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Chapter 19 - Reactive and Malignant Diseases of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 June 2017

Robert O. Greer
Affiliation:
University of Colorado, Denver
Robert E. Marx
Affiliation:
University of Miami
Sherif Said
Affiliation:
University of Colorado, Denver
Lori D. Prok
Affiliation:
University of Colorado, Denver
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Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2016

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References

Primary Sources

Larsson, LO, Bentzon, MW, Berg, K, Mellander, L, Skoogh, BE, Stranegård, IL. Palpable lymph nodes of the neck in Swedish schoolchildren. Acta Paediatrica. 1994;83:10921094.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Park, YW. Evaluation of neck masses in children. Am Family Physician. 1995;51(8):19041912.Google ScholarPubMed
Yaris, N, Cakir, M, Sözen, E, Cobanoglu, U. Analysis of children with peripheral lymphadenopathy. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2006 Jul;45(6):544549.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Twist, CJ, Link, MP. Assessment of lymphadenopathy in children. Pediatric Clinics of North America. 2000;49:10091025.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chau, I, Kelleher, MT, Cunningham, D, Norman, AR, Wotherspoon, A, Trott, P, Rhys-Evans, P, Querci Della Rovere, G, Brown, G, Allen, M, Waters, JS, Haque, S, Murray, T, Bishop, L. Rapid access multidisciplinary lymph node diagnostic clinic: analysis of 550 patients. Br J Cancer. 2003 Feb 10;88(3):354361.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Montgomery, ND, Mathews, SP, Coward, WB, Rao, KW, Fedoriw, Y. Clonal karyotypic abnormalities associated with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Cancer Cytogenetics. 2013;206(4):135139.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Secondary Sources

Leung, AK and Robson, WL. Childhood cervical lymphadenopathy. J Pediatr Health Care. 2004;18:37.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oguz, A, Karadeniz, C, Temel, EA, Citak, EC, Okur, FV. Evaluation of peripheral lymphadenopathy in children. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2006;23:549561.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moore, SW, Schneider, JW, Schaaf, HS. Diagnostic aspects of cervical lymphadenopathy in children in the developing world: a study of 1,877 surgical specimens. Pediatr Surg Int. 2003;19:240244.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Papadopouli, E, Michailidi, E, Papadopoulou, E, Paspalaki, P, Vlahakis, I, Kalmanti, M. Cervical lymphadenopathy in childhood epidemiology and management. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2009;26:454460.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ramsay, AD. Reactive lymph nodes in pediatric practice. Am J Clin Pathol. 2004;122 (Suppl):S87–97.Google ScholarPubMed
Shaikh, F, Ngan, BY, Alexander, S, Grant, R. Progressive transformation of germinal centers in children and adolescents: an intriguing cause of lymphadenopathy. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013;60:2630.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sato, Y, Inoue, D, Asano, N, et al. Association between IgG4-related disease and progressively transformed germinal centers of lymph nodes. Mod Pathol. 2012;25:956967.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kutok, JL, Wang, F. Spectrum of Epstein-Barr virus-associated diseases. Annu Rev Pathol. 2006;1:375404.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hurt, C, Tammaro, D. Diagnostic evaluation of mononucleosis-like illnesses. Am J Med. 2007;120:911.e1911.e8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ventura, KC, Hudnall, SD. Hematologic differences in heterophile-positive and heterophile-negative infectious mononucleosis. Am J Hematol. 2004;76:315318.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rushin, JM, Riordan, GP, Heaton, RB, Sharpe, RW, Cotelingam, JD, Jaffe, ES. Cytomegalovirus-infected cells express Leu-M1 antigen. A potential source of diagnostic error. Am J Pathol. 1990;136:989995.Google ScholarPubMed
Miller-Catchpole, R, Variakojis, D, Vardiman, JW, Loew, JM, Carter, J. Cat scratch disease. Identification of bacteria in seven cases of lymphadenitis. Am J Surg Pathol. 1986;10:276281.Google ScholarPubMed
Ridder, GJ, Boedeker, CC, Technau-Ihling, K, Sander, A. Cat-scratch disease: otolaryngologic manifestations and management. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;132:353358.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rolain, JM, Gouriet, F, Enea, M, Aboud, M, Raoult, D. Detection by immunofluorescence assay of Bartonella henselae in lymph nodes from patients with cat scratch disease. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2003;10:686691.Google ScholarPubMed
Mouritsen, CL, Litwin, CM, Maiese, RL, Segal, SM, Segal, GH. Rapid polymerase chain reaction-based detection of the causative agent of cat scratch disease (Bartonella henselae) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples. Hum Pathol. 1997;28:820826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hansmann, Y, DeMartino, S, Piemont, Y, et al. Diagnosis of cat scratch disease with detection of Bartonella henselae by PCR: a study of patients with lymph node enlargement. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:38003806.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eapen, M, Mathew, CF, Aravindan, KP. Evidence based criteria for the histopathological diagnosis of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy. J Clin Pathol. 2005;58:11431146.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lin, MH and Kuo, TT. Specificity of the histopathological triad for the diagnosis of toxoplasmic lymphadenitis: polymerase chain reaction study. Pathol Int. 2001;51:619623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Montoya, JG, Huffman, HB, Remington, JS. Evaluation of the immunoglobulin G avidity test for diagnosis of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:46274631.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paul, M. Immunoglobulin G avidity in diagnosis of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy and ocular toxoplasmosis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1999;6:514518.Google ScholarPubMed
Rivano, MT, Falini, B, Stein, H, et al. Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis without granulocytic infiltration (Kikuchi’s lymphadenitis). Morphological and immunohistochemical study of eight cases. Histopathology. 1987;11:10131027.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tsang, WY, Chan, JK, Ng, CS. Kikuchi’s lymphadenitis. A morphologic analysis of 75 cases with special reference to unusual features. Am J Surg Pathol. 1994;18:219231.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eisner, MD, Amory, J, Mullaney, B, Tierney, L Jr, Browner, WS. Necrotizing lymphadenitis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 1996;26:477482.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Biasi, D, Caramaschi, P, Carletto, A, et al. Three clinical reports of Kikuchi’s lymphadenitis combined with systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Rheumatol. 1996;15:8183.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
el-Ramahi, KM, Karrar, A, Ali, MA. Kikuchi disease and its association with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 1994;3:409411.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Abuel-Haija, M, Hurford, MT. Kimura disease. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2007;131:650651.Google ScholarPubMed
Chen, H, Thompson, LD, Aguilera, NS, Abbondanzo, SL. Kimura disease: a clinicopathologic study of 21 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2004;28:505513.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kapoor, NS, O’Neill, JP, Katabi, N, Wong, RJ, Shah, JP. Kimura disease: diagnostic challenges and clinical management. Am J Otolaryngol. 2012;33:259262.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schirren, CG, Eckert, F. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophils. Case report and differentiation from Kimura disease. Hautarzt. 1991;42:107111.Google ScholarPubMed
Carbone, A, Passannante, A, Gloghini, A, Devaney, KO, Rinaldo, A, Ferlito, A. Review of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease) of head and neck. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1999;108:10951104.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Foucar, E, Rosai, J, Dorfman, R. Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease): review of the entity. Semin Diagn Pathol. 1990;7:1973.Google ScholarPubMed
Swerdlow, SH, Campo, E, Harris, NL, Jaffe, ES, Pileri, SA, Stein, H, Thiele, J, Varidman, JW (Eds.), WHO Classification of Tumours of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues, 4th ed. Lyon: IARC, 2008.Google Scholar
Asselin, BA (2011). Epidemiology of childhood and adolescent cancer In Kliegman, RM (Ed.), Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 19th ed. (pp. 17251727). Philadelphia: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Howlader, N, Noone, AM, Krapcho, M, Garshell, J, Miller, D, Altekruse, SF, Kosary, CL, Yu, M, Ruhl, J, Tatalovich, Z,Mariotto, A, Lewis, DR, Chen, HS, Feuer, EJ, Cronin, KA (Eds.), SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2011, Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2011/, based on November 2013 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 2014.Google Scholar
Tubergen, DG, Bleyer, A, Ritchey, AK (2011). The leukemias In Kliegman, RM (Ed.), Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 19th ed. (pp. 17321739). Philadelphia: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ohgami, RS, Arber, DA, Zehnder, JL, Natkunam, Y, and Warnke, RA (2013), Indolent T-lymphoblastic proliferation (iT-LBP): a review of the clinical and pathologic features and distinction from malignant T-lymphoblastic lymphoma, Advances in Anatomic Pathology; 20(3):137–140
Waxman, IM, Hochberg, J, Cairo, MS (2011). Lymphoma In Kliegman, RM (Ed.), Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 19th ed. (pp. 17391746). Philadelphia: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perkins, SL (2007). Hematopoietic system, part 1: bone marrow, peripheral blood and lymphomas In Gilbert-Barnes, E (Ed.), Potter’s Pathology of the Fetus, Infant and Child, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier.Google Scholar
Molyneux, EM, Rochford, R, Griffin, B, Newton, R, Jackson, G, Menon, G, Harrsion, CJ, Israels, T, Bailey, S. Burkitt’s lymphoma. Lancet. 2012;379:12341244.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reiter, A, Klapper, W. Recent advances in the understanding and management of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in children. British Journal of Haematology. 2008;142:329347.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Swerdlow, SH. Pediatric follicular lymphomas, marginal zone lymphomas, and marginal zone hyperplasia. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 2004;122(S1):S89S109.Google ScholarPubMed
Gitelson, E, Al-Saleem, T, Robu, V, Millenson, MM, Smith, MR. Pediatric nodal marginal zone lymphoma may develop in the adult population. Leukemia and Lymphoma. 2010;51(1):8994.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Claviez, A, Meyer, U, Dominick, C, Beck, JF, Rister, M, Tiemann, M. MALT lymphoma in children: a report from the NHL-BFM Study Group. Pediatric Blood and Cancer. 2006;47:210214.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bhuvana, AS, Termuhlen, AM. Rare pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports. 2010 5:163168.Google Scholar
Daw, S, Wynn, R, Wallace, H. Management of relapsed and refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma in children and adolescents. British Journal of Haematology. 2010;152:249260.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shankar, A, Daw, S. Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma in children and adolescents - a comprehensive review of biology, clinical course and treatment options. British Journal of Haematology. 2012;159:288298.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Onciu, M. Histiocytic proliferations in childhood. Am J Clin Pathol. 2004;122(S1):S128S136.Google ScholarPubMed
Badalian-Very, G, Vergilio, JA, Degar, BA, MacConaill, LE, Brandner, B, Calicchio, ML, Kuo, FC, Ligon, AH, Stevenson, KE, Kehoe, SM, Garraway, LA, Hahn, WC, Meyerson, M, Fleming, MD, Rollins, BJ. Recurrent BRAF mutations in Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Blood. 2010 Sep;116(11):19191923.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Swerdlow, SH. Pediatric follicular lymphomas, marginal zone lymphomas, and marginal zone hyperplasia. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 2004;122(S1):S89S109.Google ScholarPubMed
Gitelson, E, Al-Saleem, T, Robu, V, Millenson, MM, Smith, MR. Pediatric nodal marginal zone lymphoma may develop in the adult population. Leukemia and Lymphoma. 2010;51(1):8994.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Claviez, A, Meyer, U, Dominick, C, Beck, JF, Rister, M, Tiemann, M. MALT lymphoma in children: a report from the NHL-BFM Study Group. Pediatric Blood and Cancer. 2006;47:210214.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bhuvana, AS, Termuhlen, AM. Rare pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports. 2010 5:163168.Google Scholar
Daw, S, Wynn, R, Wallace, H. Management of relapsed and refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma in children and adolescents. British Journal of Haematology. 2010;152:249260.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shankar, A, Daw, S. Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma in children and adolescents - a comprehensive review of biology, clinical course and treatment options. British Journal of Haematology. 2012;159:288298.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Onciu, M. Histiocytic proliferations in childhood. Am J Clin Pathol. 2004;122(S1):S128S136.Google ScholarPubMed
Badalian-Very, G, Vergilio, JA, Degar, BA, MacConaill, LE, Brandner, B, Calicchio, ML, Kuo, FC, Ligon, AH, Stevenson, KE, Kehoe, SM, Garraway, LA, Hahn, WC, Meyerson, M, Fleming, MD, Rollins, BJ. Recurrent BRAF mutations in Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Blood. 2010 Sep;116(11):19191923.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Larsson, LO, Bentzon, MW, Berg, K, Mellander, L, Skoogh, BE, Stranegård, IL. Palpable lymph nodes of the neck in Swedish schoolchildren. Acta Paediatrica. 1994;83:10921094.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Park, YW. Evaluation of neck masses in children. Am Family Physician. 1995;51(8):19041912.Google ScholarPubMed
Yaris, N, Cakir, M, Sözen, E, Cobanoglu, U. Analysis of children with peripheral lymphadenopathy. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2006 Jul;45(6):544549.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Twist, CJ, Link, MP. Assessment of lymphadenopathy in children. Pediatric Clinics of North America. 2000;49:10091025.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chau, I, Kelleher, MT, Cunningham, D, Norman, AR, Wotherspoon, A, Trott, P, Rhys-Evans, P, Querci Della Rovere, G, Brown, G, Allen, M, Waters, JS, Haque, S, Murray, T, Bishop, L. Rapid access multidisciplinary lymph node diagnostic clinic: analysis of 550 patients. Br J Cancer. 2003 Feb 10;88(3):354361.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Montgomery, ND, Mathews, SP, Coward, WB, Rao, KW, Fedoriw, Y. Clonal karyotypic abnormalities associated with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Cancer Cytogenetics. 2013;206(4):135139.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leung, AK and Robson, WL. Childhood cervical lymphadenopathy. J Pediatr Health Care. 2004;18:37.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oguz, A, Karadeniz, C, Temel, EA, Citak, EC, Okur, FV. Evaluation of peripheral lymphadenopathy in children. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2006;23:549561.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moore, SW, Schneider, JW, Schaaf, HS. Diagnostic aspects of cervical lymphadenopathy in children in the developing world: a study of 1,877 surgical specimens. Pediatr Surg Int. 2003;19:240244.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Papadopouli, E, Michailidi, E, Papadopoulou, E, Paspalaki, P, Vlahakis, I, Kalmanti, M. Cervical lymphadenopathy in childhood epidemiology and management. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2009;26:454460.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ramsay, AD. Reactive lymph nodes in pediatric practice. Am J Clin Pathol. 2004;122 (Suppl):S87–97.Google ScholarPubMed
Shaikh, F, Ngan, BY, Alexander, S, Grant, R. Progressive transformation of germinal centers in children and adolescents: an intriguing cause of lymphadenopathy. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013;60:2630.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sato, Y, Inoue, D, Asano, N, et al. Association between IgG4-related disease and progressively transformed germinal centers of lymph nodes. Mod Pathol. 2012;25:956967.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kutok, JL, Wang, F. Spectrum of Epstein-Barr virus-associated diseases. Annu Rev Pathol. 2006;1:375404.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hurt, C, Tammaro, D. Diagnostic evaluation of mononucleosis-like illnesses. Am J Med. 2007;120:911.e1911.e8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ventura, KC, Hudnall, SD. Hematologic differences in heterophile-positive and heterophile-negative infectious mononucleosis. Am J Hematol. 2004;76:315318.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rushin, JM, Riordan, GP, Heaton, RB, Sharpe, RW, Cotelingam, JD, Jaffe, ES. Cytomegalovirus-infected cells express Leu-M1 antigen. A potential source of diagnostic error. Am J Pathol. 1990;136:989995.Google ScholarPubMed
Miller-Catchpole, R, Variakojis, D, Vardiman, JW, Loew, JM, Carter, J. Cat scratch disease. Identification of bacteria in seven cases of lymphadenitis. Am J Surg Pathol. 1986;10:276281.Google ScholarPubMed
Ridder, GJ, Boedeker, CC, Technau-Ihling, K, Sander, A. Cat-scratch disease: otolaryngologic manifestations and management. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;132:353358.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rolain, JM, Gouriet, F, Enea, M, Aboud, M, Raoult, D. Detection by immunofluorescence assay of Bartonella henselae in lymph nodes from patients with cat scratch disease. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2003;10:686691.Google ScholarPubMed
Mouritsen, CL, Litwin, CM, Maiese, RL, Segal, SM, Segal, GH. Rapid polymerase chain reaction-based detection of the causative agent of cat scratch disease (Bartonella henselae) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples. Hum Pathol. 1997;28:820826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hansmann, Y, DeMartino, S, Piemont, Y, et al. Diagnosis of cat scratch disease with detection of Bartonella henselae by PCR: a study of patients with lymph node enlargement. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:38003806.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eapen, M, Mathew, CF, Aravindan, KP. Evidence based criteria for the histopathological diagnosis of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy. J Clin Pathol. 2005;58:11431146.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lin, MH and Kuo, TT. Specificity of the histopathological triad for the diagnosis of toxoplasmic lymphadenitis: polymerase chain reaction study. Pathol Int. 2001;51:619623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Montoya, JG, Huffman, HB, Remington, JS. Evaluation of the immunoglobulin G avidity test for diagnosis of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:46274631.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paul, M. Immunoglobulin G avidity in diagnosis of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy and ocular toxoplasmosis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1999;6:514518.Google ScholarPubMed
Rivano, MT, Falini, B, Stein, H, et al. Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis without granulocytic infiltration (Kikuchi’s lymphadenitis). Morphological and immunohistochemical study of eight cases. Histopathology. 1987;11:10131027.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tsang, WY, Chan, JK, Ng, CS. Kikuchi’s lymphadenitis. A morphologic analysis of 75 cases with special reference to unusual features. Am J Surg Pathol. 1994;18:219231.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eisner, MD, Amory, J, Mullaney, B, Tierney, L Jr, Browner, WS. Necrotizing lymphadenitis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 1996;26:477482.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Biasi, D, Caramaschi, P, Carletto, A, et al. Three clinical reports of Kikuchi’s lymphadenitis combined with systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Rheumatol. 1996;15:8183.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
el-Ramahi, KM, Karrar, A, Ali, MA. Kikuchi disease and its association with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 1994;3:409411.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Abuel-Haija, M, Hurford, MT. Kimura disease. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2007;131:650651.Google ScholarPubMed
Chen, H, Thompson, LD, Aguilera, NS, Abbondanzo, SL. Kimura disease: a clinicopathologic study of 21 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2004;28:505513.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kapoor, NS, O’Neill, JP, Katabi, N, Wong, RJ, Shah, JP. Kimura disease: diagnostic challenges and clinical management. Am J Otolaryngol. 2012;33:259262.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schirren, CG, Eckert, F. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophils. Case report and differentiation from Kimura disease. Hautarzt. 1991;42:107111.Google ScholarPubMed
Carbone, A, Passannante, A, Gloghini, A, Devaney, KO, Rinaldo, A, Ferlito, A. Review of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease) of head and neck. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1999;108:10951104.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Foucar, E, Rosai, J, Dorfman, R. Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease): review of the entity. Semin Diagn Pathol. 1990;7:1973.Google ScholarPubMed
Swerdlow, SH, Campo, E, Harris, NL, Jaffe, ES, Pileri, SA, Stein, H, Thiele, J, Varidman, JW (Eds.), WHO Classification of Tumours of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues, 4th ed. Lyon: IARC, 2008.Google Scholar
Asselin, BA (2011). Epidemiology of childhood and adolescent cancer In Kliegman, RM (Ed.), Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 19th ed. (pp. 17251727). Philadelphia: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Howlader, N, Noone, AM, Krapcho, M, Garshell, J, Miller, D, Altekruse, SF, Kosary, CL, Yu, M, Ruhl, J, Tatalovich, Z,Mariotto, A, Lewis, DR, Chen, HS, Feuer, EJ, Cronin, KA (Eds.), SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2011, Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2011/, based on November 2013 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 2014.Google Scholar
Tubergen, DG, Bleyer, A, Ritchey, AK (2011). The leukemias In Kliegman, RM (Ed.), Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 19th ed. (pp. 17321739). Philadelphia: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ohgami, RS, Arber, DA, Zehnder, JL, Natkunam, Y, and Warnke, RA (2013), Indolent T-lymphoblastic proliferation (iT-LBP): a review of the clinical and pathologic features and distinction from malignant T-lymphoblastic lymphoma, Advances in Anatomic Pathology; 20(3):137–140
Waxman, IM, Hochberg, J, Cairo, MS (2011). Lymphoma In Kliegman, RM (Ed.), Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 19th ed. (pp. 17391746). Philadelphia: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perkins, SL (2007). Hematopoietic system, part 1: bone marrow, peripheral blood and lymphomas In Gilbert-Barnes, E (Ed.), Potter’s Pathology of the Fetus, Infant and Child, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier.Google Scholar
Molyneux, EM, Rochford, R, Griffin, B, Newton, R, Jackson, G, Menon, G, Harrsion, CJ, Israels, T, Bailey, S. Burkitt’s lymphoma. Lancet. 2012;379:12341244.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reiter, A, Klapper, W. Recent advances in the understanding and management of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in children. British Journal of Haematology. 2008;142:329347.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Swerdlow, SH. Pediatric follicular lymphomas, marginal zone lymphomas, and marginal zone hyperplasia. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 2004;122(S1):S89S109.Google ScholarPubMed
Gitelson, E, Al-Saleem, T, Robu, V, Millenson, MM, Smith, MR. Pediatric nodal marginal zone lymphoma may develop in the adult population. Leukemia and Lymphoma. 2010;51(1):8994.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Claviez, A, Meyer, U, Dominick, C, Beck, JF, Rister, M, Tiemann, M. MALT lymphoma in children: a report from the NHL-BFM Study Group. Pediatric Blood and Cancer. 2006;47:210214.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bhuvana, AS, Termuhlen, AM. Rare pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports. 2010 5:163168.Google Scholar
Daw, S, Wynn, R, Wallace, H. Management of relapsed and refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma in children and adolescents. British Journal of Haematology. 2010;152:249260.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shankar, A, Daw, S. Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma in children and adolescents - a comprehensive review of biology, clinical course and treatment options. British Journal of Haematology. 2012;159:288298.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Onciu, M. Histiocytic proliferations in childhood. Am J Clin Pathol. 2004;122(S1):S128S136.Google ScholarPubMed
Badalian-Very, G, Vergilio, JA, Degar, BA, MacConaill, LE, Brandner, B, Calicchio, ML, Kuo, FC, Ligon, AH, Stevenson, KE, Kehoe, SM, Garraway, LA, Hahn, WC, Meyerson, M, Fleming, MD, Rollins, BJ. Recurrent BRAF mutations in Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Blood. 2010 Sep;116(11):19191923.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Swerdlow, SH. Pediatric follicular lymphomas, marginal zone lymphomas, and marginal zone hyperplasia. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 2004;122(S1):S89S109.Google ScholarPubMed
Gitelson, E, Al-Saleem, T, Robu, V, Millenson, MM, Smith, MR. Pediatric nodal marginal zone lymphoma may develop in the adult population. Leukemia and Lymphoma. 2010;51(1):8994.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Claviez, A, Meyer, U, Dominick, C, Beck, JF, Rister, M, Tiemann, M. MALT lymphoma in children: a report from the NHL-BFM Study Group. Pediatric Blood and Cancer. 2006;47:210214.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bhuvana, AS, Termuhlen, AM. Rare pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports. 2010 5:163168.Google Scholar
Daw, S, Wynn, R, Wallace, H. Management of relapsed and refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma in children and adolescents. British Journal of Haematology. 2010;152:249260.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shankar, A, Daw, S. Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma in children and adolescents - a comprehensive review of biology, clinical course and treatment options. British Journal of Haematology. 2012;159:288298.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Onciu, M. Histiocytic proliferations in childhood. Am J Clin Pathol. 2004;122(S1):S128S136.Google ScholarPubMed
Badalian-Very, G, Vergilio, JA, Degar, BA, MacConaill, LE, Brandner, B, Calicchio, ML, Kuo, FC, Ligon, AH, Stevenson, KE, Kehoe, SM, Garraway, LA, Hahn, WC, Meyerson, M, Fleming, MD, Rollins, BJ. Recurrent BRAF mutations in Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Blood. 2010 Sep;116(11):19191923.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Larsson, LO, Bentzon, MW, Berg, K, Mellander, L, Skoogh, BE, Stranegård, IL. Palpable lymph nodes of the neck in Swedish schoolchildren. Acta Paediatrica. 1994;83:10921094.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Park, YW. Evaluation of neck masses in children. Am Family Physician. 1995;51(8):19041912.Google ScholarPubMed
Yaris, N, Cakir, M, Sözen, E, Cobanoglu, U. Analysis of children with peripheral lymphadenopathy. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2006 Jul;45(6):544549.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Twist, CJ, Link, MP. Assessment of lymphadenopathy in children. Pediatric Clinics of North America. 2000;49:10091025.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chau, I, Kelleher, MT, Cunningham, D, Norman, AR, Wotherspoon, A, Trott, P, Rhys-Evans, P, Querci Della Rovere, G, Brown, G, Allen, M, Waters, JS, Haque, S, Murray, T, Bishop, L. Rapid access multidisciplinary lymph node diagnostic clinic: analysis of 550 patients. Br J Cancer. 2003 Feb 10;88(3):354361.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Montgomery, ND, Mathews, SP, Coward, WB, Rao, KW, Fedoriw, Y. Clonal karyotypic abnormalities associated with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Cancer Cytogenetics. 2013;206(4):135139.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leung, AK and Robson, WL. Childhood cervical lymphadenopathy. J Pediatr Health Care. 2004;18:37.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oguz, A, Karadeniz, C, Temel, EA, Citak, EC, Okur, FV. Evaluation of peripheral lymphadenopathy in children. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2006;23:549561.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moore, SW, Schneider, JW, Schaaf, HS. Diagnostic aspects of cervical lymphadenopathy in children in the developing world: a study of 1,877 surgical specimens. Pediatr Surg Int. 2003;19:240244.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Papadopouli, E, Michailidi, E, Papadopoulou, E, Paspalaki, P, Vlahakis, I, Kalmanti, M. Cervical lymphadenopathy in childhood epidemiology and management. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2009;26:454460.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ramsay, AD. Reactive lymph nodes in pediatric practice. Am J Clin Pathol. 2004;122 (Suppl):S87–97.Google ScholarPubMed
Shaikh, F, Ngan, BY, Alexander, S, Grant, R. Progressive transformation of germinal centers in children and adolescents: an intriguing cause of lymphadenopathy. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013;60:2630.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sato, Y, Inoue, D, Asano, N, et al. Association between IgG4-related disease and progressively transformed germinal centers of lymph nodes. Mod Pathol. 2012;25:956967.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kutok, JL, Wang, F. Spectrum of Epstein-Barr virus-associated diseases. Annu Rev Pathol. 2006;1:375404.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hurt, C, Tammaro, D. Diagnostic evaluation of mononucleosis-like illnesses. Am J Med. 2007;120:911.e1911.e8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ventura, KC, Hudnall, SD. Hematologic differences in heterophile-positive and heterophile-negative infectious mononucleosis. Am J Hematol. 2004;76:315318.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rushin, JM, Riordan, GP, Heaton, RB, Sharpe, RW, Cotelingam, JD, Jaffe, ES. Cytomegalovirus-infected cells express Leu-M1 antigen. A potential source of diagnostic error. Am J Pathol. 1990;136:989995.Google ScholarPubMed
Miller-Catchpole, R, Variakojis, D, Vardiman, JW, Loew, JM, Carter, J. Cat scratch disease. Identification of bacteria in seven cases of lymphadenitis. Am J Surg Pathol. 1986;10:276281.Google ScholarPubMed
Ridder, GJ, Boedeker, CC, Technau-Ihling, K, Sander, A. Cat-scratch disease: otolaryngologic manifestations and management. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;132:353358.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rolain, JM, Gouriet, F, Enea, M, Aboud, M, Raoult, D. Detection by immunofluorescence assay of Bartonella henselae in lymph nodes from patients with cat scratch disease. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2003;10:686691.Google ScholarPubMed
Mouritsen, CL, Litwin, CM, Maiese, RL, Segal, SM, Segal, GH. Rapid polymerase chain reaction-based detection of the causative agent of cat scratch disease (Bartonella henselae) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples. Hum Pathol. 1997;28:820826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hansmann, Y, DeMartino, S, Piemont, Y, et al. Diagnosis of cat scratch disease with detection of Bartonella henselae by PCR: a study of patients with lymph node enlargement. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:38003806.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eapen, M, Mathew, CF, Aravindan, KP. Evidence based criteria for the histopathological diagnosis of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy. J Clin Pathol. 2005;58:11431146.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lin, MH and Kuo, TT. Specificity of the histopathological triad for the diagnosis of toxoplasmic lymphadenitis: polymerase chain reaction study. Pathol Int. 2001;51:619623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Montoya, JG, Huffman, HB, Remington, JS. Evaluation of the immunoglobulin G avidity test for diagnosis of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:46274631.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paul, M. Immunoglobulin G avidity in diagnosis of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy and ocular toxoplasmosis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1999;6:514518.Google ScholarPubMed
Rivano, MT, Falini, B, Stein, H, et al. Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis without granulocytic infiltration (Kikuchi’s lymphadenitis). Morphological and immunohistochemical study of eight cases. Histopathology. 1987;11:10131027.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tsang, WY, Chan, JK, Ng, CS. Kikuchi’s lymphadenitis. A morphologic analysis of 75 cases with special reference to unusual features. Am J Surg Pathol. 1994;18:219231.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eisner, MD, Amory, J, Mullaney, B, Tierney, L Jr, Browner, WS. Necrotizing lymphadenitis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 1996;26:477482.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Biasi, D, Caramaschi, P, Carletto, A, et al. Three clinical reports of Kikuchi’s lymphadenitis combined with systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Rheumatol. 1996;15:8183.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
el-Ramahi, KM, Karrar, A, Ali, MA. Kikuchi disease and its association with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 1994;3:409411.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Abuel-Haija, M, Hurford, MT. Kimura disease. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2007;131:650651.Google ScholarPubMed
Chen, H, Thompson, LD, Aguilera, NS, Abbondanzo, SL. Kimura disease: a clinicopathologic study of 21 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2004;28:505513.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kapoor, NS, O’Neill, JP, Katabi, N, Wong, RJ, Shah, JP. Kimura disease: diagnostic challenges and clinical management. Am J Otolaryngol. 2012;33:259262.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schirren, CG, Eckert, F. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophils. Case report and differentiation from Kimura disease. Hautarzt. 1991;42:107111.Google ScholarPubMed
Carbone, A, Passannante, A, Gloghini, A, Devaney, KO, Rinaldo, A, Ferlito, A. Review of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease) of head and neck. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1999;108:10951104.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Foucar, E, Rosai, J, Dorfman, R. Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease): review of the entity. Semin Diagn Pathol. 1990;7:1973.Google ScholarPubMed
Swerdlow, SH, Campo, E, Harris, NL, Jaffe, ES, Pileri, SA, Stein, H, Thiele, J, Varidman, JW (Eds.), WHO Classification of Tumours of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues, 4th ed. Lyon: IARC, 2008.Google Scholar
Asselin, BA (2011). Epidemiology of childhood and adolescent cancer In Kliegman, RM (Ed.), Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 19th ed. (pp. 17251727). Philadelphia: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Howlader, N, Noone, AM, Krapcho, M, Garshell, J, Miller, D, Altekruse, SF, Kosary, CL, Yu, M, Ruhl, J, Tatalovich, Z,Mariotto, A, Lewis, DR, Chen, HS, Feuer, EJ, Cronin, KA (Eds.), SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2011, Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2011/, based on November 2013 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 2014.Google Scholar
Tubergen, DG, Bleyer, A, Ritchey, AK (2011). The leukemias In Kliegman, RM (Ed.), Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 19th ed. (pp. 17321739). Philadelphia: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ohgami, RS, Arber, DA, Zehnder, JL, Natkunam, Y, and Warnke, RA (2013), Indolent T-lymphoblastic proliferation (iT-LBP): a review of the clinical and pathologic features and distinction from malignant T-lymphoblastic lymphoma, Advances in Anatomic Pathology; 20(3):137–140
Waxman, IM, Hochberg, J, Cairo, MS (2011). Lymphoma In Kliegman, RM (Ed.), Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 19th ed. (pp. 17391746). Philadelphia: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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Gitelson, E, Al-Saleem, T, Robu, V, Millenson, MM, Smith, MR. Pediatric nodal marginal zone lymphoma may develop in the adult population. Leukemia and Lymphoma. 2010;51(1):8994.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Claviez, A, Meyer, U, Dominick, C, Beck, JF, Rister, M, Tiemann, M. MALT lymphoma in children: a report from the NHL-BFM Study Group. Pediatric Blood and Cancer. 2006;47:210214.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bhuvana, AS, Termuhlen, AM. Rare pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports. 2010 5:163168.Google Scholar
Daw, S, Wynn, R, Wallace, H. Management of relapsed and refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma in children and adolescents. British Journal of Haematology. 2010;152:249260.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shankar, A, Daw, S. Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma in children and adolescents - a comprehensive review of biology, clinical course and treatment options. British Journal of Haematology. 2012;159:288298.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Onciu, M. Histiocytic proliferations in childhood. Am J Clin Pathol. 2004;122(S1):S128S136.Google ScholarPubMed
Badalian-Very, G, Vergilio, JA, Degar, BA, MacConaill, LE, Brandner, B, Calicchio, ML, Kuo, FC, Ligon, AH, Stevenson, KE, Kehoe, SM, Garraway, LA, Hahn, WC, Meyerson, M, Fleming, MD, Rollins, BJ. Recurrent BRAF mutations in Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Blood. 2010 Sep;116(11):19191923.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Swerdlow, SH. Pediatric follicular lymphomas, marginal zone lymphomas, and marginal zone hyperplasia. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 2004;122(S1):S89S109.Google ScholarPubMed
Gitelson, E, Al-Saleem, T, Robu, V, Millenson, MM, Smith, MR. Pediatric nodal marginal zone lymphoma may develop in the adult population. Leukemia and Lymphoma. 2010;51(1):8994.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Claviez, A, Meyer, U, Dominick, C, Beck, JF, Rister, M, Tiemann, M. MALT lymphoma in children: a report from the NHL-BFM Study Group. Pediatric Blood and Cancer. 2006;47:210214.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bhuvana, AS, Termuhlen, AM. Rare pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports. 2010 5:163168.Google Scholar
Daw, S, Wynn, R, Wallace, H. Management of relapsed and refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma in children and adolescents. British Journal of Haematology. 2010;152:249260.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shankar, A, Daw, S. Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma in children and adolescents - a comprehensive review of biology, clinical course and treatment options. British Journal of Haematology. 2012;159:288298.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Onciu, M. Histiocytic proliferations in childhood. Am J Clin Pathol. 2004;122(S1):S128S136.Google ScholarPubMed
Badalian-Very, G, Vergilio, JA, Degar, BA, MacConaill, LE, Brandner, B, Calicchio, ML, Kuo, FC, Ligon, AH, Stevenson, KE, Kehoe, SM, Garraway, LA, Hahn, WC, Meyerson, M, Fleming, MD, Rollins, BJ. Recurrent BRAF mutations in Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Blood. 2010 Sep;116(11):19191923.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
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Yaris, N, Cakir, M, Sözen, E, Cobanoglu, U. Analysis of children with peripheral lymphadenopathy. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2006 Jul;45(6):544549.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Twist, CJ, Link, MP. Assessment of lymphadenopathy in children. Pediatric Clinics of North America. 2000;49:10091025.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chau, I, Kelleher, MT, Cunningham, D, Norman, AR, Wotherspoon, A, Trott, P, Rhys-Evans, P, Querci Della Rovere, G, Brown, G, Allen, M, Waters, JS, Haque, S, Murray, T, Bishop, L. Rapid access multidisciplinary lymph node diagnostic clinic: analysis of 550 patients. Br J Cancer. 2003 Feb 10;88(3):354361.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Montgomery, ND, Mathews, SP, Coward, WB, Rao, KW, Fedoriw, Y. Clonal karyotypic abnormalities associated with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Cancer Cytogenetics. 2013;206(4):135139.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leung, AK and Robson, WL. Childhood cervical lymphadenopathy. J Pediatr Health Care. 2004;18:37.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oguz, A, Karadeniz, C, Temel, EA, Citak, EC, Okur, FV. Evaluation of peripheral lymphadenopathy in children. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2006;23:549561.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moore, SW, Schneider, JW, Schaaf, HS. Diagnostic aspects of cervical lymphadenopathy in children in the developing world: a study of 1,877 surgical specimens. Pediatr Surg Int. 2003;19:240244.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Papadopouli, E, Michailidi, E, Papadopoulou, E, Paspalaki, P, Vlahakis, I, Kalmanti, M. Cervical lymphadenopathy in childhood epidemiology and management. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2009;26:454460.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ramsay, AD. Reactive lymph nodes in pediatric practice. Am J Clin Pathol. 2004;122 (Suppl):S87–97.Google ScholarPubMed
Shaikh, F, Ngan, BY, Alexander, S, Grant, R. Progressive transformation of germinal centers in children and adolescents: an intriguing cause of lymphadenopathy. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013;60:2630.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sato, Y, Inoue, D, Asano, N, et al. Association between IgG4-related disease and progressively transformed germinal centers of lymph nodes. Mod Pathol. 2012;25:956967.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kutok, JL, Wang, F. Spectrum of Epstein-Barr virus-associated diseases. Annu Rev Pathol. 2006;1:375404.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hurt, C, Tammaro, D. Diagnostic evaluation of mononucleosis-like illnesses. Am J Med. 2007;120:911.e1911.e8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ventura, KC, Hudnall, SD. Hematologic differences in heterophile-positive and heterophile-negative infectious mononucleosis. Am J Hematol. 2004;76:315318.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rushin, JM, Riordan, GP, Heaton, RB, Sharpe, RW, Cotelingam, JD, Jaffe, ES. Cytomegalovirus-infected cells express Leu-M1 antigen. A potential source of diagnostic error. Am J Pathol. 1990;136:989995.Google ScholarPubMed
Miller-Catchpole, R, Variakojis, D, Vardiman, JW, Loew, JM, Carter, J. Cat scratch disease. Identification of bacteria in seven cases of lymphadenitis. Am J Surg Pathol. 1986;10:276281.Google ScholarPubMed
Ridder, GJ, Boedeker, CC, Technau-Ihling, K, Sander, A. Cat-scratch disease: otolaryngologic manifestations and management. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;132:353358.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rolain, JM, Gouriet, F, Enea, M, Aboud, M, Raoult, D. Detection by immunofluorescence assay of Bartonella henselae in lymph nodes from patients with cat scratch disease. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2003;10:686691.Google ScholarPubMed
Mouritsen, CL, Litwin, CM, Maiese, RL, Segal, SM, Segal, GH. Rapid polymerase chain reaction-based detection of the causative agent of cat scratch disease (Bartonella henselae) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples. Hum Pathol. 1997;28:820826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hansmann, Y, DeMartino, S, Piemont, Y, et al. Diagnosis of cat scratch disease with detection of Bartonella henselae by PCR: a study of patients with lymph node enlargement. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:38003806.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eapen, M, Mathew, CF, Aravindan, KP. Evidence based criteria for the histopathological diagnosis of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy. J Clin Pathol. 2005;58:11431146.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lin, MH and Kuo, TT. Specificity of the histopathological triad for the diagnosis of toxoplasmic lymphadenitis: polymerase chain reaction study. Pathol Int. 2001;51:619623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Montoya, JG, Huffman, HB, Remington, JS. Evaluation of the immunoglobulin G avidity test for diagnosis of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:46274631.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paul, M. Immunoglobulin G avidity in diagnosis of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy and ocular toxoplasmosis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1999;6:514518.Google ScholarPubMed
Rivano, MT, Falini, B, Stein, H, et al. Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis without granulocytic infiltration (Kikuchi’s lymphadenitis). Morphological and immunohistochemical study of eight cases. Histopathology. 1987;11:10131027.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tsang, WY, Chan, JK, Ng, CS. Kikuchi’s lymphadenitis. A morphologic analysis of 75 cases with special reference to unusual features. Am J Surg Pathol. 1994;18:219231.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eisner, MD, Amory, J, Mullaney, B, Tierney, L Jr, Browner, WS. Necrotizing lymphadenitis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 1996;26:477482.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Biasi, D, Caramaschi, P, Carletto, A, et al. Three clinical reports of Kikuchi’s lymphadenitis combined with systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Rheumatol. 1996;15:8183.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
el-Ramahi, KM, Karrar, A, Ali, MA. Kikuchi disease and its association with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 1994;3:409411.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Abuel-Haija, M, Hurford, MT. Kimura disease. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2007;131:650651.Google ScholarPubMed
Chen, H, Thompson, LD, Aguilera, NS, Abbondanzo, SL. Kimura disease: a clinicopathologic study of 21 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2004;28:505513.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kapoor, NS, O’Neill, JP, Katabi, N, Wong, RJ, Shah, JP. Kimura disease: diagnostic challenges and clinical management. Am J Otolaryngol. 2012;33:259262.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schirren, CG, Eckert, F. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophils. Case report and differentiation from Kimura disease. Hautarzt. 1991;42:107111.Google ScholarPubMed
Carbone, A, Passannante, A, Gloghini, A, Devaney, KO, Rinaldo, A, Ferlito, A. Review of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease) of head and neck. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1999;108:10951104.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Foucar, E, Rosai, J, Dorfman, R. Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease): review of the entity. Semin Diagn Pathol. 1990;7:1973.Google ScholarPubMed
Swerdlow, SH, Campo, E, Harris, NL, Jaffe, ES, Pileri, SA, Stein, H, Thiele, J, Varidman, JW (Eds.), WHO Classification of Tumours of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues, 4th ed. Lyon: IARC, 2008.Google Scholar
Asselin, BA (2011). Epidemiology of childhood and adolescent cancer In Kliegman, RM (Ed.), Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 19th ed. (pp. 17251727). Philadelphia: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Howlader, N, Noone, AM, Krapcho, M, Garshell, J, Miller, D, Altekruse, SF, Kosary, CL, Yu, M, Ruhl, J, Tatalovich, Z,Mariotto, A, Lewis, DR, Chen, HS, Feuer, EJ, Cronin, KA (Eds.), SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2011, Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2011/, based on November 2013 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 2014.Google Scholar
Tubergen, DG, Bleyer, A, Ritchey, AK (2011). The leukemias In Kliegman, RM (Ed.), Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 19th ed. (pp. 17321739). Philadelphia: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ohgami, RS, Arber, DA, Zehnder, JL, Natkunam, Y, and Warnke, RA (2013), Indolent T-lymphoblastic proliferation (iT-LBP): a review of the clinical and pathologic features and distinction from malignant T-lymphoblastic lymphoma, Advances in Anatomic Pathology; 20(3):137–140
Waxman, IM, Hochberg, J, Cairo, MS (2011). Lymphoma In Kliegman, RM (Ed.), Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 19th ed. (pp. 17391746). Philadelphia: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swerdlow, SH. Pediatric follicular lymphomas, marginal zone lymphomas, and marginal zone hyperplasia. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 2004;122(S1):S89S109.Google ScholarPubMed
Gitelson, E, Al-Saleem, T, Robu, V, Millenson, MM, Smith, MR. Pediatric nodal marginal zone lymphoma may develop in the adult population. Leukemia and Lymphoma. 2010;51(1):8994.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Claviez, A, Meyer, U, Dominick, C, Beck, JF, Rister, M, Tiemann, M. MALT lymphoma in children: a report from the NHL-BFM Study Group. Pediatric Blood and Cancer. 2006;47:210214.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bhuvana, AS, Termuhlen, AM. Rare pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports. 2010 5:163168.Google Scholar
Daw, S, Wynn, R, Wallace, H. Management of relapsed and refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma in children and adolescents. British Journal of Haematology. 2010;152:249260.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shankar, A, Daw, S. Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma in children and adolescents - a comprehensive review of biology, clinical course and treatment options. British Journal of Haematology. 2012;159:288298.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Onciu, M. Histiocytic proliferations in childhood. Am J Clin Pathol. 2004;122(S1):S128S136.Google ScholarPubMed
Badalian-Very, G, Vergilio, JA, Degar, BA, MacConaill, LE, Brandner, B, Calicchio, ML, Kuo, FC, Ligon, AH, Stevenson, KE, Kehoe, SM, Garraway, LA, Hahn, WC, Meyerson, M, Fleming, MD, Rollins, BJ. Recurrent BRAF mutations in Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Blood. 2010 Sep;116(11):19191923.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
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