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13 - Solidification

from Part III - Types of Phase Transformations

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 April 2020

Brent Fultz
Affiliation:
California Institute of Technology
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Summary

There is a marked kinetic asymmetry between melting and solidification -- the two are quite different as phase transformations. Solidification can occur by different mechanisms that create very different solid microstructures. This chapter emphasizes processes at the solid-liquid interface during solidification, and the microstructure and solute distributions in the newly formed solid. During solidification, a solid-liquid interface moves forward as the liquid is consumed, and the velocity of the interface increases with the rate of heat extraction. Instabilities set in even at relatively small velocity, however, and a flat interface evolves into finger-like columns or tree-like dendrites of growing solid. This instability is driven by the release of latent heat and the partitioning of solute atoms at the solid-liquid interface. Finger-like solids have more surface area, so countering the instability is surface energy. Solidification involves the evolution of several coupled fields. Crystallographic orientation of the growing solid phase is also important for the growth rate and surface energy.

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Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2020

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  • Solidification
  • Brent Fultz, California Institute of Technology
  • Book: Phase Transitions in Materials
  • Online publication: 24 April 2020
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108641449.017
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  • Solidification
  • Brent Fultz, California Institute of Technology
  • Book: Phase Transitions in Materials
  • Online publication: 24 April 2020
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108641449.017
Available formats
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Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

  • Solidification
  • Brent Fultz, California Institute of Technology
  • Book: Phase Transitions in Materials
  • Online publication: 24 April 2020
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108641449.017
Available formats
×