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Chapter 6 - Oral Epithelial Neoplasms

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 June 2017

Robert O. Greer
Affiliation:
University of Colorado, Denver
Robert E. Marx
Affiliation:
University of Miami
Sherif Said
Affiliation:
University of Colorado, Denver
Lori D. Prok
Affiliation:
University of Colorado, Denver
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Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2016

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References

Primary Sources

Das, S, Das, AK. A review of pediatric oral biopsies from surgical pathology service in a dental school. Pediatr Dent, 1993, 15: 419428.Google Scholar
Sousa, FB, Etges, A, Correa, L, et al. Pediatric oral lesions: a 15 year review from Sao Paolo, Brazil. J Clin Pediatr Dent, 2002, 26: 413418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Al Khateeb, T, Hamasha, AA, Almarsri, NM. Oral and maxillofacial tumors in North Jordanian children and adolescents: a retrospective analysis over 10 years. Internat J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2003, 32: 7883.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eversole, LR. Papillary lesions of the oral cavity: relationship to human papillomaviruses. J Calif Dent Assoc, 2000, 28: 922927.Google ScholarPubMed
Yoshpe, NS. Oral and laryngeal papilloma: a pediatric manifestation of sexually transmitted disease? Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 1995, 31: 7783.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Secondary Sources

Purabnen, M, Yliskoski, M, Saarikoski, S, et al. Vertical transmission of human papillomavirus from infected mothers to their newborn babies and persistence of the virus in childhood. Am J Obst Gynecol, 1996, 174: 694699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Abbey, LM, Page, DG, Sawyer, DR. The clinical and histopathological features of a series of 464 oral squamous cell papillomas. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 1980, 49: 419428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Syrjanen, S, Puranen, M. Human papillomavirus infections in children: the potential role for maternal transmission. Critical Rev Oral Biol Med, 2000, 11: 259274.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dorankula, SP, Ramani, P, Premkumar, P, et al. Verruciform xanthoma of the oral cavity. J Clin Diagn Res, 2013, 7: 17991801.Google ScholarPubMed
Bhalerao, S, Bhat, P, Chhabra, R, et al. Verruciform xanthoma of the buccal mucosa. Contemp Clin Dent, 2012, 3: 257259.Google ScholarPubMed
Phillipsen, HP, Reichart, PA, Takata, T, et al. Verruciform xanthoma – biological profile of 282 oral lesions based on a literature survey with nine new cases. Japan Oral Oncol, 2003, 39: 325336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skully, C. Challenges in predicting which oral mucosal potentially malignant diseases will progress to neoplasia. Oral Dis, 2014, 20: 15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boy, SC. Leukoplakia and erythroplakia of the oral mucosa – a brief overview. SADJ, 2012, 67: 558560.Google ScholarPubMed
Grajewski, S, Quarcoo, D, Uibel, S. A scientometric analysis of leukoplakia and erythroplakia. Laryng Orhgn Otologic, 2012, 89: 210215.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pindborg, JJ, Renstrup, G, Poulsen, HE, et al. Studies in oral leukoplakias: five clinical and histologic signs of malignancy. Acta Odontol Scand, 1963, 21: 407414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mashberg, A, Meyers, H. Anatomical site and size of 222 early asymptomatic oral squamous cell carcinomas: a continuing prospective study of oral cancer. Cancer, 1976, 37: 21492155.3.0.CO;2-G>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rhodus, NL, Ferr, AR, Patel, K. Oral cancer: leukoplakia, premalignancy, and squamous cell carcinoma. Dent Clin North Am, 2014, 58: 315340.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Skordumova, O, Muraev, AA, Volodine, EV, et al. Leukoplakia of the oral mucosa: classification, histopathology, diagnosis and treatment. Vopr Onkol, 2013, 59: 548554.Google Scholar
Hansen, JL, Olsen, JA, Silverman, S. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. A long term study. Oral Surg, 1985, 60: 285290.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shroyer, KR, Greer, RO. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA by in situ DNA hybridization and polymerase chain reaction in premalignant oral lesions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 1991, 77: 708713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shear, M, Pindborg, JJ. Verrucous hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. Cancer, 1980, 46: 18551862.3.0.CO;2-#>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gillenwater, AM, Vigneswaran, N, Fatani, H, et al. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL): a review of an elusive pathologic entity. Adv Anat Pathol, 2013, 20: 416423.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bagan, JV, Jimenez-Soriano, , Diaz-Fernandez, JM, et al. Malignant transformation of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia to oral squamous cell carcinoma: a series of 55 cases. Oral Oncol, 2011, 47: 732735.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Christen, AG, Swanson, BZ, Glover, Ed, et al. Smokeless tobacco: the folklore and social history of snuffing, sneezing, dipping and chewing. J Am Dent Assoc, 1982, 105: 821829.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Christen, AG. The case against smokeless tobacco: five facts for the health professional to consider. J Am Dent Assoc, 1980, 101: 464469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wahlberg, I, Ringberger, T. Smokeless tobacco. In: Davis, DL, Nielsen, MT, editors. Tobacco: Production, Chemistry and Technology. Oxford (United Kingdom): Blackwell Science, 1999, 452460.Google Scholar
Rodu, B. Smokeless tobacco and oral cancer: a review of the risks and determinant. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med, 2004, 15: 252263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Christen, AG, Armstrong, WR, McDaniel, RK. Intraoral leukoplakia, abrasion, periodontal breakdown and tooth loss in a snuff dipper. J Am Dent Assoc, 1979, 98: 584586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greer, RO, Poulson, TC, Boone, ME. Smokeless tobacco associated oral changes in juvenile, adult and geriatric patients: clinical and histomorphologic features. Gerodontics, 1986, 2: 8798.Google ScholarPubMed
Squier, CA. Smokeless tobacco and oral cancer: a cause for concern? CA Cancer J Clin, 1984, 34: 242247.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grady, D, Greene, J, Daniels, TE, et al. Oral mucosal lesions found in smokeless tobacco users. J Am Dent Assoc, 1990, 121: 117123.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greer, RO, Poulson, TC. Oral tissue alterations associated with the use of smokeless tobacco by teenagers. Part I. Clinical findings. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 1983, 56: 275284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pindborg, JJ, Renstrup, G. Studies in oral leukoplakia. I. The influence of snuff on the connective tissue of the oral mucosa. Preliminary report. Acta Pathol Micro-Biol Scand, 1962, 55: 412414.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hirsch, JM, Livian, G, Edwards, S, et al. Tobacco habits among teenagers in the city of Gõteborg, Sweden and possible association with dental caries. Swed Dent J, 1991, 15: 117123.Google ScholarPubMed
Bill, TJ, Reddy, VR, Ries, KL, Gampper, TJ, Hoard, MA. Adolescent gingival squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 2001, 91: 682685.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thompson, L, Castle, J, Heffner, DK. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in pediatric patients: a clinicopathologic study of 20 cases (abstract), Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 1999, 88: 204.Google Scholar
Atula, S, Grenman, R, Laippala, P, Syrjänen, . Cancer of the tongue in patients younger than 40 years. Arch Laryngol Head Neck Surg, 1996, 122: 13131319.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sarkaria, JN, Harari, PM. Oral tongue cancer in young adults less than 40 years of age: rationale for aggressive therapy. Head Neck, 1994, 16: 107111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tsukuda, M, Ooishi, K, Mochimatsu, I, Sato, H. Head and neck carcinomas in patients under the age of forty years. Jpn J Cancer Res, 1993, 84: 748752.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lund, VJ, Howard, DJ. Head and neck cancer in the young: a prognostic conundrum? J Laryngol Otol, 1990, 104: 544548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keukens, F, van Voorst Vader, PC, Panders, AK, et al. Xeroderma pigmentosum: squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Acta Derm Venereol, 1989, 69: 530531.Google ScholarPubMed
Earle, AS, Park, CH, Viastou, . Oral squamous cell carcinoma in children. Ann Plast Surg, 1988, 20: 148152.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sacks, HG, Holly, R, Blum, B, Joy, ED. Case 58: maxillary alveolar mass in a 13-year old boy. J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 1985, 43: 958963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Son, YH, Kapp, DS. Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer in a younger population. Cancer, 55: 1985, 441444.3.0.CO;2-5>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Newman, AN, Rice, DH, Ossoff, RH, Sisson, GA. Carcinoma of the tongue in persons younger than 30 years of age. Arch Otolaryngol, 1983, 109: 302304.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGregor, GI, David, N, Robins, RE. Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and lower oral cavity in patients under 40 years of age. Am J Surg, 1983, 146: 8892.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yagi, K, Ali, AEL G, Abbas, KEL D, Prabhu, SR. Carcinoma of the tongue in a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum, Int J Oral Surg, 1981, 10: 7376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harper, JI, Copeman, PW. Carcinoma of the tongue in a boy with xeroderma pigmentosum. Clin Exp Dermatol, 1981, 6: 601604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krolls, SO, Hoffman, S. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral soft tissues: a statistical analysis of 14,253 cases by age, sex, and race of patients. J Am Dent Assoc, 1976, 92: 571574.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Byers, RM. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue in patients less than thirty years of age. Am J Surg, 1975, 130: 475478.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weitkunat, R, Sanders, E, Lee, PN, et al. Meta-analysis of the relation between European and American smokeless tobacco and oral cancer. BMC Public Health, 2007, 15: 334354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greer, RO, Hoernig, G, Shroyer, KR. Telomerase expression in precancerous oral verrucous leukoplakia. Int J Oral Biol, 1999, 24: 15.Google Scholar
Palefsky, JM, Greenspan, JS, Daniels, TE. Interaction between smokeless tobacco-related carcinogens and human papillomaviruses in the pathogenesis of oral cancer and dysplasia. In: National Institutes of Health Monograph 2, Smokeless Tobacco or Health: An International Perspective. Bethesda (MD): NIH Publication, No. 93-3461; 1993, 175182, Chapter 3.Google Scholar
Greer, RO. Oral manifestations of smokeless tobacco use. Eusterman, VD Meyers, A, eds Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 2011, 44: 3156.Google Scholar
Hashibe, M, Brenan, P, Shu-chun, C, et al. Interaction between tobacco and alcohol use and the risk of head and neck cancer: pooled analysis in the intermitronal head and neck epidemiology consortium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2009, 18: 541550.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gale, N, Zidar, N, Poljak, M, et al. Current views and perspectives on classification of squamous intraepithelial lesions of the head and neck. Head and Neck Pathol, 2014, 16–23.Google Scholar
Edwards, PC. The natural history of oral epithelial dysplasia: perspective on Dost et al. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol, 2014, 117: 262266.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nobusawa, A, Sano, T, Negishi, A. Immunohistochemical staining patterns of cytokeratins 13, 14 and 17 in oral epithelial dysplasia including orthokeratotic dysplasia. Pathol Int, 2014, 64: 200207.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dost, F, LeCao, KA, Ford, PJ. A retrospective analysis of clinical features of oral malignant and potentially malignant disorders with and without oral epithelial dysplasia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol, 2013, 116: 725733.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arnaoutakis, D, Bishop, J, Westra, W, et al. Recurrence patterns and management of oral cavity premalignant lesions. Oral Oncol, 2013, 49: 814817.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Christensen, A, Kristensen, E, Thekildsen, MH, et al. Ten year retrospective study of head and neck carcinoma in situ. Incidence, treatment and clinical outcome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol, 2013, 116: 174178.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arsenic, R, Kurrer, MO. Differentiated dysplasia is a frequent precursor or associated lesion in invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and pharynx. Virchous Arch, 2013, 462: 609617.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morris, LB, Ganly, I. Outcomes of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma in pediatric patients. Oral Oncol, 2010, 46: 292296.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bill, TJ, Reddy, VR, Ries, KL, et al. Adolescent gingival squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 2001, 91: 682685.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Byers, RM. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue in patients less than thirty years of age. Am J Surg, 1975, 130: 475478.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Earle, AS, Park, CH, Vlastou, C. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in children. Ann Plast Surg, 1988, 20: 148152.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shroyer, KR, Greer, RO, Frankhouser, CA, et al. Detection of human papillomavirus in oral verrucous carcinoma by polymerase chain reaction. Mod Pathol, 1993, 6: 669672.Google ScholarPubMed
Liu, O, Zhang, H, Wang, Y, et al. Stereology study of oral verrucous carcinoma. J Bunon, 2012, 17: 343349.Google ScholarPubMed
Alkan, A, Bulut, E, Gunhan, O. Oral verrucous carcinoma: a study of 12 cases. Eur J Dent, 2012, 4: 202207.Google ScholarPubMed
Ackerman, LV. Verrucous carcinoma of the oral cavity. Surgery, 1948, 23: 670678.Google ScholarPubMed
Das, S, Das, AK. A review of pediatric oral biopsies from surgical pathology service in a dental school. Pediatr Dent, 1993, 15: 419428.Google Scholar
Sousa, FB, Etges, A, Correa, L, et al. Pediatric oral lesions: a 15 year review from Sao Paolo, Brazil. J Clin Pediatr Dent, 2002, 26: 413418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Al Khateeb, T, Hamasha, AA, Almarsri, NM. Oral and maxillofacial tumors in North Jordanian children and adolescents: a retrospective analysis over 10 years. Internat J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2003, 32: 7883.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eversole, LR. Papillary lesions of the oral cavity: relationship to human papillomaviruses. J Calif Dent Assoc, 2000, 28: 922927.Google ScholarPubMed
Yoshpe, NS. Oral and laryngeal papilloma: a pediatric manifestation of sexually transmitted disease? Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 1995, 31: 7783.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Purabnen, M, Yliskoski, M, Saarikoski, S, et al. Vertical transmission of human papillomavirus from infected mothers to their newborn babies and persistence of the virus in childhood. Am J Obst Gynecol, 1996, 174: 694699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Abbey, LM, Page, DG, Sawyer, DR. The clinical and histopathological features of a series of 464 oral squamous cell papillomas. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 1980, 49: 419428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Syrjanen, S, Puranen, M. Human papillomavirus infections in children: the potential role for maternal transmission. Critical Rev Oral Biol Med, 2000, 11: 259274.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dorankula, SP, Ramani, P, Premkumar, P, et al. Verruciform xanthoma of the oral cavity. J Clin Diagn Res, 2013, 7: 17991801.Google ScholarPubMed
Bhalerao, S, Bhat, P, Chhabra, R, et al. Verruciform xanthoma of the buccal mucosa. Contemp Clin Dent, 2012, 3: 257259.Google ScholarPubMed
Phillipsen, HP, Reichart, PA, Takata, T, et al. Verruciform xanthoma – biological profile of 282 oral lesions based on a literature survey with nine new cases. Japan Oral Oncol, 2003, 39: 325336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skully, C. Challenges in predicting which oral mucosal potentially malignant diseases will progress to neoplasia. Oral Dis, 2014, 20: 15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boy, SC. Leukoplakia and erythroplakia of the oral mucosa – a brief overview. SADJ, 2012, 67: 558560.Google ScholarPubMed
Grajewski, S, Quarcoo, D, Uibel, S. A scientometric analysis of leukoplakia and erythroplakia. Laryng Orhgn Otologic, 2012, 89: 210215.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pindborg, JJ, Renstrup, G, Poulsen, HE, et al. Studies in oral leukoplakias: five clinical and histologic signs of malignancy. Acta Odontol Scand, 1963, 21: 407414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mashberg, A, Meyers, H. Anatomical site and size of 222 early asymptomatic oral squamous cell carcinomas: a continuing prospective study of oral cancer. Cancer, 1976, 37: 21492155.3.0.CO;2-G>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rhodus, NL, Ferr, AR, Patel, K. Oral cancer: leukoplakia, premalignancy, and squamous cell carcinoma. Dent Clin North Am, 2014, 58: 315340.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Skordumova, O, Muraev, AA, Volodine, EV, et al. Leukoplakia of the oral mucosa: classification, histopathology, diagnosis and treatment. Vopr Onkol, 2013, 59: 548554.Google Scholar
Hansen, JL, Olsen, JA, Silverman, S. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. A long term study. Oral Surg, 1985, 60: 285290.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shroyer, KR, Greer, RO. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA by in situ DNA hybridization and polymerase chain reaction in premalignant oral lesions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 1991, 77: 708713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shear, M, Pindborg, JJ. Verrucous hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. Cancer, 1980, 46: 18551862.3.0.CO;2-#>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gillenwater, AM, Vigneswaran, N, Fatani, H, et al. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL): a review of an elusive pathologic entity. Adv Anat Pathol, 2013, 20: 416423.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bagan, JV, Jimenez-Soriano, , Diaz-Fernandez, JM, et al. Malignant transformation of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia to oral squamous cell carcinoma: a series of 55 cases. Oral Oncol, 2011, 47: 732735.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Christen, AG, Swanson, BZ, Glover, Ed, et al. Smokeless tobacco: the folklore and social history of snuffing, sneezing, dipping and chewing. J Am Dent Assoc, 1982, 105: 821829.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Christen, AG. The case against smokeless tobacco: five facts for the health professional to consider. J Am Dent Assoc, 1980, 101: 464469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wahlberg, I, Ringberger, T. Smokeless tobacco. In: Davis, DL, Nielsen, MT, editors. Tobacco: Production, Chemistry and Technology. Oxford (United Kingdom): Blackwell Science, 1999, 452460.Google Scholar
Rodu, B. Smokeless tobacco and oral cancer: a review of the risks and determinant. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med, 2004, 15: 252263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Christen, AG, Armstrong, WR, McDaniel, RK. Intraoral leukoplakia, abrasion, periodontal breakdown and tooth loss in a snuff dipper. J Am Dent Assoc, 1979, 98: 584586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greer, RO, Poulson, TC, Boone, ME. Smokeless tobacco associated oral changes in juvenile, adult and geriatric patients: clinical and histomorphologic features. Gerodontics, 1986, 2: 8798.Google ScholarPubMed
Squier, CA. Smokeless tobacco and oral cancer: a cause for concern? CA Cancer J Clin, 1984, 34: 242247.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grady, D, Greene, J, Daniels, TE, et al. Oral mucosal lesions found in smokeless tobacco users. J Am Dent Assoc, 1990, 121: 117123.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greer, RO, Poulson, TC. Oral tissue alterations associated with the use of smokeless tobacco by teenagers. Part I. Clinical findings. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 1983, 56: 275284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pindborg, JJ, Renstrup, G. Studies in oral leukoplakia. I. The influence of snuff on the connective tissue of the oral mucosa. Preliminary report. Acta Pathol Micro-Biol Scand, 1962, 55: 412414.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hirsch, JM, Livian, G, Edwards, S, et al. Tobacco habits among teenagers in the city of Gõteborg, Sweden and possible association with dental caries. Swed Dent J, 1991, 15: 117123.Google ScholarPubMed
Bill, TJ, Reddy, VR, Ries, KL, Gampper, TJ, Hoard, MA. Adolescent gingival squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 2001, 91: 682685.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thompson, L, Castle, J, Heffner, DK. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in pediatric patients: a clinicopathologic study of 20 cases (abstract), Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 1999, 88: 204.Google Scholar
Atula, S, Grenman, R, Laippala, P, Syrjänen, . Cancer of the tongue in patients younger than 40 years. Arch Laryngol Head Neck Surg, 1996, 122: 13131319.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sarkaria, JN, Harari, PM. Oral tongue cancer in young adults less than 40 years of age: rationale for aggressive therapy. Head Neck, 1994, 16: 107111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tsukuda, M, Ooishi, K, Mochimatsu, I, Sato, H. Head and neck carcinomas in patients under the age of forty years. Jpn J Cancer Res, 1993, 84: 748752.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lund, VJ, Howard, DJ. Head and neck cancer in the young: a prognostic conundrum? J Laryngol Otol, 1990, 104: 544548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keukens, F, van Voorst Vader, PC, Panders, AK, et al. Xeroderma pigmentosum: squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Acta Derm Venereol, 1989, 69: 530531.Google ScholarPubMed
Earle, AS, Park, CH, Viastou, . Oral squamous cell carcinoma in children. Ann Plast Surg, 1988, 20: 148152.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sacks, HG, Holly, R, Blum, B, Joy, ED. Case 58: maxillary alveolar mass in a 13-year old boy. J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 1985, 43: 958963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Son, YH, Kapp, DS. Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer in a younger population. Cancer, 55: 1985, 441444.3.0.CO;2-5>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Newman, AN, Rice, DH, Ossoff, RH, Sisson, GA. Carcinoma of the tongue in persons younger than 30 years of age. Arch Otolaryngol, 1983, 109: 302304.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGregor, GI, David, N, Robins, RE. Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and lower oral cavity in patients under 40 years of age. Am J Surg, 1983, 146: 8892.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yagi, K, Ali, AEL G, Abbas, KEL D, Prabhu, SR. Carcinoma of the tongue in a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum, Int J Oral Surg, 1981, 10: 7376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harper, JI, Copeman, PW. Carcinoma of the tongue in a boy with xeroderma pigmentosum. Clin Exp Dermatol, 1981, 6: 601604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krolls, SO, Hoffman, S. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral soft tissues: a statistical analysis of 14,253 cases by age, sex, and race of patients. J Am Dent Assoc, 1976, 92: 571574.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Byers, RM. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue in patients less than thirty years of age. Am J Surg, 1975, 130: 475478.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weitkunat, R, Sanders, E, Lee, PN, et al. Meta-analysis of the relation between European and American smokeless tobacco and oral cancer. BMC Public Health, 2007, 15: 334354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greer, RO, Hoernig, G, Shroyer, KR. Telomerase expression in precancerous oral verrucous leukoplakia. Int J Oral Biol, 1999, 24: 15.Google Scholar
Palefsky, JM, Greenspan, JS, Daniels, TE. Interaction between smokeless tobacco-related carcinogens and human papillomaviruses in the pathogenesis of oral cancer and dysplasia. In: National Institutes of Health Monograph 2, Smokeless Tobacco or Health: An International Perspective. Bethesda (MD): NIH Publication, No. 93-3461; 1993, 175182, Chapter 3.Google Scholar
Greer, RO. Oral manifestations of smokeless tobacco use. Eusterman, VD Meyers, A, eds Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 2011, 44: 3156.Google Scholar
Hashibe, M, Brenan, P, Shu-chun, C, et al. Interaction between tobacco and alcohol use and the risk of head and neck cancer: pooled analysis in the intermitronal head and neck epidemiology consortium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2009, 18: 541550.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gale, N, Zidar, N, Poljak, M, et al. Current views and perspectives on classification of squamous intraepithelial lesions of the head and neck. Head and Neck Pathol, 2014, 16–23.Google Scholar
Edwards, PC. The natural history of oral epithelial dysplasia: perspective on Dost et al. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol, 2014, 117: 262266.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nobusawa, A, Sano, T, Negishi, A. Immunohistochemical staining patterns of cytokeratins 13, 14 and 17 in oral epithelial dysplasia including orthokeratotic dysplasia. Pathol Int, 2014, 64: 200207.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dost, F, LeCao, KA, Ford, PJ. A retrospective analysis of clinical features of oral malignant and potentially malignant disorders with and without oral epithelial dysplasia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol, 2013, 116: 725733.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arnaoutakis, D, Bishop, J, Westra, W, et al. Recurrence patterns and management of oral cavity premalignant lesions. Oral Oncol, 2013, 49: 814817.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Christensen, A, Kristensen, E, Thekildsen, MH, et al. Ten year retrospective study of head and neck carcinoma in situ. Incidence, treatment and clinical outcome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol, 2013, 116: 174178.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arsenic, R, Kurrer, MO. Differentiated dysplasia is a frequent precursor or associated lesion in invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and pharynx. Virchous Arch, 2013, 462: 609617.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morris, LB, Ganly, I. Outcomes of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma in pediatric patients. Oral Oncol, 2010, 46: 292296.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bill, TJ, Reddy, VR, Ries, KL, et al. Adolescent gingival squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 2001, 91: 682685.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Byers, RM. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue in patients less than thirty years of age. Am J Surg, 1975, 130: 475478.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Earle, AS, Park, CH, Vlastou, C. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in children. Ann Plast Surg, 1988, 20: 148152.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shroyer, KR, Greer, RO, Frankhouser, CA, et al. Detection of human papillomavirus in oral verrucous carcinoma by polymerase chain reaction. Mod Pathol, 1993, 6: 669672.Google ScholarPubMed
Liu, O, Zhang, H, Wang, Y, et al. Stereology study of oral verrucous carcinoma. J Bunon, 2012, 17: 343349.Google ScholarPubMed
Alkan, A, Bulut, E, Gunhan, O. Oral verrucous carcinoma: a study of 12 cases. Eur J Dent, 2012, 4: 202207.Google ScholarPubMed
Ackerman, LV. Verrucous carcinoma of the oral cavity. Surgery, 1948, 23: 670678.Google ScholarPubMed
Das, S, Das, AK. A review of pediatric oral biopsies from surgical pathology service in a dental school. Pediatr Dent, 1993, 15: 419428.Google Scholar
Sousa, FB, Etges, A, Correa, L, et al. Pediatric oral lesions: a 15 year review from Sao Paolo, Brazil. J Clin Pediatr Dent, 2002, 26: 413418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Al Khateeb, T, Hamasha, AA, Almarsri, NM. Oral and maxillofacial tumors in North Jordanian children and adolescents: a retrospective analysis over 10 years. Internat J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2003, 32: 7883.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eversole, LR. Papillary lesions of the oral cavity: relationship to human papillomaviruses. J Calif Dent Assoc, 2000, 28: 922927.Google ScholarPubMed
Yoshpe, NS. Oral and laryngeal papilloma: a pediatric manifestation of sexually transmitted disease? Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 1995, 31: 7783.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Purabnen, M, Yliskoski, M, Saarikoski, S, et al. Vertical transmission of human papillomavirus from infected mothers to their newborn babies and persistence of the virus in childhood. Am J Obst Gynecol, 1996, 174: 694699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Abbey, LM, Page, DG, Sawyer, DR. The clinical and histopathological features of a series of 464 oral squamous cell papillomas. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 1980, 49: 419428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Syrjanen, S, Puranen, M. Human papillomavirus infections in children: the potential role for maternal transmission. Critical Rev Oral Biol Med, 2000, 11: 259274.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dorankula, SP, Ramani, P, Premkumar, P, et al. Verruciform xanthoma of the oral cavity. J Clin Diagn Res, 2013, 7: 17991801.Google ScholarPubMed
Bhalerao, S, Bhat, P, Chhabra, R, et al. Verruciform xanthoma of the buccal mucosa. Contemp Clin Dent, 2012, 3: 257259.Google ScholarPubMed
Phillipsen, HP, Reichart, PA, Takata, T, et al. Verruciform xanthoma – biological profile of 282 oral lesions based on a literature survey with nine new cases. Japan Oral Oncol, 2003, 39: 325336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skully, C. Challenges in predicting which oral mucosal potentially malignant diseases will progress to neoplasia. Oral Dis, 2014, 20: 15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boy, SC. Leukoplakia and erythroplakia of the oral mucosa – a brief overview. SADJ, 2012, 67: 558560.Google ScholarPubMed
Grajewski, S, Quarcoo, D, Uibel, S. A scientometric analysis of leukoplakia and erythroplakia. Laryng Orhgn Otologic, 2012, 89: 210215.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pindborg, JJ, Renstrup, G, Poulsen, HE, et al. Studies in oral leukoplakias: five clinical and histologic signs of malignancy. Acta Odontol Scand, 1963, 21: 407414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mashberg, A, Meyers, H. Anatomical site and size of 222 early asymptomatic oral squamous cell carcinomas: a continuing prospective study of oral cancer. Cancer, 1976, 37: 21492155.3.0.CO;2-G>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rhodus, NL, Ferr, AR, Patel, K. Oral cancer: leukoplakia, premalignancy, and squamous cell carcinoma. Dent Clin North Am, 2014, 58: 315340.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Skordumova, O, Muraev, AA, Volodine, EV, et al. Leukoplakia of the oral mucosa: classification, histopathology, diagnosis and treatment. Vopr Onkol, 2013, 59: 548554.Google Scholar
Hansen, JL, Olsen, JA, Silverman, S. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. A long term study. Oral Surg, 1985, 60: 285290.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shroyer, KR, Greer, RO. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA by in situ DNA hybridization and polymerase chain reaction in premalignant oral lesions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 1991, 77: 708713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shear, M, Pindborg, JJ. Verrucous hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. Cancer, 1980, 46: 18551862.3.0.CO;2-#>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gillenwater, AM, Vigneswaran, N, Fatani, H, et al. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL): a review of an elusive pathologic entity. Adv Anat Pathol, 2013, 20: 416423.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bagan, JV, Jimenez-Soriano, , Diaz-Fernandez, JM, et al. Malignant transformation of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia to oral squamous cell carcinoma: a series of 55 cases. Oral Oncol, 2011, 47: 732735.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Christen, AG, Swanson, BZ, Glover, Ed, et al. Smokeless tobacco: the folklore and social history of snuffing, sneezing, dipping and chewing. J Am Dent Assoc, 1982, 105: 821829.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Christen, AG. The case against smokeless tobacco: five facts for the health professional to consider. J Am Dent Assoc, 1980, 101: 464469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wahlberg, I, Ringberger, T. Smokeless tobacco. In: Davis, DL, Nielsen, MT, editors. Tobacco: Production, Chemistry and Technology. Oxford (United Kingdom): Blackwell Science, 1999, 452460.Google Scholar
Rodu, B. Smokeless tobacco and oral cancer: a review of the risks and determinant. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med, 2004, 15: 252263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Christen, AG, Armstrong, WR, McDaniel, RK. Intraoral leukoplakia, abrasion, periodontal breakdown and tooth loss in a snuff dipper. J Am Dent Assoc, 1979, 98: 584586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greer, RO, Poulson, TC, Boone, ME. Smokeless tobacco associated oral changes in juvenile, adult and geriatric patients: clinical and histomorphologic features. Gerodontics, 1986, 2: 8798.Google ScholarPubMed
Squier, CA. Smokeless tobacco and oral cancer: a cause for concern? CA Cancer J Clin, 1984, 34: 242247.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grady, D, Greene, J, Daniels, TE, et al. Oral mucosal lesions found in smokeless tobacco users. J Am Dent Assoc, 1990, 121: 117123.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greer, RO, Poulson, TC. Oral tissue alterations associated with the use of smokeless tobacco by teenagers. Part I. Clinical findings. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 1983, 56: 275284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pindborg, JJ, Renstrup, G. Studies in oral leukoplakia. I. The influence of snuff on the connective tissue of the oral mucosa. Preliminary report. Acta Pathol Micro-Biol Scand, 1962, 55: 412414.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hirsch, JM, Livian, G, Edwards, S, et al. Tobacco habits among teenagers in the city of Gõteborg, Sweden and possible association with dental caries. Swed Dent J, 1991, 15: 117123.Google ScholarPubMed
Bill, TJ, Reddy, VR, Ries, KL, Gampper, TJ, Hoard, MA. Adolescent gingival squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 2001, 91: 682685.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thompson, L, Castle, J, Heffner, DK. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in pediatric patients: a clinicopathologic study of 20 cases (abstract), Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 1999, 88: 204.Google Scholar
Atula, S, Grenman, R, Laippala, P, Syrjänen, . Cancer of the tongue in patients younger than 40 years. Arch Laryngol Head Neck Surg, 1996, 122: 13131319.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sarkaria, JN, Harari, PM. Oral tongue cancer in young adults less than 40 years of age: rationale for aggressive therapy. Head Neck, 1994, 16: 107111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tsukuda, M, Ooishi, K, Mochimatsu, I, Sato, H. Head and neck carcinomas in patients under the age of forty years. Jpn J Cancer Res, 1993, 84: 748752.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lund, VJ, Howard, DJ. Head and neck cancer in the young: a prognostic conundrum? J Laryngol Otol, 1990, 104: 544548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keukens, F, van Voorst Vader, PC, Panders, AK, et al. Xeroderma pigmentosum: squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Acta Derm Venereol, 1989, 69: 530531.Google ScholarPubMed
Earle, AS, Park, CH, Viastou, . Oral squamous cell carcinoma in children. Ann Plast Surg, 1988, 20: 148152.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sacks, HG, Holly, R, Blum, B, Joy, ED. Case 58: maxillary alveolar mass in a 13-year old boy. J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 1985, 43: 958963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Son, YH, Kapp, DS. Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer in a younger population. Cancer, 55: 1985, 441444.3.0.CO;2-5>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Newman, AN, Rice, DH, Ossoff, RH, Sisson, GA. Carcinoma of the tongue in persons younger than 30 years of age. Arch Otolaryngol, 1983, 109: 302304.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGregor, GI, David, N, Robins, RE. Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and lower oral cavity in patients under 40 years of age. Am J Surg, 1983, 146: 8892.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yagi, K, Ali, AEL G, Abbas, KEL D, Prabhu, SR. Carcinoma of the tongue in a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum, Int J Oral Surg, 1981, 10: 7376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harper, JI, Copeman, PW. Carcinoma of the tongue in a boy with xeroderma pigmentosum. Clin Exp Dermatol, 1981, 6: 601604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krolls, SO, Hoffman, S. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral soft tissues: a statistical analysis of 14,253 cases by age, sex, and race of patients. J Am Dent Assoc, 1976, 92: 571574.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Byers, RM. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue in patients less than thirty years of age. Am J Surg, 1975, 130: 475478.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weitkunat, R, Sanders, E, Lee, PN, et al. Meta-analysis of the relation between European and American smokeless tobacco and oral cancer. BMC Public Health, 2007, 15: 334354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greer, RO, Hoernig, G, Shroyer, KR. Telomerase expression in precancerous oral verrucous leukoplakia. Int J Oral Biol, 1999, 24: 15.Google Scholar
Palefsky, JM, Greenspan, JS, Daniels, TE. Interaction between smokeless tobacco-related carcinogens and human papillomaviruses in the pathogenesis of oral cancer and dysplasia. In: National Institutes of Health Monograph 2, Smokeless Tobacco or Health: An International Perspective. Bethesda (MD): NIH Publication, No. 93-3461; 1993, 175182, Chapter 3.Google Scholar
Greer, RO. Oral manifestations of smokeless tobacco use. Eusterman, VD Meyers, A, eds Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 2011, 44: 3156.Google Scholar
Hashibe, M, Brenan, P, Shu-chun, C, et al. Interaction between tobacco and alcohol use and the risk of head and neck cancer: pooled analysis in the intermitronal head and neck epidemiology consortium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2009, 18: 541550.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gale, N, Zidar, N, Poljak, M, et al. Current views and perspectives on classification of squamous intraepithelial lesions of the head and neck. Head and Neck Pathol, 2014, 16–23.Google Scholar
Edwards, PC. The natural history of oral epithelial dysplasia: perspective on Dost et al. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol, 2014, 117: 262266.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nobusawa, A, Sano, T, Negishi, A. Immunohistochemical staining patterns of cytokeratins 13, 14 and 17 in oral epithelial dysplasia including orthokeratotic dysplasia. Pathol Int, 2014, 64: 200207.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dost, F, LeCao, KA, Ford, PJ. A retrospective analysis of clinical features of oral malignant and potentially malignant disorders with and without oral epithelial dysplasia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol, 2013, 116: 725733.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arnaoutakis, D, Bishop, J, Westra, W, et al. Recurrence patterns and management of oral cavity premalignant lesions. Oral Oncol, 2013, 49: 814817.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Christensen, A, Kristensen, E, Thekildsen, MH, et al. Ten year retrospective study of head and neck carcinoma in situ. Incidence, treatment and clinical outcome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol, 2013, 116: 174178.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arsenic, R, Kurrer, MO. Differentiated dysplasia is a frequent precursor or associated lesion in invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and pharynx. Virchous Arch, 2013, 462: 609617.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morris, LB, Ganly, I. Outcomes of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma in pediatric patients. Oral Oncol, 2010, 46: 292296.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bill, TJ, Reddy, VR, Ries, KL, et al. Adolescent gingival squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 2001, 91: 682685.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Byers, RM. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue in patients less than thirty years of age. Am J Surg, 1975, 130: 475478.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Earle, AS, Park, CH, Vlastou, C. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in children. Ann Plast Surg, 1988, 20: 148152.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shroyer, KR, Greer, RO, Frankhouser, CA, et al. Detection of human papillomavirus in oral verrucous carcinoma by polymerase chain reaction. Mod Pathol, 1993, 6: 669672.Google ScholarPubMed
Liu, O, Zhang, H, Wang, Y, et al. Stereology study of oral verrucous carcinoma. J Bunon, 2012, 17: 343349.Google ScholarPubMed
Alkan, A, Bulut, E, Gunhan, O. Oral verrucous carcinoma: a study of 12 cases. Eur J Dent, 2012, 4: 202207.Google ScholarPubMed
Ackerman, LV. Verrucous carcinoma of the oral cavity. Surgery, 1948, 23: 670678.Google ScholarPubMed
Das, S, Das, AK. A review of pediatric oral biopsies from surgical pathology service in a dental school. Pediatr Dent, 1993, 15: 419428.Google Scholar
Sousa, FB, Etges, A, Correa, L, et al. Pediatric oral lesions: a 15 year review from Sao Paolo, Brazil. J Clin Pediatr Dent, 2002, 26: 413418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Al Khateeb, T, Hamasha, AA, Almarsri, NM. Oral and maxillofacial tumors in North Jordanian children and adolescents: a retrospective analysis over 10 years. Internat J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2003, 32: 7883.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eversole, LR. Papillary lesions of the oral cavity: relationship to human papillomaviruses. J Calif Dent Assoc, 2000, 28: 922927.Google ScholarPubMed
Yoshpe, NS. Oral and laryngeal papilloma: a pediatric manifestation of sexually transmitted disease? Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 1995, 31: 7783.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Purabnen, M, Yliskoski, M, Saarikoski, S, et al. Vertical transmission of human papillomavirus from infected mothers to their newborn babies and persistence of the virus in childhood. Am J Obst Gynecol, 1996, 174: 694699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Abbey, LM, Page, DG, Sawyer, DR. The clinical and histopathological features of a series of 464 oral squamous cell papillomas. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 1980, 49: 419428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Syrjanen, S, Puranen, M. Human papillomavirus infections in children: the potential role for maternal transmission. Critical Rev Oral Biol Med, 2000, 11: 259274.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dorankula, SP, Ramani, P, Premkumar, P, et al. Verruciform xanthoma of the oral cavity. J Clin Diagn Res, 2013, 7: 17991801.Google ScholarPubMed
Bhalerao, S, Bhat, P, Chhabra, R, et al. Verruciform xanthoma of the buccal mucosa. Contemp Clin Dent, 2012, 3: 257259.Google ScholarPubMed
Phillipsen, HP, Reichart, PA, Takata, T, et al. Verruciform xanthoma – biological profile of 282 oral lesions based on a literature survey with nine new cases. Japan Oral Oncol, 2003, 39: 325336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skully, C. Challenges in predicting which oral mucosal potentially malignant diseases will progress to neoplasia. Oral Dis, 2014, 20: 15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boy, SC. Leukoplakia and erythroplakia of the oral mucosa – a brief overview. SADJ, 2012, 67: 558560.Google ScholarPubMed
Grajewski, S, Quarcoo, D, Uibel, S. A scientometric analysis of leukoplakia and erythroplakia. Laryng Orhgn Otologic, 2012, 89: 210215.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pindborg, JJ, Renstrup, G, Poulsen, HE, et al. Studies in oral leukoplakias: five clinical and histologic signs of malignancy. Acta Odontol Scand, 1963, 21: 407414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mashberg, A, Meyers, H. Anatomical site and size of 222 early asymptomatic oral squamous cell carcinomas: a continuing prospective study of oral cancer. Cancer, 1976, 37: 21492155.3.0.CO;2-G>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rhodus, NL, Ferr, AR, Patel, K. Oral cancer: leukoplakia, premalignancy, and squamous cell carcinoma. Dent Clin North Am, 2014, 58: 315340.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Skordumova, O, Muraev, AA, Volodine, EV, et al. Leukoplakia of the oral mucosa: classification, histopathology, diagnosis and treatment. Vopr Onkol, 2013, 59: 548554.Google Scholar
Hansen, JL, Olsen, JA, Silverman, S. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. A long term study. Oral Surg, 1985, 60: 285290.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shroyer, KR, Greer, RO. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA by in situ DNA hybridization and polymerase chain reaction in premalignant oral lesions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 1991, 77: 708713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shear, M, Pindborg, JJ. Verrucous hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. Cancer, 1980, 46: 18551862.3.0.CO;2-#>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gillenwater, AM, Vigneswaran, N, Fatani, H, et al. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL): a review of an elusive pathologic entity. Adv Anat Pathol, 2013, 20: 416423.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bagan, JV, Jimenez-Soriano, , Diaz-Fernandez, JM, et al. Malignant transformation of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia to oral squamous cell carcinoma: a series of 55 cases. Oral Oncol, 2011, 47: 732735.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Christen, AG, Swanson, BZ, Glover, Ed, et al. Smokeless tobacco: the folklore and social history of snuffing, sneezing, dipping and chewing. J Am Dent Assoc, 1982, 105: 821829.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Christen, AG. The case against smokeless tobacco: five facts for the health professional to consider. J Am Dent Assoc, 1980, 101: 464469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wahlberg, I, Ringberger, T. Smokeless tobacco. In: Davis, DL, Nielsen, MT, editors. Tobacco: Production, Chemistry and Technology. Oxford (United Kingdom): Blackwell Science, 1999, 452460.Google Scholar
Rodu, B. Smokeless tobacco and oral cancer: a review of the risks and determinant. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med, 2004, 15: 252263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Christen, AG, Armstrong, WR, McDaniel, RK. Intraoral leukoplakia, abrasion, periodontal breakdown and tooth loss in a snuff dipper. J Am Dent Assoc, 1979, 98: 584586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greer, RO, Poulson, TC, Boone, ME. Smokeless tobacco associated oral changes in juvenile, adult and geriatric patients: clinical and histomorphologic features. Gerodontics, 1986, 2: 8798.Google ScholarPubMed
Squier, CA. Smokeless tobacco and oral cancer: a cause for concern? CA Cancer J Clin, 1984, 34: 242247.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grady, D, Greene, J, Daniels, TE, et al. Oral mucosal lesions found in smokeless tobacco users. J Am Dent Assoc, 1990, 121: 117123.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greer, RO, Poulson, TC. Oral tissue alterations associated with the use of smokeless tobacco by teenagers. Part I. Clinical findings. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 1983, 56: 275284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pindborg, JJ, Renstrup, G. Studies in oral leukoplakia. I. The influence of snuff on the connective tissue of the oral mucosa. Preliminary report. Acta Pathol Micro-Biol Scand, 1962, 55: 412414.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hirsch, JM, Livian, G, Edwards, S, et al. Tobacco habits among teenagers in the city of Gõteborg, Sweden and possible association with dental caries. Swed Dent J, 1991, 15: 117123.Google ScholarPubMed
Bill, TJ, Reddy, VR, Ries, KL, Gampper, TJ, Hoard, MA. Adolescent gingival squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 2001, 91: 682685.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thompson, L, Castle, J, Heffner, DK. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in pediatric patients: a clinicopathologic study of 20 cases (abstract), Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 1999, 88: 204.Google Scholar
Atula, S, Grenman, R, Laippala, P, Syrjänen, . Cancer of the tongue in patients younger than 40 years. Arch Laryngol Head Neck Surg, 1996, 122: 13131319.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sarkaria, JN, Harari, PM. Oral tongue cancer in young adults less than 40 years of age: rationale for aggressive therapy. Head Neck, 1994, 16: 107111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tsukuda, M, Ooishi, K, Mochimatsu, I, Sato, H. Head and neck carcinomas in patients under the age of forty years. Jpn J Cancer Res, 1993, 84: 748752.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lund, VJ, Howard, DJ. Head and neck cancer in the young: a prognostic conundrum? J Laryngol Otol, 1990, 104: 544548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keukens, F, van Voorst Vader, PC, Panders, AK, et al. Xeroderma pigmentosum: squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Acta Derm Venereol, 1989, 69: 530531.Google ScholarPubMed
Earle, AS, Park, CH, Viastou, . Oral squamous cell carcinoma in children. Ann Plast Surg, 1988, 20: 148152.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sacks, HG, Holly, R, Blum, B, Joy, ED. Case 58: maxillary alveolar mass in a 13-year old boy. J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 1985, 43: 958963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Son, YH, Kapp, DS. Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer in a younger population. Cancer, 55: 1985, 441444.3.0.CO;2-5>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Newman, AN, Rice, DH, Ossoff, RH, Sisson, GA. Carcinoma of the tongue in persons younger than 30 years of age. Arch Otolaryngol, 1983, 109: 302304.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGregor, GI, David, N, Robins, RE. Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and lower oral cavity in patients under 40 years of age. Am J Surg, 1983, 146: 8892.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yagi, K, Ali, AEL G, Abbas, KEL D, Prabhu, SR. Carcinoma of the tongue in a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum, Int J Oral Surg, 1981, 10: 7376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harper, JI, Copeman, PW. Carcinoma of the tongue in a boy with xeroderma pigmentosum. Clin Exp Dermatol, 1981, 6: 601604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krolls, SO, Hoffman, S. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral soft tissues: a statistical analysis of 14,253 cases by age, sex, and race of patients. J Am Dent Assoc, 1976, 92: 571574.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Byers, RM. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue in patients less than thirty years of age. Am J Surg, 1975, 130: 475478.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weitkunat, R, Sanders, E, Lee, PN, et al. Meta-analysis of the relation between European and American smokeless tobacco and oral cancer. BMC Public Health, 2007, 15: 334354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greer, RO, Hoernig, G, Shroyer, KR. Telomerase expression in precancerous oral verrucous leukoplakia. Int J Oral Biol, 1999, 24: 15.Google Scholar
Palefsky, JM, Greenspan, JS, Daniels, TE. Interaction between smokeless tobacco-related carcinogens and human papillomaviruses in the pathogenesis of oral cancer and dysplasia. In: National Institutes of Health Monograph 2, Smokeless Tobacco or Health: An International Perspective. Bethesda (MD): NIH Publication, No. 93-3461; 1993, 175182, Chapter 3.Google Scholar
Greer, RO. Oral manifestations of smokeless tobacco use. Eusterman, VD Meyers, A, eds Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 2011, 44: 3156.Google Scholar
Hashibe, M, Brenan, P, Shu-chun, C, et al. Interaction between tobacco and alcohol use and the risk of head and neck cancer: pooled analysis in the intermitronal head and neck epidemiology consortium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2009, 18: 541550.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gale, N, Zidar, N, Poljak, M, et al. Current views and perspectives on classification of squamous intraepithelial lesions of the head and neck. Head and Neck Pathol, 2014, 16–23.Google Scholar
Edwards, PC. The natural history of oral epithelial dysplasia: perspective on Dost et al. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol, 2014, 117: 262266.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nobusawa, A, Sano, T, Negishi, A. Immunohistochemical staining patterns of cytokeratins 13, 14 and 17 in oral epithelial dysplasia including orthokeratotic dysplasia. Pathol Int, 2014, 64: 200207.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dost, F, LeCao, KA, Ford, PJ. A retrospective analysis of clinical features of oral malignant and potentially malignant disorders with and without oral epithelial dysplasia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol, 2013, 116: 725733.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arnaoutakis, D, Bishop, J, Westra, W, et al. Recurrence patterns and management of oral cavity premalignant lesions. Oral Oncol, 2013, 49: 814817.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Christensen, A, Kristensen, E, Thekildsen, MH, et al. Ten year retrospective study of head and neck carcinoma in situ. Incidence, treatment and clinical outcome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol, 2013, 116: 174178.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arsenic, R, Kurrer, MO. Differentiated dysplasia is a frequent precursor or associated lesion in invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and pharynx. Virchous Arch, 2013, 462: 609617.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morris, LB, Ganly, I. Outcomes of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma in pediatric patients. Oral Oncol, 2010, 46: 292296.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bill, TJ, Reddy, VR, Ries, KL, et al. Adolescent gingival squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 2001, 91: 682685.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Byers, RM. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue in patients less than thirty years of age. Am J Surg, 1975, 130: 475478.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Earle, AS, Park, CH, Vlastou, C. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in children. Ann Plast Surg, 1988, 20: 148152.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shroyer, KR, Greer, RO, Frankhouser, CA, et al. Detection of human papillomavirus in oral verrucous carcinoma by polymerase chain reaction. Mod Pathol, 1993, 6: 669672.Google ScholarPubMed
Liu, O, Zhang, H, Wang, Y, et al. Stereology study of oral verrucous carcinoma. J Bunon, 2012, 17: 343349.Google ScholarPubMed
Alkan, A, Bulut, E, Gunhan, O. Oral verrucous carcinoma: a study of 12 cases. Eur J Dent, 2012, 4: 202207.Google ScholarPubMed
Ackerman, LV. Verrucous carcinoma of the oral cavity. Surgery, 1948, 23: 670678.Google ScholarPubMed

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