Published online by Cambridge University Press: 16 February 2022
The physiology and basic principles of sperm washing and other preparative techniques are described, including the limitations and even dangers posed by some methods. Optimized methods for sperm preparation using direct swim-up from semen and density gradient centrifugation are provided as standard operating procedures (SOPs) for easy use at the bench. Methods are focussed on standardization and robustness, and minimizing the risk iatrogenic damage to the spermatozoa and avoiding errors. There are sections on selecting which method to use, dealing with atypical semen specimens, processing multiple specimens, and potential new technology for preparing human spermatozoa for use in assisted conception treatment.