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Chapter 4 - Mucocutaneous Pigmented Lesions, Nevi and Melanoma

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 June 2017

Robert O. Greer
Affiliation:
University of Colorado, Denver
Robert E. Marx
Affiliation:
University of Miami
Sherif Said
Affiliation:
University of Colorado, Denver
Lori D. Prok
Affiliation:
University of Colorado, Denver
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Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2016

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References

Primary Sources

Begić, F, et al. Leopard syndrome: a report of five cases from one family in two generations. Eur J Pediatr 2014; 173(6): 819–22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Horvath, A, Stratakis, CA. Carney complex and lentiginosis. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 2009; 22(5): 580–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lehmann, AR, McGibbon, D, Stefanini, M. Xeroderma pigmentosum. Orphanet J Rare Dis 2011; 6: 70.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lodish, MB, Stratakis, CA. The differential diagnosis of familial lentiginosis syndromes. Fam Cancer 2011; 10(3): 481–90.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Niiyama, S, Katsuoka, K. Laugier-Hunziker syndrome. Eur J Dermatol 2013; 23(2): 284–5.Google ScholarPubMed
O’Neill, JF, James, WD. Inherited patterned lentiginosis in blacks. Arch Dermatol 1989; 125(9): 1231–5.Google ScholarPubMed
Quatrano, NA, Loechner, KJ. Dermatologic manifestations of endocrine disorders. Curr Opin Pediatr 2012; 24(4): 487–93.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shen, Z, et al. More than just skin deep: faciocutaneous clues to genetic syndromes with malignancies. Oncologist 2012; 17(7): 930–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Staub, J, Behnecke, A, Leverkus, M. Delayed primary diagnosis of LEOPARD syndrome type 1. J Am Acad Dermatol 2013; 68(2): 5860.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Secondary Sources

Alikhan, A, Ibrahimi, OA, Eisen, DB. Congenital melanocytic nevi: where are we now? Part I. Clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathogenesis, histology, malignant transformation, and neurocutaneous melanosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 2012; 67(4): 495.Google ScholarPubMed
Ibrahimi, OA, Alikhan, A, Eisen, DB. Congenital melanocytic nevi: where are we now? Part II. Treatment options and approach to treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol 2012; 67(4): 515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tannous, ZS, et al. Congenital melanocytic nevi: clinical and histopathologic features, risk of melanoma, and clinical management. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005; 52(2): 197203.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Phadke, PA, et al. Proliferative nodules arising within congenital melanocytic nevi: a histologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular analyses of 43 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 2011; 35(5): 656–69.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vredenborg, A, et al. Acquired melanocytic nevi in childhood and familial melanoma. JAMA Dermatol 2014; 150(1): 3540.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reddy, KK, et al. Atypical (dysplastic) nevi: outcomes of surgical excision and association with melanoma. JAMA Dermatol 2013; 149(8): 928–34.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ezzedine, K, et al. Halo nevi association in nonsegmental vitiligo affects age at onset and depigmentation pattern. Arch Dermatol 2012; 148(4): 497502.Google ScholarPubMed
High, WA, Alanen, KW, Golitz, LE. Is melanocytic nevus with focal atypical epithelioid components (clonal nevus) a superficial variant of deep penetrating nevus? J Am Acad Dermatol 2006; 55(3): 460–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sau, P, Graham, JH, Helwig, EB. Pigmented spindle cell nevus: a clinicopathologic analysis of ninety-five cases. J Am Acad Dermatol 1993; 28(4): 565–71.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fisher, KR, Maize, JC Jr., Maize, JC Sr. Histologic features of scalp melanocytic nevi. J Am Acad Dermatol 2013; 68(3): 466–72.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spitz, S. Melanomas of Childhood. Am J Pathol 1948; 24(3): 591609.Google ScholarPubMed
Barnhill, RL.The Spitzoid lesion: rethinking Spitz tumors, atypical variants, ‘Spitzoid melanoma’ and risk assessment. Mod Pathol 2006; 19 (Suppl 2): S21–33.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tlougan, BE, Orlow, SJ, Schaffer, JV. Spitz nevi: beliefs, behaviors, and experiences of pediatric dermatologists. JAMA Dermatol 2013; 149(3): 283–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kapur, P, et al. Spitz nevi and atypical Spitz nevi/tumors: a histologic and immunohistochemical analysis. Mod Pathol 2005; 18(2): 197204.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Al Dhaybi, R, et al. p16 expression: a marker of differentiation between childhood malignant melanoma and Spitz nevi. J Am Acad Dermatol 2011; 65(2): 357–63.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gerami, P, et al. Risk assessment for atypical spitzoid melanocytic neoplasms using FISH to identify chromosomal copy number aberrations. Am J Surg Pathol 2013; 37(5): 676–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yazdan, P, et al. Comparative analysis of atypical Spitz tumors with heterozygous versus homozygous 9p21 deletions for clinical outcomes, histomorphology, BRAF mutations, and p16 expression. Am J Surg Pathol 2014; 38 (5): 638–45.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gerami, P, et al. Outcomes of atypical Spitz tumors with chromosomal copy number aberrations and conventional melanomas in children. Am J Surg Pathol 2013; 37(9): 1387–94.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wiesner, T, et al. A distinct subset of atypical Spitz tumors is characterized by BRAF mutation and loss of BAP1 expression. Am J Surg Pathol 2012; 36(6): 818–30.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ludgate, MW et al. The atypical Spitz tumor of uncertain biologic potential: a series of 67 patients from a single institution. Cancer 2009; 115(3): 631–41.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hung, T et al. Sentinel lymph node metastasis is not a predictor of poor outcome in patients with problematic Spitzoid melanocytic tumors. Hum Pathol 2013; 44(1): 8794.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Duncan, L. Atypical Spitz tumours and sentinel lymph node biopsy: a systematic review. Lancet Oncol 2014; 15(4): 377–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Massi, D, et al. Atypical Spitz tumors in patients younger than 18 years. J Am Acad Dermatol 2015; 72(1): 3746.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wong, JR, et al. Incidence of childhood and adolescent melanoma in the United States: 1973–2009. Pediatrics 2013; 131(5): 846–54.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Austin, MT, et al. Melanoma incidence rises for children and adolescents: an epidemiologic review of pediatric melanoma in the United States. J Pediatr Surg 2013; 48 (11): 2207–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paradela, S, et al. Melanoma in children. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 2011; 135: 307–16.Google ScholarPubMed
Cordoro, KM, et al. Pediatric melanoma: results of a large cohort study and proposal for modified ABCD detection criteria for children. J Am Acad Dermatol 2013; 68(6): 913–25.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Richardson, SK, Tannous, ZS, Mihm, MC Jr. Congenital and infantile melanoma: review of the literature and report of an uncommon variant, pigment-synthesizing melanoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002; 47(1): 7790.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scalzo, DA, et al. Childhood melanoma: a clinicopathological study of 22 cases. Melanoma Res 1997; 7(1): 63–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tcheung, WJ, et al. Pathologic features of pediatric head and neck melanoma. Pediatr Dermatol 2013; 30(5): 568–73.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
American Society of Clinical Oncology. 7th edition of the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual; Final Version of 2009 AJCC Melanoma Staging and Classification. 2009.
Owens, JM, Gomez, JA, Byers, RM. Malignant melanoma in the palate of a 3-month-old child. Head and Neck 2002; 24: 91–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shashauka, R, Smitha, BR. Head and neck melanoma. ISRN Surg. 2012; 2012:948302 Article ID 94802.Google Scholar
Prasad, MC, Patel, SF, Huvos, AG, et al. Primary mucosal melanoma of the head and neck: a proposal for microstaging localized stage I (lymph node negative) tumors. Cancer 2004; 100: 1657–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saida, T, Kawachi, S, Takata, M, et al. Histopathological characteristics of malignant melanoma affecting mucous membranes. A unifying concept of histogenesis. Pathology 2004; 36: 404–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sun, CZ, Li, QL, Hu, ZD. Treatment and prognosis in sinonasal mucosal melanoma. A retrospective analysis of 65 patients from a single cancer center. Head Neck 2014; 36(5): 675–81.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Owens, JM, Roberts, DB, Myers, JN. The role of postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy in the treatment of mucosal melanomas of the head and neck region. Arch Otolaryngol Head & Neck Surg 2003; 129: 864–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carney, JA, Stratakis, CA. Epithelioid blue nevus and psammomatous melanotic schwannoma: the unusual pigmented skin tumors of the Carney complex. Semin Diagn Pathol 1998; 15(3): 216–24.Google ScholarPubMed
Mandal, RV, et al. Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma: favorable outcome after 5-year follow-up. Am J Surg Pathol 2009; 33(12): 1778–82.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murali, R, McCarthy, SW, Scolyer, RA. Blue nevi and related lesions: a review highlighting atypical and newly described variants, distinguishing features and diagnostic pitfalls. Adv Anat Pathol 2009; 16(6): 365–82.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zembowicz, A, Mihm, MC. Dermal dendritic melanocytic proliferations: an update. Histopathology 2004; 45(5): 433–51.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Begić, F, et al. Leopard syndrome: a report of five cases from one family in two generations. Eur J Pediatr 2014; 173(6): 819–22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Horvath, A, Stratakis, CA. Carney complex and lentiginosis. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 2009; 22(5): 580–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lehmann, AR, McGibbon, D, Stefanini, M. Xeroderma pigmentosum. Orphanet J Rare Dis 2011; 6: 70.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lodish, MB, Stratakis, CA. The differential diagnosis of familial lentiginosis syndromes. Fam Cancer 2011; 10(3): 481–90.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Niiyama, S, Katsuoka, K. Laugier-Hunziker syndrome. Eur J Dermatol 2013; 23(2): 284–5.Google ScholarPubMed
O’Neill, JF, James, WD. Inherited patterned lentiginosis in blacks. Arch Dermatol 1989; 125(9): 1231–5.Google ScholarPubMed
Quatrano, NA, Loechner, KJ. Dermatologic manifestations of endocrine disorders. Curr Opin Pediatr 2012; 24(4): 487–93.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shen, Z, et al. More than just skin deep: faciocutaneous clues to genetic syndromes with malignancies. Oncologist 2012; 17(7): 930–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Staub, J, Behnecke, A, Leverkus, M. Delayed primary diagnosis of LEOPARD syndrome type 1. J Am Acad Dermatol 2013; 68(2): 5860.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alikhan, A, Ibrahimi, OA, Eisen, DB. Congenital melanocytic nevi: where are we now? Part I. Clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathogenesis, histology, malignant transformation, and neurocutaneous melanosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 2012; 67(4): 495.Google ScholarPubMed
Ibrahimi, OA, Alikhan, A, Eisen, DB. Congenital melanocytic nevi: where are we now? Part II. Treatment options and approach to treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol 2012; 67(4): 515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tannous, ZS, et al. Congenital melanocytic nevi: clinical and histopathologic features, risk of melanoma, and clinical management. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005; 52(2): 197203.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Phadke, PA, et al. Proliferative nodules arising within congenital melanocytic nevi: a histologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular analyses of 43 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 2011; 35(5): 656–69.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vredenborg, A, et al. Acquired melanocytic nevi in childhood and familial melanoma. JAMA Dermatol 2014; 150(1): 3540.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reddy, KK, et al. Atypical (dysplastic) nevi: outcomes of surgical excision and association with melanoma. JAMA Dermatol 2013; 149(8): 928–34.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ezzedine, K, et al. Halo nevi association in nonsegmental vitiligo affects age at onset and depigmentation pattern. Arch Dermatol 2012; 148(4): 497502.Google ScholarPubMed
High, WA, Alanen, KW, Golitz, LE. Is melanocytic nevus with focal atypical epithelioid components (clonal nevus) a superficial variant of deep penetrating nevus? J Am Acad Dermatol 2006; 55(3): 460–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sau, P, Graham, JH, Helwig, EB. Pigmented spindle cell nevus: a clinicopathologic analysis of ninety-five cases. J Am Acad Dermatol 1993; 28(4): 565–71.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fisher, KR, Maize, JC Jr., Maize, JC Sr. Histologic features of scalp melanocytic nevi. J Am Acad Dermatol 2013; 68(3): 466–72.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spitz, S. Melanomas of Childhood. Am J Pathol 1948; 24(3): 591609.Google ScholarPubMed
Barnhill, RL.The Spitzoid lesion: rethinking Spitz tumors, atypical variants, ‘Spitzoid melanoma’ and risk assessment. Mod Pathol 2006; 19 (Suppl 2): S21–33.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tlougan, BE, Orlow, SJ, Schaffer, JV. Spitz nevi: beliefs, behaviors, and experiences of pediatric dermatologists. JAMA Dermatol 2013; 149(3): 283–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kapur, P, et al. Spitz nevi and atypical Spitz nevi/tumors: a histologic and immunohistochemical analysis. Mod Pathol 2005; 18(2): 197204.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Al Dhaybi, R, et al. p16 expression: a marker of differentiation between childhood malignant melanoma and Spitz nevi. J Am Acad Dermatol 2011; 65(2): 357–63.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gerami, P, et al. Risk assessment for atypical spitzoid melanocytic neoplasms using FISH to identify chromosomal copy number aberrations. Am J Surg Pathol 2013; 37(5): 676–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yazdan, P, et al. Comparative analysis of atypical Spitz tumors with heterozygous versus homozygous 9p21 deletions for clinical outcomes, histomorphology, BRAF mutations, and p16 expression. Am J Surg Pathol 2014; 38 (5): 638–45.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gerami, P, et al. Outcomes of atypical Spitz tumors with chromosomal copy number aberrations and conventional melanomas in children. Am J Surg Pathol 2013; 37(9): 1387–94.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wiesner, T, et al. A distinct subset of atypical Spitz tumors is characterized by BRAF mutation and loss of BAP1 expression. Am J Surg Pathol 2012; 36(6): 818–30.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ludgate, MW et al. The atypical Spitz tumor of uncertain biologic potential: a series of 67 patients from a single institution. Cancer 2009; 115(3): 631–41.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hung, T et al. Sentinel lymph node metastasis is not a predictor of poor outcome in patients with problematic Spitzoid melanocytic tumors. Hum Pathol 2013; 44(1): 8794.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Duncan, L. Atypical Spitz tumours and sentinel lymph node biopsy: a systematic review. Lancet Oncol 2014; 15(4): 377–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Massi, D, et al. Atypical Spitz tumors in patients younger than 18 years. J Am Acad Dermatol 2015; 72(1): 3746.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wong, JR, et al. Incidence of childhood and adolescent melanoma in the United States: 1973–2009. Pediatrics 2013; 131(5): 846–54.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Austin, MT, et al. Melanoma incidence rises for children and adolescents: an epidemiologic review of pediatric melanoma in the United States. J Pediatr Surg 2013; 48 (11): 2207–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paradela, S, et al. Melanoma in children. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 2011; 135: 307–16.Google ScholarPubMed
Cordoro, KM, et al. Pediatric melanoma: results of a large cohort study and proposal for modified ABCD detection criteria for children. J Am Acad Dermatol 2013; 68(6): 913–25.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Richardson, SK, Tannous, ZS, Mihm, MC Jr. Congenital and infantile melanoma: review of the literature and report of an uncommon variant, pigment-synthesizing melanoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002; 47(1): 7790.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scalzo, DA, et al. Childhood melanoma: a clinicopathological study of 22 cases. Melanoma Res 1997; 7(1): 63–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tcheung, WJ, et al. Pathologic features of pediatric head and neck melanoma. Pediatr Dermatol 2013; 30(5): 568–73.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
American Society of Clinical Oncology. 7th edition of the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual; Final Version of 2009 AJCC Melanoma Staging and Classification. 2009.
Owens, JM, Gomez, JA, Byers, RM. Malignant melanoma in the palate of a 3-month-old child. Head and Neck 2002; 24: 91–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shashauka, R, Smitha, BR. Head and neck melanoma. ISRN Surg. 2012; 2012:948302 Article ID 94802.Google Scholar
Prasad, MC, Patel, SF, Huvos, AG, et al. Primary mucosal melanoma of the head and neck: a proposal for microstaging localized stage I (lymph node negative) tumors. Cancer 2004; 100: 1657–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saida, T, Kawachi, S, Takata, M, et al. Histopathological characteristics of malignant melanoma affecting mucous membranes. A unifying concept of histogenesis. Pathology 2004; 36: 404–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sun, CZ, Li, QL, Hu, ZD. Treatment and prognosis in sinonasal mucosal melanoma. A retrospective analysis of 65 patients from a single cancer center. Head Neck 2014; 36(5): 675–81.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Owens, JM, Roberts, DB, Myers, JN. The role of postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy in the treatment of mucosal melanomas of the head and neck region. Arch Otolaryngol Head & Neck Surg 2003; 129: 864–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carney, JA, Stratakis, CA. Epithelioid blue nevus and psammomatous melanotic schwannoma: the unusual pigmented skin tumors of the Carney complex. Semin Diagn Pathol 1998; 15(3): 216–24.Google ScholarPubMed
Mandal, RV, et al. Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma: favorable outcome after 5-year follow-up. Am J Surg Pathol 2009; 33(12): 1778–82.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murali, R, McCarthy, SW, Scolyer, RA. Blue nevi and related lesions: a review highlighting atypical and newly described variants, distinguishing features and diagnostic pitfalls. Adv Anat Pathol 2009; 16(6): 365–82.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zembowicz, A, Mihm, MC. Dermal dendritic melanocytic proliferations: an update. Histopathology 2004; 45(5): 433–51.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Begić, F, et al. Leopard syndrome: a report of five cases from one family in two generations. Eur J Pediatr 2014; 173(6): 819–22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Horvath, A, Stratakis, CA. Carney complex and lentiginosis. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 2009; 22(5): 580–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lehmann, AR, McGibbon, D, Stefanini, M. Xeroderma pigmentosum. Orphanet J Rare Dis 2011; 6: 70.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lodish, MB, Stratakis, CA. The differential diagnosis of familial lentiginosis syndromes. Fam Cancer 2011; 10(3): 481–90.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Niiyama, S, Katsuoka, K. Laugier-Hunziker syndrome. Eur J Dermatol 2013; 23(2): 284–5.Google ScholarPubMed
O’Neill, JF, James, WD. Inherited patterned lentiginosis in blacks. Arch Dermatol 1989; 125(9): 1231–5.Google ScholarPubMed
Quatrano, NA, Loechner, KJ. Dermatologic manifestations of endocrine disorders. Curr Opin Pediatr 2012; 24(4): 487–93.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shen, Z, et al. More than just skin deep: faciocutaneous clues to genetic syndromes with malignancies. Oncologist 2012; 17(7): 930–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Staub, J, Behnecke, A, Leverkus, M. Delayed primary diagnosis of LEOPARD syndrome type 1. J Am Acad Dermatol 2013; 68(2): 5860.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alikhan, A, Ibrahimi, OA, Eisen, DB. Congenital melanocytic nevi: where are we now? Part I. Clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathogenesis, histology, malignant transformation, and neurocutaneous melanosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 2012; 67(4): 495.Google ScholarPubMed
Ibrahimi, OA, Alikhan, A, Eisen, DB. Congenital melanocytic nevi: where are we now? Part II. Treatment options and approach to treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol 2012; 67(4): 515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tannous, ZS, et al. Congenital melanocytic nevi: clinical and histopathologic features, risk of melanoma, and clinical management. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005; 52(2): 197203.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Phadke, PA, et al. Proliferative nodules arising within congenital melanocytic nevi: a histologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular analyses of 43 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 2011; 35(5): 656–69.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vredenborg, A, et al. Acquired melanocytic nevi in childhood and familial melanoma. JAMA Dermatol 2014; 150(1): 3540.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reddy, KK, et al. Atypical (dysplastic) nevi: outcomes of surgical excision and association with melanoma. JAMA Dermatol 2013; 149(8): 928–34.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ezzedine, K, et al. Halo nevi association in nonsegmental vitiligo affects age at onset and depigmentation pattern. Arch Dermatol 2012; 148(4): 497502.Google ScholarPubMed
High, WA, Alanen, KW, Golitz, LE. Is melanocytic nevus with focal atypical epithelioid components (clonal nevus) a superficial variant of deep penetrating nevus? J Am Acad Dermatol 2006; 55(3): 460–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sau, P, Graham, JH, Helwig, EB. Pigmented spindle cell nevus: a clinicopathologic analysis of ninety-five cases. J Am Acad Dermatol 1993; 28(4): 565–71.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fisher, KR, Maize, JC Jr., Maize, JC Sr. Histologic features of scalp melanocytic nevi. J Am Acad Dermatol 2013; 68(3): 466–72.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spitz, S. Melanomas of Childhood. Am J Pathol 1948; 24(3): 591609.Google ScholarPubMed
Barnhill, RL.The Spitzoid lesion: rethinking Spitz tumors, atypical variants, ‘Spitzoid melanoma’ and risk assessment. Mod Pathol 2006; 19 (Suppl 2): S21–33.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tlougan, BE, Orlow, SJ, Schaffer, JV. Spitz nevi: beliefs, behaviors, and experiences of pediatric dermatologists. JAMA Dermatol 2013; 149(3): 283–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kapur, P, et al. Spitz nevi and atypical Spitz nevi/tumors: a histologic and immunohistochemical analysis. Mod Pathol 2005; 18(2): 197204.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Al Dhaybi, R, et al. p16 expression: a marker of differentiation between childhood malignant melanoma and Spitz nevi. J Am Acad Dermatol 2011; 65(2): 357–63.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gerami, P, et al. Risk assessment for atypical spitzoid melanocytic neoplasms using FISH to identify chromosomal copy number aberrations. Am J Surg Pathol 2013; 37(5): 676–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yazdan, P, et al. Comparative analysis of atypical Spitz tumors with heterozygous versus homozygous 9p21 deletions for clinical outcomes, histomorphology, BRAF mutations, and p16 expression. Am J Surg Pathol 2014; 38 (5): 638–45.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gerami, P, et al. Outcomes of atypical Spitz tumors with chromosomal copy number aberrations and conventional melanomas in children. Am J Surg Pathol 2013; 37(9): 1387–94.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wiesner, T, et al. A distinct subset of atypical Spitz tumors is characterized by BRAF mutation and loss of BAP1 expression. Am J Surg Pathol 2012; 36(6): 818–30.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ludgate, MW et al. The atypical Spitz tumor of uncertain biologic potential: a series of 67 patients from a single institution. Cancer 2009; 115(3): 631–41.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hung, T et al. Sentinel lymph node metastasis is not a predictor of poor outcome in patients with problematic Spitzoid melanocytic tumors. Hum Pathol 2013; 44(1): 8794.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Duncan, L. Atypical Spitz tumours and sentinel lymph node biopsy: a systematic review. Lancet Oncol 2014; 15(4): 377–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Massi, D, et al. Atypical Spitz tumors in patients younger than 18 years. J Am Acad Dermatol 2015; 72(1): 3746.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wong, JR, et al. Incidence of childhood and adolescent melanoma in the United States: 1973–2009. Pediatrics 2013; 131(5): 846–54.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Austin, MT, et al. Melanoma incidence rises for children and adolescents: an epidemiologic review of pediatric melanoma in the United States. J Pediatr Surg 2013; 48 (11): 2207–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paradela, S, et al. Melanoma in children. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 2011; 135: 307–16.Google ScholarPubMed
Cordoro, KM, et al. Pediatric melanoma: results of a large cohort study and proposal for modified ABCD detection criteria for children. J Am Acad Dermatol 2013; 68(6): 913–25.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Richardson, SK, Tannous, ZS, Mihm, MC Jr. Congenital and infantile melanoma: review of the literature and report of an uncommon variant, pigment-synthesizing melanoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002; 47(1): 7790.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scalzo, DA, et al. Childhood melanoma: a clinicopathological study of 22 cases. Melanoma Res 1997; 7(1): 63–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tcheung, WJ, et al. Pathologic features of pediatric head and neck melanoma. Pediatr Dermatol 2013; 30(5): 568–73.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
American Society of Clinical Oncology. 7th edition of the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual; Final Version of 2009 AJCC Melanoma Staging and Classification. 2009.
Owens, JM, Gomez, JA, Byers, RM. Malignant melanoma in the palate of a 3-month-old child. Head and Neck 2002; 24: 91–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shashauka, R, Smitha, BR. Head and neck melanoma. ISRN Surg. 2012; 2012:948302 Article ID 94802.Google Scholar
Prasad, MC, Patel, SF, Huvos, AG, et al. Primary mucosal melanoma of the head and neck: a proposal for microstaging localized stage I (lymph node negative) tumors. Cancer 2004; 100: 1657–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saida, T, Kawachi, S, Takata, M, et al. Histopathological characteristics of malignant melanoma affecting mucous membranes. A unifying concept of histogenesis. Pathology 2004; 36: 404–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sun, CZ, Li, QL, Hu, ZD. Treatment and prognosis in sinonasal mucosal melanoma. A retrospective analysis of 65 patients from a single cancer center. Head Neck 2014; 36(5): 675–81.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Owens, JM, Roberts, DB, Myers, JN. The role of postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy in the treatment of mucosal melanomas of the head and neck region. Arch Otolaryngol Head & Neck Surg 2003; 129: 864–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carney, JA, Stratakis, CA. Epithelioid blue nevus and psammomatous melanotic schwannoma: the unusual pigmented skin tumors of the Carney complex. Semin Diagn Pathol 1998; 15(3): 216–24.Google ScholarPubMed
Mandal, RV, et al. Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma: favorable outcome after 5-year follow-up. Am J Surg Pathol 2009; 33(12): 1778–82.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murali, R, McCarthy, SW, Scolyer, RA. Blue nevi and related lesions: a review highlighting atypical and newly described variants, distinguishing features and diagnostic pitfalls. Adv Anat Pathol 2009; 16(6): 365–82.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zembowicz, A, Mihm, MC. Dermal dendritic melanocytic proliferations: an update. Histopathology 2004; 45(5): 433–51.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
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