching the bottom line: making a business case for infection control. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2007;28:11211133.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Furuno, JP, Schweizer, ML, McGregor, JC, Perencevich, EN. Economics of infection control surveillance technology: cost-effective or just cost? Am J Infect Control. 2008;36:S12S17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dunagan, WC, Murphy, DM, Hollenbeak, CS, Miller, SB. Making the business case for infection control: pitfalls and opportunities. Am J Infect Control. 2002;30:8692.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
World Health Organization (WHO). WHO Recommendations for Routine Immunizations – Summary Tables. Updated February 27, 2015. Available at: Accessed November 22, 2015.
World Health Organization. Use of tuberculosis interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) in low- and middle-income countries: policy statement. 2011. WHO/HTM/TB/2011.18. Available at: Accessed November 21, 2015.
Apisarnthanarak, A, Thongphubeth, K, Yuekyen, C, Mundy, LM. Postexposure detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in health care workers in resource-limited settings. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47:982984.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Khawcharoenporn, T, Apisarnthanarak, A, Thongphubeth, K, Yuekyen, C, Mundy, LM. Tuberculin skin tests among medical students with prior bacille Calmette Guérin vaccination in a setting with a high prevalence of tuberculosis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2009;30:705709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roth, VR, Garrett, DO, Laserson, KF et al. A multicenter evaluation of tuberculin skin test positivity and conversion among health care workers in Brazilian hospitals. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2005;9:13351442.Google ScholarPubMed
World Health Organization (WHO). WHO policy on TB infection control in health-care facilities, congregate settings and households. 2009. WHO/HTM/TB/2009.419. Available at: Accessed November 21, 2015.
da Costa, PA, Trajman, A, Mello, FC et al. Administrative measures for preventing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among HCWs in a teaching hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. J Hosp Infect. 2009;72:5764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harries, AD, Hargreaves, NJ, Gausi, F, Kwanjana, JH, Salaniponi, FM. Preventing tuberculosis among health workers in Malawi. Bull World Health Organ. 2002;80:526531.Google ScholarPubMed
Yanai, H, Limpakarnjanarat, K, Uthaivoravit, W, Mastro, TD, Mori, T, Tappero, JW. Risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease among health care workers, Chiang Rai, Thailand. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2003;7:3641Google Scholar
Biscotto, CR, Pedroso, ER, Starling, CE, Roth, VR. Evaluation of N95 respirator use as a tuberculosis control measure in a resource-limited setting. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2005;9: 545549.Google Scholar
World Health Organization. Sharp injuries: global burden of disease from sharps injuries to health-care workers. 2003. Available at: Accessed November 21, 2015.
Wilburn, SQ, Eijkemans, G. Preventing needlestick injuries among healthcare workers: a WHO-ICN collaboration. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2004;10:451456.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
World Health Organization. Protecting Healthcare Workers: Preventing Needlestick Injuries Toolkit. 2005. Available at: Accessed November 21, 2015.
World Health Organization. WHO guideline on the use of safety-engineered syringes for intramuscular, intradermal and subcutaneous injections in health-care settings. 2015. WHO/HIS/SDS/2015.5. Available at: Accessed December 8, 2015.
AIDE MEMOIRE. World Health Organization 2003; Panlilio, AL, Cardo, DM, Grohskopf, LA, Heneine, W, Ross, CS. Updated US Public Health Service guidelines for the management of occupational exposures to HIV and recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2005;54(RR-9):117.Google Scholar
Chan-Yeung, M. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and healthcare workers. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2004;10:421427.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
World Health Organization. Infection prevention and control of epidemic- and pandemic-prone acute respiratory infections in health care. April 2014. Available at: Accessed December 11, 2015.
Mitchell, R, Roth, V, Gravel, D et al. Are health care workers protected? An observational study of selection and removal of personal protective equipment in Canadian acute care hospitals. Am J Infect Control. 2013 Mar;41(3):240244.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fischer, WA 2nd, Hynes, NA, Perl, TM. Protecting healthcare workers from Ebola: personal protective equipment is critical but is not enough. Ann Intern Med. 2014; 161:753754.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Apisarnthanarak, A, Mundy, LM. Infection control for emerging infectious diseases in developing countries and resource-limited settings. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006; 27:885887.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
World Health Organization. Interim Infection Prevention and Control Guidance for Care of Patients with Suspected or Confirmed Filovirus Haemorrhagic Fever in Health-Care Settings, with Focus on Ebola. December 2014. Available at: Accessed December 22, 2015.
World Health Organization. Vaccines against influenza WHO position paper – November 2012. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2012;47:461476. Available at: Accessed December 11, 2015.
Apisarnthanarak, A, Puthavathana, P, Kitphati, R, Auewarakul, P, Mundy, LM. Outbreaks of influenza A among nonvaccinated healthcare workers: implications for resource-limited settings. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2008;29:777780.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Duffy, RE, Couto, B, Pessoa, JM, et al. Improving water quality can reduce pyrogenic reactions associated with reuse of cardiac catheters. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2003;24:955960.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Archibald, LK, Khoi, NN, Jarvis, WR, et al. Pyrogenic reactions in hemodialysis patients, Hanoi, Vietnam. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006;27: 424426.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Amarante, JM, Toscano, CM, Pearson, ML, Roth, V, Jarvis, WR, Levin, AS. Reprocessing and reuse of single-use medical devices used during hemodynamic procedures in Brazil: a widespread and largely overlooked problem. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2008;29:854858.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
World Health Organization. WHO guideline on the use of safety-engineered syringes for intramuscular, intradermal and subcutaneous injections in health-care settings. 2015. WHO/HIS/SDS/2015.5. Available at: Accessed December 8, 2015.
World Health Organization. Ten Years of Clean Care is Safer Care: 2005–2015. Available at: Accessed December 11, 2015.
World Health Organization. Clean care is safer care: tools and resources. Available at: Accessed December 11, 2015.
World Health Organization (WHO). World Health Organization guidelines on hand hygiene in health care. Geneva: WHO; 2009. Available at: Accessed December 11, 2015.
Allegranzi, B, Memish, ZA, Donaldson, L et al. Religion and culture: potential undercurrents influencing hand hygiene promotion in health care. Am J Infect Control. 2009;37: 2834.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Salmon, S, Pittet, D, Sax, H, McLaws, ML. The “My five moments for hand hygiene” concept for the overcrowded setting in resource-limited healthcare systems. J Hosp Infect. 2015;91:9599.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
International Federation of Infection Control (IFIC). Available at: Accessed December 12, 2015.
Hambraeus, A. Establishing an infection control structure. J Hosp Infect 1995;30(Suppl):232240.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed