Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-wzw2p Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-26T16:24:53.601Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

References

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  07 October 2023

Robert A. Boakes
Affiliation:
University of Sydney
Get access

Summary

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Chapter
Information
Pavlov's Legacy
How and What Animals Learn
, pp. 322 - 347
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2023

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Adams, C. D. (1980). Post-conditioning devaluation of an instrumental reinforcer has no effect on extinction performance. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 32, 447458.Google Scholar
Adams, C. D. & Dickinson, A. (1981). Instrumental responding following reinforcer devaluation. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 33B, 109122.Google Scholar
Amsel, A. (1958). The role of frustrative nonreward in noncontinuous reward situations. Psychological Bulletin, 55(2), 102119.Google Scholar
Amsel, A. (1994). Précis of frustration theory: An analysis of dispositional learning and memory. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 1, 280296.Google Scholar
Amsel, A. (1995). Kenneth Wartenbee Spence. Memoirs of the National Academy of Science, 66, 334.Google Scholar
Amsel, A. & Rashotte, M. E. (1969). Transfer of experimenter-imposed slow response patterns to extinction of a continuously rewarded response. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 69, 185189.Google Scholar
Annau, Z. & Kamin, L. J. (1961). The conditioned emotional response as a function of the intensity of the US. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 54, 428432.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Anon (1999). Biographical sketch: Allan Wagner. American Psychologist, 54, 887890.Google Scholar
Anonymous (2013). John Garcia (1917–2012) obituary. Skagit Valley Herald. March 7, 2013.Google Scholar
Baddeley, A. (2009). Psychology in the 1950s: A personal view. In Rabbitt, P. (Ed.) Inside psychology: A science of over 50 years (pp. 2735). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Baker, A. (1977). Conditioned inhibition arising from a between-sessions negative correlation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 3, 144155.Google Scholar
Balaz, M. A., Kasprow, W. J., & Miller, R. R. (1982). Blocking with a single compound trial. Animal Learning & Behavior, 10, 271276.Google Scholar
Balleine, B. W. & Dickinson, A. (1994). Motivational control of goal-directed action. Animal Learning & Behavior, 22, 118.Google Scholar
Balleine, B. W. &. Dickinson, A. (1998). Goal-directed instrumental action: Contingency and incentive learning and their cortical substrates. Neuropharmacology, 37, 407419.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Balsam, P. D. (1985). The functions of context in learning and performance. In Balsam, P. D. & Tomie, A. (Eds.) Context and learning (pp. 122). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Balsam, P. D. (2012). Obituary: M.E. Bitterman. American Psychologist, 67, 72.Google Scholar
Balsam, P. D. & Tomie, A. (1985). Context and learning. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Bateson, P. P. G. (1973). Internal influences on early learning in birds. In Hinde, R. A. & Stevenson-Hinde, J. (Eds.) Constraints on learning: Limitations and predispositions (pp. 101116). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Bateson, P. P. G. (1978). Sexual imprinting and optimal outbreeding. Nature, 273, 659660.Google Scholar
Bateson, P. P. G. (1981). The control of sensitivity to the environment during development. In Immelman, K., Barlow, G., Main, M. & Petrinovich, L. (Eds.) Behavioural development (pp. 432453). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Bateson, P. P. G., Stevenson-Hinde, J., & Clutton-Brock, T. (2018). Robert Aubrey Hinde CBE. Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, 65, 151177.Google Scholar
Baum, W. B. (1979). Matching, undermatching, and overmatching in studies of choice. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 32, 269281.Google ScholarPubMed
Baum, W. B. (1994). Richard J. Herrnstein, a memoir. The Behavior Analyst, 17, 203205.Google Scholar
Baum, W. B. (2002). The Harvard pigeon lab under Herrnstein. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 77, 347355.Google Scholar
Beach, F. A. (1950). The Snark was a Boojum. American Psychologist, 5, 115124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beach, F. A. (1959). Clark Leonard Hull (1884–1952). Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
Benjamin, L. T. & Bruce, D. (1982). From bottle-fed chimpanzee to bottlenose dolphin: A contemporary appraisal of Winthrop Kellogg. Psychological Record, 32, 46482.Google Scholar
Berryman, R., Cumming, W. W., & Nevin, J. A. (1963). Acquisition of delayed matching in the pigeon. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 6, 101107.Google Scholar
Best, M. E. & Gemberling, G. A. (1977). Role of short-term processes in the conditioned stimulus pre-exposure effect and the delay of reinforcement gradient in long-delay taste-aversion learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 3, 253263.Google Scholar
Best, P. J., Best, M. R. & Mickley, G. A. (1973). Conditioned aversion to distinct environmental stimuli resulting from gastrointestinal distress. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 86, 250257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bijou, S. W. & Ribes, E. (1972). Behavior modification: Issues and extensions. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Birch, H. G. (1945). The relation of previous experience to insightful problem-solving. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 38, 367383.Google Scholar
Bitterman, M. E. (1957). Review of Spence’s behavior theory and conditioning. American Journal of Psychology, 70, 141145.Google Scholar
Bitterman, M. E. (1965). Phyletic differences in learning. American Psychologist, 20, 396410.Google Scholar
Bitterman, M. E. (1969). Habit reversal and probability learning: Rats, birds and fish. In Gilbert, R. M. & Sutherland, N. S. (Eds.) Animal discrimination learning (pp. 163175). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Bitterman, M. E. (1972). Comparative studies of the role of inhibition in reversal learning. In Boakes, R. A. & Halliday, M. S. (Eds.) Inhibition and learning (pp. 153176). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Bitterman, M. E. & Wodinsky, J. (1953). Simultaneous and successive discrimination. Psychological Review, 60, 371376.Google Scholar
Bjork, D. J. (1993). B.F. Skinner: A life. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
Black, A. H. (1957). The extinction of avoidance responses under curare. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 51, 519524.Google Scholar
Black, A. H. (1965). Cardiac conditioning in curarized dogs: The relationship between heart rate and skeletal behaviour. In Prokasy, W. F. (Ed.) Classical conditioning: A symposium (pp. 2047). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
Black, A. H. & Prokasy, W. F. (1972). Classical conditioning II: Current research and theory. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
Blackman, D. E. (1974). Operant conditioning: An experimental analysis of behavior. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
Blackman, D. E. (in preparation). Beginnings of experimental analysis of behaviour in UK/Ireland and Europe. In Pellon, R., Blackman, D. E. & Arntzen, E. (Eds.) Origins and evolution of behavior analysis in America and Europe.Google Scholar
Block, J. D. (1963a). Howard S. Liddell, Ph.D.: Scientist and humanitarian. Conditional Reflex, 1, 171180.Google Scholar
Block, J. D. (1963b). In memoriam: Howard S. Liddell (1895–1962). Psychosomatic Medicine, 25, 12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blodgett, (1929). The effect of the introduction of reward upon the maze performance of rats. University of California Publications in Psychology, 4, 113134.Google Scholar
Bloomfield, T. M. (1966). Two types of behavioral contrast in discrimination learning. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 9, 155161.Google Scholar
Bloomfield, T. M. (1969). Behavioral contrast and the peak shift. In Gilbert, R. M., & Sutherland, N. S. (Eds.) Animal discrimination learning (pp. 215241). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Blough, D. S. (1959). Delayed matching in the pigeon. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 2, 151160.Google Scholar
Blum, D. (2002). Love at Goon Park: Harry Harlow and the science of affection. New York: Berkley Books.Google Scholar
Boakes, R. A. (1977). Performance on learning to associate a stimulus with positive reinforcement. In Davis, H. & Hurvitz, H. M. B. (Eds.) Operant-Pavlovian interactions (pp. 6797). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Boakes, R. A. (1979). Interactions between Type 1 and Type 2 processes involving positive reinforcement. In Dickinson, A. & Boakes, R. A. (Eds.) Mechanisms of learning and motivation: A memorial volume to Jerzy Konorski (pp. 233268). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Boakes, R. A. (1984). From Darwin to behaviourism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Boakes, R. A. & Gaertner, I. (1977). The development of a simple form of communication. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 29, 561575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boakes, R. A. & Halliday, M. S. (1972). Inhibition and learning. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Boakes, R. A. & Panter, D. (1985). Secondary imprinting in the domestic chick blocked by previous exposure to a live hen. Animal Behaviour, 33, 353365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boakes, R. A., Patterson, A. E., Kendig, M. D. & Harris, J. A. (2015). Temporal distributions of schedule-induced licks, magazine entries, and lever presses on fixed- and variable-time schedules. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition, 41, 5268.Google Scholar
Boakes, R. A., Poli, M., Lockwood, M. J., & Goodall, G. (1978). A study of misbehavior: Token reinforcement in the rat. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 29, 115134.Google Scholar
Boden, M. (1977). Artificial intelligence and natural man. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
Bolles, R. C. (1967). Theory of motivation. New York: Harper Row.Google Scholar
Bolles, R. C. (1970). Species-specific defense reactions and avoidance learning. Psychological Review, 77, 3248.Google Scholar
Bolles, R. C. & Grossen, N. E. (1969). Effects of an informational stimulus on the acquisition of avoidance behavior in rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 68, 9099.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bolles, R. C. & Popp, R. J. (1964). Parameters affecting the acquisition of Sidman avoidance. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 7, 315321.Google Scholar
Bolles, R. C. & Riley, A. L. (1973). Freezing as an avoidance response: Another look at the operant-respondent distinction. Learning & Motivation, 4, 268275.Google Scholar
Bouton, M. E. (1993). Context, time, and memory retrieval in the interference paradigms of Pavlovian learning. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 8099.Google Scholar
Bouton, M. E. (2016). Learning and behavior: A contemporary synthesis. 2nd ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates Inc.Google Scholar
Bouton, M. E. & Bolles, R. C. (1979a). Role of conditioned contextual stimuli in reinstatement of an extinguished fear. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 5, 368378.Google ScholarPubMed
Bouton, M. E. & Bolles, R. C. (1979b). Contextual control of the extinction of conditioned fear. Learning and Motivation, 10, 445466.Google Scholar
Brady, J. V. (1958). Ulcers in “executive” monkeys. Scientific American, 199(4), 95103.Google Scholar
Breland, K. & Breland, M. (1951). A field of applied animal psychology. American Psychologist, 6, 202204.Google Scholar
Breland, K. & Breland, M. (1961). The misbehavior of organisms. American Psychologist, 16, 681684.Google Scholar
Brewer, W. F. (1974). There is no convincing evidence for operant and classical conditioning in human beings. In Weimer, W. B. & Palermo, D. L. (Eds.) Cognition and the symbolic processes (pp. 142). Princeton, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Broadbent, D. E. (1958). Perception and communication. London: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
Brogden, W. J. (1939). Unconditioned stimulus-substitution in the conditioning process. American Journal of Psychology, 52, 4655.Google Scholar
Brogden, W. J. & Culler, E. (1936). Device for motor conditioning of small animals. Science, 83, 269.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brogden, W. J. & Gantt, W. H. (1937). Cerebellar conditioned reflexes. American Journal of Physiology, 119, 277278.Google Scholar
Brogden, W. J., Lipman, E. A., & Culler, E. (1938). The role of incentive in conditioning and extinction. American Journal of Psychology, 51, 109117.Google Scholar
Brown, P. L. & Jenkins, H. M. (1968). Auto-shaping of the pigeon’s key-peck. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 11, 18.Google Scholar
Brown, R. W. (1965). On the combination of drive and incentive motivation. Psychological Review, 72, 310317.Google Scholar
Brown, R. T. & Wagner, A. R. (1964). Resistance to punishment and extinction following training with shock or nonreinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68, 503507.Google Scholar
Bruce, R. H. (1930). The effect of removal of reward upon the maze performance of rats. University of California Publications in Psychology, 4, 203214.Google Scholar
Bullock, D. H. & Bitterman, M. E. (1962). Habit reversal in the pigeon. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 958962.Google Scholar
Burgess, N. (2014). The 2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine: A spatial model for cognitive neuroscience. Neuron, 84, 11201125.Google Scholar
Bush, R. R. & Mosteller, F. (1955). Stochastic models for learning. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
Butler, R. A. (1953). Discrimination learning by rhesus monkeys to visual-exploration motivation. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 46, 9598.Google Scholar
Butler, R. A. (1954). Incentive conditions which influence visual exploration. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48, 1923.Google Scholar
Butler, R. A. & Harlow, H. F. (1954). Persistence of visual exploration in monkeys. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 47, 260265.Google Scholar
Campbell, B. A. & Ellison, G. D. (1997). Frederick Duane Sheffield (1914–1994). American Psychologist, 57, 67.Google Scholar
Capaldi, E. J. (1964). Effect of N-length, number of different N-lengths, and number of reinforcements on resistance to extinction. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68, 230239.Google Scholar
Capaldi, E. J. (1966). Partial reinforcement: A hypothesis of sequential effects. Psychological Review, 73, 459477.Google Scholar
Carmichael, L. (1957). Robert Mearns Yerkes, 1876–1956. Psychological Review, 64, 17.Google Scholar
Carroll, D. (2017). Purpose and cognition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Catania, A. C. (2002). The watershed years of 1958–1962 in the Harvard pigeon lab. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 77, 327345.Google Scholar
Catania, A. C. (2012). The pursuit of experimental analysis. European Journal of Behavior Analysis, 13, 269280.Google Scholar
Chomsky, N. (1959). A review of B.F. Skinner’s Verbal behavior. Language, 35, 2658.Google Scholar
Chomsky, N. (1967). Preface to the 1967 reprint of “A review of Skinner’s Verbal Behavior.” In Jacobovits, L. A. & Miron, M. S. (Eds.) Readings in the psychology of language. Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
Cirino, S. D., Miranda, R. L., & da Cruz, R. N. (2012). The beginnings of behavior analysis laboratories in Brazil: A pedagogical view. History of Psychology, 15, 263272.Google Scholar
Clarke, J. C., Westbrook, R. F., & Irwin, J. (1979). Potentiation instead of overshadowing in the pigeon. Behavioral and Neural Biology, 25, 1829.Google Scholar
Colagiuri, B. & Livesey, E. J. (2016). Contextual cueing as a form of nonconscious learning: Theoretical and empirical analysis in large and very large samples. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 23, 19962009.Google Scholar
Colwill, R. M. & Rescorla, R. A. (1986). Associative structures in instrumental learning. Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 20, 55104.Google Scholar
Crespi, L. P. (1942). Quantitative variation in incentive and performance in the white rat. American Journal of Psychology, 55, 467517.Google Scholar
Crespi, L. P. (1944). Amount of reinforcement and level of performance. Psychological Review, 51, 341357.Google Scholar
Crutchfield, R. S. (1960). Edward Chace Tolman: 1886–1959. American Journal of Psychology, 74, 135141.Google Scholar
Culler, E. (1938). Recent advances in some concepts of conditioning. Psychological Review, 45, 134153.Google Scholar
Cummings, W. W. & Berryman, R. (1965). The complex discriminated operant: Studies of matching-to-sample and related problems. In Mostofsky, D. (Ed.) Stimulus generalization, pp. 284330. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Davis, M. (1970). Effects of inter-stimulus length and variability on startle-response habituation in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 72, 177192.Google Scholar
Deese, J. (1951). The extinction of a discrimination without performance of the choice response. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 44, 362366.Google Scholar
Delamater, A. R. & Whitlow, J. W. (2020). Editorial: A special issue to commemorate the intellectual contributions of Allan R. Wagner. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition, 46, 165169.Google Scholar
de Villiers, P. (1977). Choice in concurrent schedules and a quantitative formulation of the Law of Effect. In Honig, W. K. & Staddon, J. E. R. (Eds.) Handbook of operant behavior (pp. 233287) Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
Deutsch, J. A. (1953). A new type of behaviour theory. British Journal of Psychology, 44, 305317.Google Scholar
Deutsch, J. A. (1955). A theory of shape recognition. British Journal of Psychology, 36, 4047.Google Scholar
Deutsch, J. A. (1956). The inadequacy of the Hullian derivations of reasoning and latent learning. Psychological Review, 63, 389399.Google Scholar
Deutsch, J. A. (1958). Double drive learning in rats without previous selective reinforcement. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 10, 207210.Google Scholar
Deutsch, J. A. (1960). The structural basis of behavior. Chicago: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
Deutsch, J. A. & Clarkson, J. K. (1959a). A test of the neo-behaviouristic theory of extinction. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 11, 143148.Google Scholar
Deutsch, J. A. & Clarkson, J. K. (1959b). Reasoning in the hooded rat. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 11, 150154.Google Scholar
Dewsbury, D. (2006). Monkey farm: A history of the Yerkes Laboratory of Primate Biology, Orange Park, Florida, 1930–1965. Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press.Google Scholar
DiCara, L. V. & Miller, N. E. (1968). Instrumental learning of vasomotor responses by rats: Learning to respond differentially in the two ears. Science, 159, 14851486.Google Scholar
Dickins, D. (2023). Bliss in that dawn: The beginnings of operant psychology in the UK. History and Philosophy of Psychology, 23, 3449.Google Scholar
Dickinson, A. (1985). Actions and habits: The development of behavioural autonomy. Philosophical Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B, 308, 6778.Google Scholar
Dickinson, A. (1994). Instrumental learning. In Mackintosh, N. J. (Ed) Animal Learning and Cognition (pp. 479). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Dickinson, A. & Mackintosh, N. J. (1979). Reinforcer specificity in the enhancement of conditioning by posttrial surprise. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 5, 162177.Google Scholar
Dickinson, A., Hall, G., & Mackintosh, N. J. (1976). Surprise and the attenuation of blocking. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 2, 313322.Google Scholar
Dickinson, A., Nicholas, D. J., & Adams, C. D. (1983). The effect of instrumental training contingency on susceptibility to reinforcer devaluation. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 35B, 3551.Google Scholar
Dilger, W. C., Moore, A. U., & Freeman, F. S. (1962). Obituary notice: Howard Scott Liddell. eCommons.Cornell.Google Scholar
Dimmick, F. L., Ludlow, N., & Whiteman, A. (1939). A study of “experimental neurosis” in cats. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 28, 3943.Google Scholar
Dinsmoor, J. A. (1987). A visit to Bloomington: The first conference on the experimental analysis of behavior. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 48, 441445.Google Scholar
Dinsmoor, J. A. (1996). Studies in the history of psychology: CVI. An appreciation of Fred S. Keller, 1899–1996. Psychological Reports, 79, 891898.Google Scholar
Dollard, J., Miller, N. E., Doob, L. W., Mowrer, O. H., & Sears, R. R. (1939). Frustration and aggression. New Haven, CT: Institute of Human Relations.Google Scholar
Domjan, M. L. & Wilson, N. E. (1972). Specificity of cue to consequences in aversion learning in the rat. Psychonomic Science, 26, 143145.Google Scholar
Domjan, M. L., Lyons, R., North, N. C., & Bruell, J. (1986). Sexual Pavlovian conditioned approach behavior in male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 100(4), 413421.Google Scholar
Dulany, D. E. Jr. (1961). Hypotheses and habits in verbal ‘operant conditioning’. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 251263.Google Scholar
Durlach, P. J. & Rescorla, R. A. (1980). Potentiation rather than overshadowing in flavor-aversion learning: An analysis in terms of within-compound associations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 6, 175187.Google Scholar
Dworkin, B. R. & Miller, N. E. (1986). Failure to replicate visceral learning in the acute curarized rat preparation. Behavioral Neuroscience, 100, 299314.Google Scholar
Dykman, R. A. & Gantt, W. H. (1960). A case of experimental neurosis and recovery in relation to the orienting response. The Journal of Psychology, 50, 105110.Google Scholar
Egger, M. D. & Miller, N. E. (1962). Secondary reinforcement in rats as a function of information value and reliability of the stimulus. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64, 97104.Google Scholar
Ellen, P., Wilson, A. S., & Powell, E. W. (1964). Septal inhibition and timing behavior in the rat. Experimental Neurology, 10, 120132.Google Scholar
Elliott, M. H. (1928). The effect of change of reward upon the maze performance of rats. University of California Publications in Psychology, 4, 1930.Google Scholar
Ellson, D. G. (1939). The concept of reflex reserve. Psychological Review, 46, 566575.Google Scholar
Epstein, R., Lanza, R. P., & Skinner, B. F. (1980). Symbolic communication between two pigeons. Science, 207, 543545.Google Scholar
Epstein, R. (1987). The spontaneous interconnection of four repertoires of behavior in a pigeon. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 101, 197201.Google Scholar
Estes, W. K. (1943). Discriminative conditioning: I. A discriminative property of conditioned anticipation. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 32, 150155.Google Scholar
Estes, W. K. (1945). An experimental study of punishment. Psychological Monographs, 57, 140.Google Scholar
Estes, W. K. (1948). Discriminative conditioning: II. Effects of a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus upon a subsequently established operant response. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38, 173177.Google Scholar
Estes, W. K. (1950). Toward a statistical theory of learning. Psychological Review, 57, 94107.Google Scholar
Estes, W. K. (1969). Outline of a theory of punishment. In Campbell, B. A. & Church, R. M. (Eds.) Punishment and aversive behavior (pp. 5782). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
Estes, W. K. (1989). Autobiography. In Lindzey, G. (Ed.) A history of psychology in autobiography (Vol. 8, pp. 95126). Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Estes, W. K. & Skinner, , (1941). Some quantitative properties of anxiety. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 29, 390400.Google Scholar
Evans, W. E. & Bastian, J. (1969). Marine mammal communication: Social and ecological factors. In Andersen, H. T. (Ed.) The biology of marine mammals (pp. 425475) New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Falk, J. L. (1961). Production of polydipsia in normal rats by an intermittent food schedule. Science, 133, 195196.Google Scholar
Falk, J. L. (1971). The nature and determinants of adjunctive behaviour. Learning & Behavior, 6, 577588.Google Scholar
Fanselow, M. S. & Bouton, M. E. (1997). The life and influence of Robert C. Bolles. In Bouton, M. E. & Fanselow, M. S. (Eds.) Learning, motivation, and cognition: The functional behaviorism of Robert C. Bolles (pp. 19). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
Ferster, C. B. (1953). The use of the free operant in the analysis of behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 50, 263274.Google Scholar
Ferster, C. B. (2002). Schedules of reinforcement with Skinner. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 77, 303311.Google Scholar
Ferster, C. B. & Skinner, B. F. (1957). Schedules of reinforcement. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
Fouts, R. S. (1973). Acquisition and testing of gestural signs in four young chimpanzees. Science, 180, 978980.Google Scholar
Freeman, F. S. (1985). A reflection: Howard Scott Liddell, 1895–1962. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 21, 372374.Google Scholar
Freeman, K., & Riley, A. (2009). The origins of conditioned taste aversion learning: An historical analysis. In Reilly, S. & Schachtman, T. (Eds.) Conditioned taste aversion: Behavioral and neural processes (New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Gaioni, S., Hoffman, H. S., DePaulo, P., & Stratton, V. N. (1978). Imprinting in older ducklings. Animal Learning & Behavior, 6, 1926.Google Scholar
Gantt, W. H. (1928). Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov: A biographical sketch. In Pavlov, I. P. (Ed.) Lectures on conditioned reflexes: Twenty-five years of objective study of the higher nervous activity (Behaviour) of animals (pp. 1131). London; Lawrence & Wishart, Ltd.Google Scholar
Gantt, W. H. (1936). An experimental approach to psychiatry. American Journal of Psychiatry, 92, 10071021.Google Scholar
Gantt, W. H. (1937). Contributions to the physiology of the conditioned reflex. Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry, 87, 848858.Google Scholar
Gantt, W. H. (1938). A method of testing cortical function and sensitivity of the skin: An aid in differentiating organogenic and psychogenic disturbances. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 40, 7985.Google Scholar
Gantt, W. H. (1944). Experimental basis for neurotic behavior. New York: Hoebner Inc.Google Scholar
Gantt, W. H. (1970). The future of psychiatry. In Gantt, W. H., Pickenhain, L. & Zwingmann, Ch. (Eds.) Pavlovian approach to psychopathology: History and perspectives. Leipzig: Pergamon.Google Scholar
Gantt, W. H. (1973). Reminiscences of Pavlov. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 20, 131136.Google Scholar
Garcia, J. (1997). Robert C. Bolles: From mathematics to motivation. In Bouton, M. E. and Fanselow, M. S. (Eds.) Learning, motivation, and cognition: The functional behaviorism of Robert C. Bolles (pp. xi–xiii). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
Garcia, J., & Koelling, R. A. (1966). Relation of cue to consequence in avoidance learning. Psychonomic Science, 4, 123124.Google Scholar
Garcia, J., Clarke, J. C., & Hankins, W. G. (1973). Natural responses to scheduled rewards. In Bateson, P. P. G. & Klopfer, P. H. (Eds.) Perspectives in ethology (pp. 141). Springer.Google Scholar
Garcia, J., Erwin, F. R., & Koelling, R. A. (1966). Learning with prolonged delay of reinforcement. Psychonomic Science, 5, 121122.Google Scholar
Garcia, J., Kimmeldorf, D. J., & Koelling, R. A. (1955). Conditioned aversion to saccharin resulting from exposure to gamma radiation. Science, 122, 157158.Google Scholar
Gardner, B. T. & Gardner, R. A. (1971). Two-way communication with an infant chimpanzee. In Shrier, A. M. & Stollnitz, F. (Eds.) Behavior of non-human primates: Modern research trends (Vol 4, pp. 117185). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Gardner, R. A. & Gardner, B. T. (1969). Teaching sign language to a chimpanzee. Science, 165, 664672.Google Scholar
Gardner, R. A. & Gardner, B. T. (1978). Comparative psychology and language acquisition. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 309, 3776.Google Scholar
Gardner, R. A. & Gardner, B. T. (1984). A vocabulary test for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 98, 381404.Google Scholar
George, D. N. & Pearce, J. M. (2012). A configural theory of attention and associative learning. Learning & Behavior, 40, 241254.Google Scholar
Gleitman, H. (1981). Psychology. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
Gleitman, H., Nachmias, J., & Neisser, U. (1954). The S-R reinforcement theory of extinction. Psychological Review, 61, 2333.Google Scholar
Gliedman, L. H., Gantt, W. H., & Teitelbaum, H. A. (1957). Some implications of conditional reflex studies for placebo research. American Journal of Psychiatry, 113, 11031107.Google Scholar
Gluck, M. & Roediger, H. (2011). Remembering William K. Estes. APS Observer, Nov 2 edition.Google Scholar
Glucksberg, S. (2017). Obituary of Leon Kamin on the Department of Psychology, Princeton University website. https://psych.princeton.edu › news-events › news › me…Google Scholar
Gonzalez, R. C., Berger, B. D., & Bitterman, M. E. (1966). A further comparison of key-pecking with an ingestive technique for the study of discriminative learning in pigeons. American Journal of Psychology, 79, 217225.Google Scholar
Gonzalez, R. C., Gentry, G. V., & Bitterman, M. E. (1954). Relational discrimination of intermediate size in the chimpanzee. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 47, 385388.Google Scholar
Gormezano, I. & Kehoe, E.J. (1975). Classical conditioning: Some methodological-conceptual issues. Handbook of Learning and Cognitive Process, 2, 143179.Google Scholar
Goodale, M. A. (2020). Lawrence Weiskrantz, 1926–2018. Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, 69, 539559.Google Scholar
Gray, J. A. (1979). Pavlov. Brighton, Sussex: Harvester Press.Google Scholar
Greenspoon, J. (1955). The reinforcing effect of two spoken sounds on the frequency of two responses. American Journal of Psychology, 68, 409416.Google Scholar
Griffiths, P. E. (2004). Instinct in the ’50s: The British reception of Konrad Lorenz’s theory of instinctive behavior. Biology and Philosophy, 19, 609631.Google Scholar
Grindley, G. C. (1929). Experiments on the influence of amount of reward on learning in young chickens. British Journal of Psychology, 20, 173180.Google Scholar
Grindley, G. C. (1932). The formation of a simple habit in guinea pigs. British Journal of Psychology, 23, 127.Google Scholar
Guthrie, E. R. (1952). The psychology of learning. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
Guttman, N. & Kalish, H. I. (1956). Discriminability and stimulus generalization. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 51, 7988.Google Scholar
Hall, G. (1973). Response strategies after overtraining in the jumping stand. Animal Learning & Behavior, 1, 157160.Google Scholar
Hall, G. (1974). Transfer effects produced by overtraining in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 87, 938944.Google Scholar
Hall, G. (unpublished). Autobiography.Google Scholar
Hall, G. & Pearce, J. M. (1978). Transfer of learning across reinforcers: Appetitive discrimination learning between stimuli previously associated with shock. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 30, 539549.Google Scholar
Hall, G. & Pearce, J. M. (1979). Latent inhibition of a CS during CS-US pairings. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 5, 3142.Google Scholar
Halliday, M. S. (1979). Jerzy Konorski and Western psychology. In Dickinson, A. & Boakes, R. A. (Eds.) Mechanisms of learning and motivation: A memorial volume to Jerzy Konorski (pp. 118). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Halliday, M. S. & Boakes, R. A. (1971). Behavioral contrast and response-independent reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 16, 429434.Google Scholar
Halliday, M. S. & Boakes, R. A. (1972). Discrimination learning involving response-independent reinforcement: Implications for behavioral contrast. In Boakes, R. A. & Halliday, M. S. (Eds.) Inhibition and learning (pp. 7397). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Hanson, H. M. (1959). Effects of discrimination training on stimulus generalization. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 321334.Google Scholar
Harlow, H. F. (1949) The formation of learning sets. Psychological Review, 56, 5165.Google Scholar
Harlow, H. F. (1953). Mice, monkeys, men and motives. Psychological Review, 60, 2332.Google Scholar
Harlow, H. F. (1958). The nature of love. American Psychologist, 13, 673685Google Scholar
Harlow, H. F. & Stagner, R. (1933). Effect of complete striate muscle paralysis upon the learning process. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 16, 283294Google Scholar
Harlow, H. F., Harlow, M. K., & Meyer, D. F. (1950). Learning motivated by a manipulation drive. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 40, 228234.Google Scholar
Harris, J., Andrew, B., & Kwok, D. (2013). Magazine approach during a signal for food depends on Pavlovian, not Instrumental, conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 39, 107116.Google Scholar
Harris, J. A., Kwok, D. W. S., & Gottlieb, D. A. (2019). The partial reinforcement extinction effect depends on learning about non-reinforced trials rather than reinforcement rate. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition, 45, 485501.Google Scholar
Hayes, C. (1951). The ape in our house. Harper.Google Scholar
Hayes, K. J. & Hayes, C. (1950). The intellectual development of a home-raised chimpanzee. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 95, 105109.Google Scholar
Hayes, K. J. & Hayes, C. (1952). Imitation in a home-raised chimpanzee. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 45, 450459.Google Scholar
Hayes, K. J. & Hayes, C. (1954). The cultural capacity of chimpanzee. Human Biology, 26, 288303.Google Scholar
Hearst, E. (1972). Some persistent problems in the analysis of conditioned inhibition. In Boakes, R. A. & Halliday, M. S. (Eds.) Inhibition and learning (pp. 539). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Hearst, E., & Jenkins, H. M. (1974). Sign-tracking: The stimulus-reinforcer relation and directed action. Psychonomic Society.Google Scholar
Hefferline, R. F., Keenan, B., & Harford, R. A. (1959). Escape and avoidance conditioning in human subjects without their observation of the response. Science, 130, 13381339.Google Scholar
Herman, L. M. (1975). Interference and auditory short-term memory in the bottlenose dolphin. Animal Learning & Behavior, 3, 4348.Google Scholar
Herman, L. M. (2010). What laboratory research has told us about dolphin cognition. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 23, 310330.Google Scholar
Herman, L. M. & Arbeit, W. R. (1973). Stimulus control and auditory discrimination learning sets in the bottlenose dolphin. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 19, 379394.Google Scholar
Herman, L. M. & Gordon, J. A. (1974). Auditory delayed matching in the bottlenose dolphin. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 21, 1926.Google Scholar
Herman, L. M., Beach, F. A. III, Pepper, R. L., & Stalling, R. B. (1969). Learning-set formation in the bottlenose dolphin. Psychonomic Science, 14, 9899.Google Scholar
Herrnstein, R. J. (1961). Relative and absolute strength of response as a function of frequency of reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 4, 267272.Google Scholar
Herrnstein, R. J. (1962). Placebo effect in the rat. Science, 138, 677678.Google Scholar
Herrnstein, R. J. (1970). On the Law of Effect. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 13, 243266.Google Scholar
Herrnstein, R. J. (1971). IQ. Atlantic Monthly, September issue.Google Scholar
Herrnstein, R. J. & Boring, E. B. (1965). A source book in the history of psychology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Herrnstein, R. J. & Brady, J. V. (1958). Interaction among components of a multiple schedule. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1, 293300.Google Scholar
Herrnstein, R. J. & Loveland, D. H. (1964). Complex visual concept in the pigeon. Science, 146, 549551.Google Scholar
Heth, C. D. (1976). Simultaneous and backward fear conditioning as a function of number of CS-UCS pairings. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 2, 117129.Google Scholar
Hilgard, E. R. (1967). Kenneth Wartinbee Spence: 1907–1967. American Journal of Psychology, 80, 314318.Google Scholar
Hilgard, E. R. & Marquis, D. G. (1940). Conditioning and learning. New York: D. Appleton-Century Company.Google Scholar
Hill, W. F. (1966). The psychology of animal learning by N.J. Mackintosh. American Journal of Psychology, 89, 190192.Google Scholar
Hinde, R. A. (1973). Constraints on learning: An introduction to the problems. In Hinde, R. A. & Stevenson-Hinde, J. (Eds.) Constraints on learning: Limitations and predispositions (pp. 119). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Hinde, R. A. (1987). William Homan Thorpe. Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, 33, 621639.Google Scholar
Hinde, R. A. & Spencer-Booth, Y. (1967). The behaviour of socially living rhesus monkeys in their first two and a half years. Animal Behaviour, 15, 169196.Google Scholar
Hinde, R. A. & Spencer-Booth, Y. (1971). Effects of brief separation from mother on rhesus monkeys. Science, 173, 111118.Google Scholar
Hinde, R. A., Thorpe, W. H., & Vince, M. A. (1956). The following response of young coots and moorhens. Behaviour, 9, 214242.Google Scholar
Hineline, P. N. & Rachlin, H. (1969). Escape and avoidance of shock by pigeons pecking a key. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 12, 533538.Google Scholar
Hodos, W. (1961). Progressive ratio as a measure of reward strength. Science, 134, 943944.Google Scholar
Hoffman, A. M. & Hoffman, H. S. (1990). Archives of memory: A soldier recalls World War II. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.Google Scholar
Hoffman, H. S. & Ison, J. R. (1980). Reflex modification in the domain of startle: 1. Some empirical findings and their implications for how the nervous system processes sensory input. Psychological Review, 87, 175189.Google Scholar
Hoffman, H. S. & Ratner, A. M. (1973). A reinforcement mode of imprinting: Implications for socialization in monkeys and men. Psychological Review, 80, 527544.Google Scholar
Hogan, J. A. (1973). How young chicks learn to recognize food. In Hinde, R. A. & Stevenson-Hinde, J. (Eds.) Constraints on learning: Limitations and predispositions (pp. 119139). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Holland, P. C. (1977). Conditioned stimulus as a determinant of the form of the Pavlovian conditioned response. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 3, 77104.Google Scholar
Holland, P. C. & Rescorla, R. A. (1975a). Second-order conditioning with food unconditioned stimulus. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 88, 459467.Google Scholar
Holland, P. C. & Rescorla, R. A. (1975b). The effect of two ways of devaluing the unconditioned stimulus after first- and second-order appetitive conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 1, 355363.Google Scholar
Holman, E. W. (1975). Some conditions for the dissociation of consummatory and instrumental behavior in rats. Learning and Motivation, 6, 358366.Google Scholar
Holmes, N. M., Chan, Y. Y., & Westbrook, R. F. (2020). An application of Wagner’s Standard Operating Procedures or Sometimes Opponent Processes (SOP) model to experimental extinction. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition, 46(3), 215234.Google Scholar
Honig, W. K. (1966). Introductory remarks. In Operant behavior: Areas of research and application. (Edited by Honig, W. K.). pp. 111. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
Hull, C. L. (1929). A functional interpretation of the conditioned reflex. Psychological Review, 36, 498511.Google Scholar
Hull, C. L. (1930). Simple trial-and-error learning: A study in psychological theory. Psychological Review, 37, 241256.Google Scholar
Hull, C. L. (1931). Knowledge and purpose as habit mechanisms. Psychological Review, 37, 511525.Google Scholar
Hull, C. L. (1943). Principles of behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
Hull, C. L. (1951). Essentials of behavior. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Hull, C. L. (1952a). Clark L. Hull. In Boring, E. G., Langfeld, H. S, Werner, H. & Yerkes, R. M. (Eds.) A history of psychology in autobiography (Vol. 4). Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.Google Scholar
Hull, C. L. (1952b). A behavior system. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Hull, C. L. & Baernstein, H. D. (1929). A mechanical parallel to the conditioned reflex. Science, 70, 1415.Google Scholar
Hulse, S. H., Fowler, H., & Honig, W. K. (1978). Cognitive processes in animal behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Hurwitz, H. (1953). A new rat-pellet feeding machine. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 5, 36.Google Scholar
James, H. (1959). Flicker: An unconditional stimulus for imprinting. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 13, 5967.Google Scholar
James, W. (1890). Principles of psychology. New York: Holt.Google Scholar
Jaynes, J. (1956). Imprinting: The interaction of learned and innate behavior. I. Development and generalization. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 49, 201206.Google Scholar
Jaynes, J. (1957). Imprinting: The interaction of learned and innate behavior. II. The critical period. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 50, 610.Google Scholar
Jaynes, J. (1958a). Imprinting: The interaction of learned and innate behavior. III. Practice effects on performance, retention and fear. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 51, 234237.Google Scholar
Jaynes, J. (1958b). Imprinting: The interaction of learned and innate behavior. IV. Generalization and emergent discrimination. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 51, 238242.Google Scholar
Jenkins, H. M. (1973). Effects of the stimulus-reinforcer relation on selected and unselected responses. In Hinde, R. A. & Stevenson-Hinde, J. (Eds.) Constraints on learning: Limitations and predispositions (pp. 189203). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Jenkins, H. M. & Harrison, R. H. (1960). Effect of discrimination training on auditory generalization. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 59, 246253.Google Scholar
Jenkins, H. M. & Harrison, R. H. (1962). Generalization gradients of inhibition following auditory discrimination learning. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 5, 435441.Google Scholar
Jenkins, H. M. & Moore, B. R. (1973). The form of the auto-shaped response with food or water reinforcers. Journal of the Experimental analysis of Behavior, 20, 163181.Google Scholar
Jenkins, H. M., Barrera, F. J., Ireland, C., & Woodside, B. (1978). Signal-centered action patterns of dogs in appetitive classical conditioning. Learning & Motivation, 9, 272296.Google Scholar
Kamin, L. J. (1956). The effects of termination of the CS and avoidance of the US on avoidance learning. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 49, 420424.Google Scholar
Kamin, L. J. (1957). The effects of termination of the CS and avoidance of the US on avoidance learning: An extension. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 11, 4856.Google Scholar
Kamin, L. J. (1968). “Attention-like” processes in classical conditioning. In Jones, M. R. (Ed.), Miami Symposium on the prediction of behavior, 1967: Aversive stimulation (pp. 931). Coral Gables, FL: University of Miami Press.Google Scholar
Kamin, L. J. (1969a). Predictability, surprise, attention, and conditioning. In Church, R. & Campbell, B. (Eds.) Punishment and aversive behavior (pp. 279296). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
Kamin, L. J. (1969b). Selective association and conditioning. In Mackintosh, N. J. & Honig, W. K. (Eds.) Fundamental issues in associative learning (pp. 4264). Halifax, Nova Scotia: Dalhousie University Press.Google Scholar
Kamin, L. J. (1974). The science and politics of IQ. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Kamin, L. J. (2005). McCarthyism at Harvard, cont’d. New York Review of Books, May 26th issue.Google Scholar
Kamin, L. J. & Gaioni, S. J. (1974). Compound conditioned emotional response conditioning with differentially salient elements in rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 87, 591597.Google Scholar
Kamin, L. J., Brimer, C. J., & Black, A. H. (1963). Conditioned suppression as a monitor of fear of the CS in the course of avoidance training. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 56, 497501.Google Scholar
Karpicke, J., Christoph, G., Peterson, G., & Hearst, E. (1977). Signal location and positive versus negative conditioned suppression in the rat. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 3, 105118.Google Scholar
Katz, J. S., & Wright, A. A. (2006). Same/different abstract-concept learning by pigeons. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 32(1), 8086.Google Scholar
Keller, F. S. (1941). Light-aversion in the white rat. The Psychological Record, 4, 235250.Google Scholar
Keller, F. S. (1970). Psychology at Harvard (1926–1931): A reminiscence. In Dews, P. B. (Ed.) Festschrift for B.F. Skinner (pp. 2936). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
Keller, F. S. (1986). A fire in Schermerhorn Extension. The Behavior Analyst, 9, 139146.Google Scholar
Keller, F. S. (2009). At my own pace: The autobiography of Fred S. Keller. Cornwall-on-Hudson, NY: Sloan Publishing.Google Scholar
Keller, F. S. & Schoenfeld, W. N. (1950). Principles of psychology: A systematic text in the science of behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
Keller, K. (1974). The role of elicited responding in behavioral contrast. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 21, 249257.Google Scholar
Kellogg, W. N. (1931). Humanizing the ape. Psychological Review, 38, 160176.Google Scholar
Kellogg, W. N. (1961). Porpoises and sonar. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Kellogg, W. N. & Kellogg, L. A. (1933). The ape and the child. New York: Whittlesea House (McGraw-Hill).Google Scholar
Kellogg, W. N. & Rice, C. E. (1963). Visual discrimination in a bottlenose porpoise. Psychological Record, 13, 483498.Google Scholar
Kellogg, W. F. & Rice, C. E. (1964). Visual problem-solving in a bottlenose dolphin. Science, 143, 10521055.Google Scholar
Kellogg, W. N. & Rice, C. E. (1966). Visual discrimination and problem-solving in a bottle-nose dolphin. In Norris, K. S. (Ed.) Whales, dolphins and porpoises. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Kendler, H. H. (1952). “What is learned?” – A theoretical blind alley. Psychological Review, 59, 269277.Google Scholar
Kendler, H. H. (1989). The Iowa tradition. American Journal of Psychology, 44, 11241132.Google Scholar
Kendler, H. H. & Kendler, T. S. (1962). Vertical and horizontal processes in problem solving. Psychological Review, 69, 116.Google Scholar
Kendler, T. S. (1950). An experimental investigation of transposition as a function of the difference between training and test stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 40, 552562.Google Scholar
Kendler, T. S. (2003). A woman’s struggle in academic psychology (1936–2001). History of Psychology, 6, 251266.Google Scholar
Killeen, P. (1972). The matching law. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 17, 489495.Google Scholar
Killeen, P. R. & Pellón, R. (2013). Adjunctive behaviors are operants. Learning & Behavior, 41, 124.Google Scholar
Kimble, G. A. (1961). Hilgard and Marquis’ Conditioning and Learning. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
Kimble, G. A. (1986). Norman Guttman (1920–1984). American Psychologist, 41, 579580.Google Scholar
Kimble, G. A. (1991). Kenneth W. Spence: Theorist with an empiricist conscience. In Kimble, G. A. & Wertheimer, M. (Eds.) Portraits of pioneers in psychology (Vol. III, pp. 277294). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
Kimmel, H. D. (1977). Notes from “Pavlov’s Wednesdays”: Sensory preconditioning. American Journal of Psychology, 90, 319321.Google Scholar
Kirk, R. G. W. & Ramsden, E. (2018). Working across species down on the farm: Howard S. Liddell and the development of comparative psychopathology, c.1923–1962. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences, 40, 24.Google Scholar
Koch, S. (1944). Hull’s Principles of Behavior: A special review. Psychological Bulletin, 41, 269286.Google Scholar
Koehler, W. (1925). The mentality of apes. New York: Harcourt Brace.Google Scholar
Koehler, W. (1941). On the nature of associations. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 84, 489502.Google Scholar
Konorski, J. (1948). Conditioned reflexes and neuron organization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Konorski, J. (1967). Integrative activity of the brain. Chicago: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
Konorski, J. & Miller, S. (1937). On two types of conditioned reflex. Journal of General Psychology, 16, 264272.Google Scholar
Krech, D. (1974). Autobiographical sketch. In Lindzey, G. (Ed.) A history of psychology in autobiography (Vol. VI, pp. 221250). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
Krechevsky, I. (1932). Antagonistic visual discrimination habits in the white rat. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 14, 263277.Google Scholar
Ladygina-Kohts, N. (1926). The study of cognitive faculties of the chimpanzee. Humana Mente, 1, 391393.Google Scholar
Lashley, K. S. (1912). Visual discrimination of size and form in the albino rat. Journal of Animal Behavior, 2, 310331.Google Scholar
Lashley, K. S. (1929). Brain mechanisms and intelligence. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Lashley, K. S. (1930). The mechanism of vision: I. A method for rapid analysis of pattern vision in the rat. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 37, 453460.Google Scholar
Lashley, K. S. (1942). An examination of the continuity theory as applied to discrimination learning. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 26, 241265.Google Scholar
Lashley, K. S., & Wade, M. (1946). The Pavlovian theory of generalization. Psychological Review, 53, 7287.Google Scholar
Lawrence, D. H. (1949). Acquired distinctiveness of cues, I: Transfer between discriminations on the basis of familiarity with the stimulus. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 39, 770784.Google Scholar
Lawrence, D. H. (1950). Acquired distinctiveness of cues, II: Selective association in a constant stimulus situation. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 40, 175188.Google Scholar
Lawrence, D. H. (1952). The transfer of a discrimination along a continuum. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 45, 511516.Google Scholar
Lawrence, D. H. & DeRivera, J. (1954). Evidence for relational transposition. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 47, 465471.Google Scholar
Lea, S. (2014). Professor Leslie Reid (1924–2014). The psychologist. British Psychological Society.Google Scholar
Leahey, T. H. (2004). A history of psychology. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.Google Scholar
Lewontin, R. C., Rose, S., & Kamin, L. J. (1984). Not in our genes (p. 7). New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
Liddell, H. S. (1925). The behavior of sheep and goats in learning a simple maze. American Journal of Psychology, 36, 544552.Google Scholar
Liddell, H. S. (1938). The experimental neurosis and the problem of mental disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 94, 10351043.Google Scholar
Liddell, H. S. (1953). Emotional hazards in animals and man. Springfield, IL: Thomas.Google Scholar
Lilly, J. C. (1961). Man and dolphin. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
Logan, F. A., & Wagner, A. R. (1965). Reward and punishment. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
LoLordo, V. M. (2021). Robert A. Rescorla: A biographical memoir. Washington: National Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
LoLordo, V. M. & Overmier, J. B. (2011). Trauma, learned helplessness, its neuroscience, and implications for posttraumatic stress disorder. In Schachtman, T. R. & Reilly, S. (Eds.) Associative learning and conditioning theory: Human and non-human applications (pp. 121151). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Longuet-Higgins, C. (1998). Obituary of Stuart Sutherland on the University of Sussex website.Google Scholar
Lorenz, K. (1935). Der Kumpan in der Umwelt des Vogels. Journal fur Ornithology, 83, pt. 23.Google Scholar
Lorenz, K. (1937). The companion in the bird’s world. Auk, 54, 245273.Google Scholar
Lorenz, K. (1952). King Solomon’s Ring. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
Lorenz, K. (1966). On Aggression. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Lorenz, K. (1985). My family and other animals. In Dewsbury, D. A. (Ed.) Leaders in the Study of Animal Behavior: Autobiographical Perspectives (pp. 285287). London and Toronto: Associated University Presses.Google Scholar
Lovibond, P. F., & Shanks, D. R. (2002). The role of awareness in Pavlovian conditioning: Empirical evidence and theoretical implications. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 28, 326.Google Scholar
Macfarlane, D. A. (1930). The role of kinaesthesis in maze learning. University of California Publications in Psychology, 4, 277305.Google Scholar
Mackintosh, N. J. (1962). The effect of overtraining on a reversal and a non-reversal shift. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 555559.Google Scholar
Mackintosh, N. J. (1965). Selective attention in animal discrimination learning. Psychological Bulletin, 64, 124150.Google Scholar
Mackintosh, N. J. (1969a). Further analysis of the overtraining reversal effect. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Monograph, 67(2), 118.Google Scholar
Mackintosh, N. J. (1969b). Comparative studies of reversal and probability learning: Rats, birds and fish. In Gilbert, R. M. & Sutherland, N. S. (Eds.) Animal discrimination learning (pp. 137160). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Mackintosh, N. J. (1971). An analysis of blocking and overshadowing. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 23, 118125.Google Scholar
Mackintosh, N. J. (1974). The psychology of animal learning. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Mackintosh, N. J. (1975a). A theory of attention: Variations in the associability of stimuli with reinforcement. Psychological Review, 82, 276298.Google Scholar
Mackintosh, N. J. (1975b). Critical notice: Kamin, L.J., The science and politics of IQ. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 27, 672686.Google Scholar
Mackintosh, N. J. (1990). B.F. Skinner (1904–1990). Nature, 347, 332.Google Scholar
Mackintosh, N. J. (1998a). IQ and human intelligence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Mackintosh, N. J. (1998b). Obituary: Professor Stuart Sutherland. Independent Newspaper, 18 Nov 1998.Google Scholar
Mackintosh, N. J. & Dickinson, A. (1979). Instrumental (Type II) conditioning. In Dickinson, A. & Boakes, R. A. (Eds.) Mechanisms of learning and motivation: A memorial volume to Jerzy Konorski (pp. 143169). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Mackintosh, N. J. & Honig, W. K. (1969). Fundamental issues in associative learning. Halifax: Dalhousie University Press.Google Scholar
Mackintosh, N. J. & Mackintosh, J. (1963). Reversal learning in Octopus vulgaris Lamarck with and without irrelevant cues. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 15, 236242.Google Scholar
Mackintosh, N. J. & Turner, C. (1971). Blocking as a function of novelty of CS and predictability of UCS. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 23, 359366.Google Scholar
Mackintosh, N. J. & Mascie-Taylor, C. G. N. (1986). The IQ question. In Bagley, C. & Verma, G. K. (Eds.) Personality, cognition and values (pp. 77131). London: Macmillan Press.Google Scholar
Mackintosh, N. J., Mascie-Taylor, C. G. N., & West, A. M. (1988). West Indian and Asian children’s educational attainment. In Verma, G. & Pumfrey, P. (Eds.) Educational attainments: Issues and outcomes in multicultural education. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Mackintosh, N. J., Wilson, B. J., Boakes, R. A. & Barlow, H. B. (1985). Differences in mechanism of intelligence among vertebrates. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences, 308, 5365.Google Scholar
Macphail, E. M. (1982). Brain and intelligence in vertebrates. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
Macphail, E. M. (1987). The comparative psychology of intelligence. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 10, 645695.Google Scholar
Maier, N. R. F. (1929). Reasoning in white rats. Comparative Psychology Monographs, 6, 93.Google Scholar
Maier, S. F. (1970). Failure to escape traumatic electric shock: Incompatible skeletal-motor responses or Learned Helplessness? Learning and Motivation, 1, 157169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maier, S. F. & Seligman, M. E. P. (2016). Learned helplessness at fifty: Insights from neuroscience. Psychological Review, 123, 349367.Google Scholar
Maier, S. F., Albin, R. W., & Testa, T. J. (1973). Failure to learn to escape in rats previously exposed to inescapable shock depends on the nature of the escape response. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 85, 581592.Google Scholar
Masserman, J. H. (1943). Behavior and neurosis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Masserman, J. H. (1950). Experimental neuroses. Scientific American, 182, 3843.Google Scholar
Masserman, J. H. (1964). Behavior and neurosis: An experimental psychoanalytic approach to psychobiologic principles. New York: Hafner.Google Scholar
Masserman, J. H., Wechkin, H., & Terris, W. (1964). “Altruistic” behavior in rhesus monkeys. American Journal of Psychiatry, 121, 584585.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
May, M. A. (1971). A retrospective view of the Institute of Human Relations at Yale. Behavior Science Notes, 3, 141172.Google Scholar
McGuigan, F. J. (1980). W. Horsley Gantt: In memoriam. Pavlovian Journal of Biological Sciences, 15, 14.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGuigan, F. J. (1981). Obituary: W. Horsley Gantt (1892–1980). American Psychologist, 36, 417419.Google Scholar
McLaren, I. P. L. & Dickinson, A. (1990). The conditioning connection. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B, 329, 179185.Google ScholarPubMed
McLaren, I. P. L. & Mackintosh, N. J. (2000). An elemental model of associative learning: I. Latent inhibition and perceptual learning. Animal Learning & Behavior, 26, 211246.Google Scholar
Menzel, E. W. (1973). Chimpanzee spatial memory organization. Science, 182, 943945.Google Scholar
Miles, C. G. (1965). Acquisition of control by the features of a compound stimulus in discriminative operant conditioning. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, McMaster University,Google Scholar
Millenson, J. R. (1967). Principles of behavior analysis. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
Miller, N. E. (1935). A reply to “sign-gestalt or conditioned reflex?” Psychological Review, 42, 280292.Google Scholar
Miller, N. E. (1948). Studies of fear as an acquirable drive. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38, 89101.Google Scholar
Miller, N. E. (1952). Comments on multiple-process conceptions of learning. Psychological Review, 58, 375381.Google Scholar
Miller, N. E. & DiCara, L. (1967). Instrumental conditioning of heart rate changes in curarized rats: Shaping and specificity to discriminative stimulus. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 63, 1219.Google Scholar
Miller, S. & Konorski, J. (1928). Sur une forme particuliére des reflexes conditionels. Les Comptes Rendues des Séances de Société de Biologie, 99, 1155–1157. English translation by B.F. Skinner (1969), Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 12, 187–189.Google Scholar
Milner, B. (1965). Visually-guided maze learning in man: Effects of bilateral hippocampal, bilateral frontal, and unilateral cerebral lesions. Neuropsychologia, 3, 317338.Google Scholar
Moon, L. E., & Harlow, H. F. (1955). Analysis of oddity learning by rhesus monkeys. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 48(3), 188194.Google Scholar
Moore, B. R. (1973). The role of directed Pavlovian reactions in simple instrumental learning in the pigeon. In Hinde, R. A. & Stevenson-Hinde, J. (Eds.) Constraints on learning: Limitations and predispositions (pp. 159186). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Morawski, J. G. (1986). Organizing knowledge and behavior at Yale’s Institute of Human Relations. Isis, 77, 219242.Google Scholar
Morris, R. G. M. (1979). Preconditioning of reinforcing properties to an exteroceptive feedback stimulus. Learning & Motivation, 6, 289298.Google Scholar
Morris, R. G. M. (1981). Spatial localization does not require the presence of local cues. Learning and Motivation, 12, 239260.Google Scholar
Morris, R. G. M. (2008). Morris water maze. Scholarpedia, 3(8), 6315Google Scholar
Morris, R. G. M., Garrud, P., Rawlins, J. N. P., & O’Keefe, J. (1982). Place navigation impaired in rats with hippocampal lesions. Nature, 297, 681683.Google Scholar
Morrison, G. R. & Collyer, R. (1974). Taste-mediated conditioned aversion to an exteroceptive stimulus following LiCl poisoning. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 86, 5155.Google Scholar
Morse, W. H. (2017). Contributions of Peter B. Dews (1922–2012) to the experimental analysis of behavir: A personal perspective and appreciation. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 107, 295300.Google Scholar
Mowrer, O. H. (1939). A stimulus-response analysis of anxiety and its role as a reinforcing agent. Psychological Review, 46, 553565.Google Scholar
Mowrer, O. H. (1947). On the dual nature of learning: A re-interpretation of ‘conditioning’ and ‘problem-solving’. Harvard Educational Review, 17, 12148.Google Scholar
Mowrer, O. H. (1948). Learning theory and the neurotic paradox. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 18, 571610.Google Scholar
Mowrer, O. H. (1960a). Learning theory and behavior. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
Mowrer, O. H. (1960b). Learning theory and the symbolic processes. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
Mowrer, O. H. (1973). My philosophy of psychotherapy. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 6, 3542.Google Scholar
Mowrer, O. H. (1974). Autobiography. In Lindzey, G. (Ed.) A history of psychology in autobiography (pp. 327364). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
Mowrer, O. H. (1980). Enuresis: The beginning work – What really happened. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 16, 2530.Google Scholar
Mowrer, O. H. & Lamoreaux, R. R. (1942). Avoidance conditioning and signal duration: A study of secondary motivation and reward. Psychological Monographs, 54(5), 34.Google Scholar
Mowrer, O. H. & Lamoreaux, R. R. (1946). Fear as an intervening variable in avoidance conditioning. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 39, 2950.Google Scholar
Mowrer, O. H. & Miller, N. E. (1942). A multi-purpose learning-demonstration apparatus. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 31, 163171.Google Scholar
Mowrer, O. H. & Solomon, L. N. (1954). Contiguity vs. drive reduction in conditioned fear: The proximity and abruptness of drive-reduction. American Journal of Psychology, 67, 1525.Google Scholar
Mowrer, O. H. & Viek, P. (1948). An experimental analogue of fear from a sense of helplessness. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 83, 193200.Google Scholar
Muenzinger, K. F. (1938). Vicarious trial-and-error at a choice point. I. A general survey of its relation to learning efficiency. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 53, 7586.Google Scholar
Munn, N. L. (1950). Handbook of psychological research on the rat. New York: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
Nairne, J. S. & Rescorla, R. A. (1981). Second-order conditioning with diffuse auditory reinforcers in the pigeon. Learning & Motivation, 12, 6591.Google Scholar
Neisser, U. (1967). Cognitive psychology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
Oberg, B. B. (1976). David Hartley and the association of ideas. Journal of the History of Ideas, 37, 441454.Google Scholar
Odling-Smee, F. J. (1975). The role of background stimuli and the inter-stimulus interval during Pavlovian conditioning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 27, 387392.Google Scholar
O’Keefe, J. (1976). Place units in the hippocampus of the freely moving rat. Experimental Neurology, 51, 78109.Google Scholar
O’Keefe, J. & Dostrovsky, J. (1971). The hippocampus as a spatial map: Preliminary evidence from unit activity in the freely moving rat. Brain Research, 34, 171175.Google Scholar
O’Keefe, J. & Nadel, L. (1978). The hippocampus as a cognitive map. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Olton, D. S. (1977). Spatial memory. Scientific American, 236, 8299.Google Scholar
Olton, D. S. & Samuelson, R. J. (1976). Remembrance of places passed: Spatial memory in rats. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 2, 97116.Google Scholar
Overmier, J. B. & Seligman, M. E. P. (1967). Effects of inescapable shock upon subsequent escape and avoidance responding. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 63, 2833.Google Scholar
Packard, M. G. & McGaugh, J. L. (1996). Inactivation of hippocampus or caudate nucleus with lidocaine differentially affects expression of place and response learning. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 65, 6572.Google Scholar
Page, C. (2017). Preserving guilt in the “age of psychology”: The curious career of O. Hobart Mowrer. History of Psychology, 20, 127.Google Scholar
Papini, M. (2008). Integrating learning, emotion, behavior theory, development, and neurobiology: The enduring legacy of Abram Amsel (1922–2006). American Journal of Psychology, 121, 661669.Google Scholar
Patten, R. L. & Rudy, J. W. (1967). The Sheffield omission training procedure applied to the conditioning of the licking response in rats. Psychonomic Science, 8, 463464.Google Scholar
Pavlov, I. P. (1927). Conditioned reflexes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Pavlov, I. P. (1928). Lectures on conditioned reflexes. New York: International Publishers.Google Scholar
Pavlov, I. P. (1932). Neuroses in man and animals. Journal of the American Medical Association, 99, 10121013.Google Scholar
Pavlov, I. P. (1941). Conditioned reflexes and psychiatry. New York: International Publishers.Google Scholar
Pavlov, I. P. (1962). Essays in psychology and psychiatry. New York: Citadel Press.Google Scholar
Pearce, J. M. (2008). Animal learning and cognition: An introduction. 3rd ed. Hove: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
Pearce, J. M. (2018). Nicholas John Seymour Mackintosh. Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, 64, 299316. London: Royal Society Publishing.Google Scholar
Pearce, J. M. & Hall, G. (1978). Overshadowing instrumental conditioning of a lever-press response by a more valid predictor of the reinforcer. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 4, 356367.Google Scholar
Pearce, J. M. & Hall, G. (1980). A model for Pavlovian learning: Variations in the effectiveness of conditioned but not of unconditioned stimuli. Psychological Review, 87, 532552.Google Scholar
Pearce, J. M. & Mackintosh, N. J. (2010). Two theories of attention: A review and possible integration. In Mitchell, C. J. & LePelley, M. E. (Eds.) Attention and associative learning (pp. 1139). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Pearce, J. M., Hall, G., & Colwill, R. M. (1978). Instrumental conditioning of scratching in the laboratory rat. Learning & Motivation, 9, 255271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Petrinovich, L. & Bolles, R. C. (1954). Deprivation states and behavioral attributes. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 47, 450453.Google Scholar
Pinker, S. (1994). The language instinct. New York: William Morrow and Company.Google Scholar
Premack, D. (1971). Language in chimpanzees? Science, 172, 808822.Google Scholar
Premack, D. & Woodruff, G. (1978). Does the chimpanzees have a theory of mind? Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 1, 515526.Google Scholar
Proctor, R. W., Martins, A. P. G., Altman, M. et al. (2022). Tribute to E. J. Capaldi: Celebration of a psychological scientist. American Journal of Psychology, 135, 199124.Google Scholar
Rachlin, H. (1974). Self-control. Behaviorism, 3, 94107.Google Scholar
Rachman, S. (2000). Joseph Wolpe (1915–1997). American Psychologist, 55, 431432.Google Scholar
Rashotte, M. E. (2007). Abram Amsel (1922–2006): In memoriam. Learning & Behavior, 35, 110.Google Scholar
Rashotte, M. E. & Amsel, A. (1967). Acquisition and extinction, within subjects, of a continuously rewarded response and a response learned under discontinuous negatively correlated reward. Psychonomic Science, 7, 258.Google Scholar
Ratner, A. M. & Hoffman, H. S. (1974). Evidence for a critical period for imprinting in Khaki Campbell ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus). Animal Behavior, 22, 249255.Google Scholar
Razran, G. (1956). Avoidant vs. unavoidant conditioning and partial reinforcement in Russian laboratories. American Journal of Psychology, 69, 127129.Google Scholar
Reid, L. S. (1953). The development of non-continuity behavior through continuity learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 46, 107112.Google Scholar
Rescorla, R. A. (1966). Predictability and number of pairings in Pavlovian fear conditioning. Psychonomic Science, 4, 383384.Google Scholar
Rescorla, R. A. (1967). Pavlovian conditioning and its proper control procedures. Psychological Review, 74, 7180.Google Scholar
Rescorla, R. A. (1968). Probability of shock in the presence and absence of CS in fear conditioning. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 66, 15.Google Scholar
Rescorla, R. A. (1969a). Pavlovian conditioned inhibition. Psychological Bulletin, 72, 7794.Google Scholar
Rescorla, R. A. (1969b). Establishment of a positive reinforcer through contrast with shock. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 67, 260263.Google Scholar
Rescorla, R. A. (1971). Variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and non-reinforcement following prior inhibitory conditioning. Learning and Motivation, 2, 113123.Google Scholar
Rescorla, R. A. (1973). Effect of US habituation following conditioning. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 82, 137143.Google Scholar
Rescorla, R. A. (1980a). Pavlovian second-order conditioning: Studies in associative learning. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Rescorla, R. A. (1980b). Simultaneous and successive associations in sensory preconditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 6, 207216.Google Scholar
Rescorla, R. A. (1997). Richard Lester Solomon: A biographical memoir. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
Rescorla, R. A. (2000). Associative changes in excitors and inhibitors differ when they are conditioned in compound. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 26, 428438.Google Scholar
Rescorla, R. A. & Cunningham, C. L. (1978). Recovery of the US representation over time during extinction. Learning and Motivation, 9, 373391.Google Scholar
Rescorla, R. A. & Freberg, L. (1978). The extinction of within-compound flavor associations. Learning & Motivation, 9, 411427.Google Scholar
Rescorla, R. A. & Heth, C. D. (1975). Reinstatement of fear to an extinguished conditioned stimulus. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 1, 8896.Google Scholar
Rescorla, R. A. & LoLordo, V. M. (1965). Inhibition of avoidance behavior. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 59, 406412.Google Scholar
Rescorla, R. A., & Solomon, R. L. (1967). Two-process learning theory: Relationships between Pavlovian conditioning and instrumental learning. Psychological Review, 74, 151182.Google Scholar
Rescorla, R. A. & Wagner, A. R. (1972). A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: Variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and non-reinforcement. In Black, A. H. & Prokasy, W. F. (Eds.) Classical conditioning II: Current research and theory (pp. 6499). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
Rescorla, R. A., Durlach, P., & Grau, J. W. (1985). Contextual learning in Pavlovian conditioning. In Balsam, P. D. & Tomie, A. (Eds.) Context and learning (pp. 2356). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Restle, F. (1957). Discrimination of cues in mazes: A resolution of the “place-vs.-response” question. Psychological Review, 64, 217228.Google Scholar
Revusky, S. (1971). The role of interference in association over a delay. In Honig, W. K. & James, P. H. R. (Eds.) Animal memory (pp. 155213) New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Revusky, S. (1977a). Interference with progress by the scientific establishment: Example from flavor aversion learning. In Milgram, N. W., Krames, L.. & Alloway, T. M (Eds.) Food aversion learning (pp. 5360). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
Revusky, S. (1977b). Learning as a general process with an emphasis on data from feeding experiments. In Milgram, N. W., Krames, L.. & Alloway, T. M (Eds.) Food aversion learning (pp. 152). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
Reynolds, G. S. (1961). Behavioral contrast. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 4, 5771.Google Scholar
Ribes Inesta, E. (2010). Remembranzas y reflexiones autobiográphica. Revista de Historia de la Psicología, 31, 3150.Google Scholar
Rilling, M. (1977). Stimulus control and inhibitory processes. In Honig, W. K. & Staddon, J. E. R. (Eds.) Handbook of operant behavior (pp. 432480). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc.Google Scholar
Ritchie, B. F. (1953). The circumnavigation of cognition. Psychological Review, 60, 216221.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rizley, R. C. & Rescorla, R. A. (1972). Associations in second-order conditioning and sensory pre-conditioning. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 81, 111.Google Scholar
Roberts, W. A. (1998). Principles of animal cognition. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
Roberts, W. A., Cruz, C., & Tremblay, J. (2007). Rats take correct novel routes and shortcuts in an enclosed maze. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 33, 7991.Google Scholar
Robinson, J. K. & Woodward, W. R. (1989). The convergence of behavioral biology and operant psychology: Toward an interlevel and interfield science. The Behavior Analyst, 12, 131141.Google Scholar
Roitblat, H. L., Bever, T. G., & Terrace, H. S. (1984). Animal cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Root, M. J. (2002). Keller, Fred S. (1899–1996), psychologist and educator. American National Biography Online. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Rozeboom, W. W. (1958). ‘What is learned?’ – An empirical enigma. Psychological Bulletin, 65, 2233.Google Scholar
Rudy, J. W., Iwens, J., & Best, P. J. (1977). Pairing novel exteroceptive cues and illness reduces illness-induced taste aversions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 3, 1425.Google Scholar
Ruiz, G. & Sánchez, N. (2016). W. Horsley Gantt, Nick, and the Pavlovian Science at Phipps Clinic. Spanish Journal of Psychology, 19, e71, 1–14.Google Scholar
Rusiniak, K. W., Hankins, W. G., Garcia, J., & Brett, L. P. (1979). Flavor-illness aversions: Potentiation of odor by taste in rats. Behavioral and Neural Biology, 25, 117.Google Scholar
Russell, B. (1927). An outline of philosophy. London: George Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
Rutherford, A. (2003). Skinner boxes for psychotics: Operant conditioning at the Metropolitan State Hospital. Behavior Analyst, 26, 267279.Google Scholar
Ryle, G. (1949). The concept of mind. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S., Murphy, J., Sevcik, R. A. et al. (1993). Language comprehension in ape and child. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 58(3/4), 198.Google Scholar
Schindler, C. W. (1993). Techniques in the behavioral and neural sciences (Ch. 3). New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
Schwartz, B. (1975). Discriminative stimulus location as a determinant of positive and negative behavioral contrast in the pigeon. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 23, 167176.Google Scholar
Schwartz, B. & Gamzu, E. (1977). Pavlovian control of operant behavior: An analysis of autoshaping and implications for operant conditioning. In Honig, W. K. & Staddon, J. E. R. (Eds.) Handbook of operant behavior (pp. 5397). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc.Google Scholar
Schwartzbaum, J. S. & Donovick, P. J. (1968). Discrimination reversal and spatial alternation associated with septal and caudate dysfunction in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 65, 8392.Google Scholar
Scoville, W. B. & Milner, B. (1957). Loss of recent memory after bilateral hippocampal lesions. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 20, 1121.Google Scholar
Seidenberg, M. S. & Petitto, L. A. (1979). Signing behaviour in apes: A critical review. Cognition, 7, 177215.Google Scholar
Seligman, M. E. P. & Beagley, G. (1975). Learned helplessness in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 88, 534541.Google Scholar
Seligman, M. E. P. & Maier, S. F. (1967). Failure to escape traumatic shock. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 74, 19.Google Scholar
Sheffield, F. D. (1965). Relation between classical conditioning and instrumental learning. In Prokasy, W. F. (Ed.) Classical conditioning: A symposium (pp. 302322). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
Sheffield, F. D. & Roby, T. B. (1950). Reward value of a non-nutritive sweet taste. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 43, 471481.Google Scholar
Sheffield, F. D., Wulff, J. J., & Backer, R. (1951). Reward value of copulation without sex drive reduction. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 44, 38.Google Scholar
Shepard, R. N. (1965). Approximation to uniform gradients of generalization by monotone transformations of scale. In Mostofsky, D. I. (Ed.) Stimulus generalization (pp. 94110). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Shettleworth, S. J. (1972). Constraints on learning. Advances in the Study of Behavior, 4, 168.Google Scholar
Shettleworth, S. J. (1973). Food reinforcement and the organization of behavior in golden hamsters. In Hinde, R. A. & Stevenson-Hinde, J. (Eds.) Constraints on learning: Limitations and predispositions (pp. 243263). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Shettleworth, S. J. (1975). Reinforcement and the organization of behavior in golden hamsters: Hunger, environment and food reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 1, 5687.Google Scholar
Shettleworth, S. J. (1998). Cognition, evolution and behavior. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Shettleworth, S. J. (2009). The evolution of comparative cognition: Is the snark still a boojum? Behavioural Processes, 80, 210217.Google Scholar
Shiffrin, R. M. & Schneider, W. (1977). Controlled and automatic human information processing: Perceptual learning, automatic attending, and a general theory. Psychological Review, 84, 127190.Google Scholar
Sidman, M. (1953). Avoidance conditioning with brief shock and no exteroceptive warning signal. Science, 118, 157158.Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1932). On the rate of formation of a conditioned reflex. Journal of General Psychology, 6, 2237.Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1935). Two types of conditioned reflex and a pseudo type. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 12, 6677.Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1938). The behavior of organisms. New York: D. Appleton-Century.Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1945). Baby in a box. Ladies Home Journal, October issue.Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1948a). Walden Two. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1948b). ‘Superstition’ in the pigeon. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38, 168172.Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1950). Are theories of learning necessary? Psychological Review, 57, 193216.Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1951). How to train an animal. Life Magazine.Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1954). The science of learning and the art of teaching. Harvard Educational Review, 24, 8697.Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1956). A case history in scientific method. American Psychologist, 11, 221233.Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1958). Teaching machines. Science, 128, 969977.Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1959). Cumulative record. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1960). Pigeons in a pelican. American Psychologist, 15, 2837.Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1965). Stimulus generalization in an operant: A historical note. In Mostofsky, D. I. (Ed.) Stimulus generalization (pp. 193209). Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1971). Beyond freedom and dignity. Cambridge, MA: Hackett Publishing Company.Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1976). Particulars of my life. London: Jonathan Cape.Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1979). The shaping of a behaviorist: Part Two of an Autobiography. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1983). A matter of consequences. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. & Estes, W. K. (1941). Some quantitative properties of anxiety. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 29, 390400.Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F., & Heron, W. T. (1937). Effects of caffeine and benzedrine upon conditioning and extinction. The Psychological Record, 1, 340346.Google Scholar
Sluckin, W. (1964). Imprinting and early learning. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
Sluckin, W. & Salzen, E. A. (1961). Imprinting and perceptual learning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 13, 6577.Google Scholar
Smith, L. D. (1986). Behaviorism and logical positivism: A re-assessment of the alliance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Smith, S. M., Brown, H. D., Toman, J. E. P, & Goodman, L. S. (1947). The lack of cerebral effects of d-tubocurarine. Anesthesiology, 8, 114.Google Scholar
Solomon, R. L., & Turner, L. H. (1962). Discriminative classical conditioning in dogs paralyzed by curare can later control discriminative avoidance responses in the normal state. Psychological Review, 69, 202218.Google Scholar
Solomon, R. L. & Wynne, L. C. (1950). Avoidance conditioning in normal dogs and in dogs deprived of normal autonomic functioning. American Psychologist, 5, 264. (Abstract).Google Scholar
Solomon, R. L. & Wynne, L. C. (1953). Traumatic avoidance learning: Acquisition in normal dogs. Psychological Monographs, 67(4).Google Scholar
Solomon, R. L., Kamin, L. J., & Wynne, L. C. (1953). Traumatic avoidance learning: The outcomes of several extinction procedures with dogs. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 48, 291302.Google Scholar
Spalding, D. A. (1954). Instinct, with original observations on young animals. British Journal of Animal Behaviour, 2, 211.Google Scholar
Spence, K. W. (1932). The order of eliminating blinds in maze learning by the rat. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 14, 927.Google Scholar
Spence, K. W. (1936). The nature of discrimination learning in animals. Psychological Review, 43, 427449.Google Scholar
Spence, K. W. (1937a). The differential response in animals to stimuli varying within a single dimension. Psychological Review, 44, 430444.Google Scholar
Spence, K. W. (1937b). Experimental studies of learning and the higher mental processes in infra-human primates. Psychological Bulletin, 34, 806850.Google Scholar
Spence, K. W. (1942). The basis of solution by chimpanzees of the intermediate size problem. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 31, 257271.Google Scholar
Spence, K. W. (1945). An experimental test of continuity and non-continuity theories of discrimination learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 35, 253266.Google Scholar
Spence, K. W. (1952). The nature of the response in discrimination learning. Psychological Review, 59, 8993.Google Scholar
Spence, K. W. & Lippitt, R. (1940). “Latent” learning of a simple maze problem with relevant needs satiated. Psychological Bulletin, 37, 429.Google Scholar
Spence, K. W. & Lippitt, R. (1946). An experimental test of the sign-gestalt theory of trial-and-error learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 36, 491502.Google Scholar
Staddon, J. E. R. (1968). Spaced responding and choice: A preliminary analysis. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 11, 669682.Google Scholar
Staddon, J. E. R. (1977). Schedule-induced behavior. In Honig, W. K. & Staddon, J. E. R. (Eds.) Handbook of operant behavior (pp. 125152). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
Staddon, J. E. R. (1992). The ‘superstition’ experiment: A reversible figure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 121, 270272.Google Scholar
Staddon, J. E. R. (2016). The Englishman: Memoirs of a psychobiologist. Buckingham, UK: University of Buckingham Press.Google Scholar
Staddon, J. E. R. & Simmelhag, V. L. (1971). The ‘superstition’ experiment: A re-examination of its implications for the principles of adaptive behaviour. Psychological Review, 78, 343.Google Scholar
Stevens, S. S. (1957). On the psychophysical law. Psychological Review, 64, 153181.Google Scholar
Sullivan, Walter (1995). Beatrix T. Gardner Dies at 61; Taught Signs to a Chimpanzee. New York Times, July 1, Section 1, p. 8.Google Scholar
Sutherland, N. S. (1959a). A test of a theory of shape discrimination in Octopus vulgaris Lamarck. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 52, 13141.Google Scholar
Sutherland, N. S. (1959b). Stimulus analyzing mechanisms. In Proceedings of a symposium on the mechanization of thought processes. (Vol. 2, pp. 575–609). London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.Google Scholar
Sutherland, N. S. (1976). Breakdown: A personal crisis and a medical dilemma. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson.Google Scholar
Sutherland, N. S. (1992). Irrationality: The enemy within. London: ConstableGoogle Scholar
Sutherland, N. S. & Mackintosh, N. J. (1971). Mechanisms of animal discrimination learning. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Sutherland, N. S., Mackintosh, N. J., & Mackintosh, J. (1963). Simultaneous discrimination training of octopus and transfer of discrimination along a continuum. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 56, 150156.Google Scholar
Terrace, H. S. (1963). Discrimination learning with and without ‘errors’. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 6, 127.Google Scholar
Terrace, H. S. (1966). Stimulus control. In Honig, W. K. (Ed.) Operant behavior: Areas of research and applications (pp. 271344). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
Terrace, H. (1979). Nim. New York: Alfred Knopf.Google Scholar
Terrace, H. S., Petitto, L. A., Sanders, R. J. & Bever, T. G. (1979). Can an ape create a sentence? Science, 206, 891–902.Google Scholar
Thistlethwaite, D. (1951). A critical review of latent learning and related experiments. Psychological Bulletin, 48, 97129.Google Scholar
Thompson, R. K. R. & Herman, L. M. (1977). Memory for lists of sounds by the bottle-nosed dolphin: Convergence of memory process with humans? Science, 195, 501503.Google Scholar
Thorndike, E. L. (1898). Animal intelligence: An experimental study of the associative processes in animals. Psychological Monographs, 2.Google Scholar
Thorndike, E. L. (1911). Animal intelligence. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
Thorndike, E. L. (1932). Reward and punishment in animal learning. Comparative Psychology Monographs, 8(4), 65.Google Scholar
Thorpe, W. H. (1958). The learning of song patterns by birds, with especial reference to the song of the chaffinch fringilla coelebs. Ibis, 100, 535570.Google Scholar
Timberlake, W. & Grant, D. L. (1975). Autoshaping in rats to the presentation of another rat predicting food. Science, 190, 690692.Google Scholar
Tinklepaugh, O. L. (1928). An experimental study of representative factors in monkeys. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 8, 197236.Google Scholar
Todes, D. F. (2014). Ivan Pavlov: A Russian life in science. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Tolman, E. C. (1932). Purposive behavior in animals and men. New York: Appleton-Century.Google Scholar
Tolman, E. C. (1948). Cognitive maps in rats and men. Psychological Review, 55, 189208.Google Scholar
Tolman, E. C. (1949). There is more than one kind of learning. Psychological Review, 56, 357369.Google Scholar
Tolman, E. C. & Gleitman, H. (1949). Studies in learning and motivation: I. Equal reinforcements in both end-boxes, followed by shock in one end-box. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 39, 810819.Google Scholar
Tolman, E. C. & Honzik, C. H. (1930). “Insight” in rats. University of California Publications in Psychology, 4, 215232.Google Scholar
Tolman, E. C., Ritchie, B. F., & Kalish, D. (1946a). Studies in spatial learning: I. Orientation and short-cut. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 35, 17.Google Scholar
Tolman, E. C., Ritchie, B. F., & Kalish, D. (1946b). Studies in spatial learning: II. Place learning versus response learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 36, 221229.Google Scholar
Tomie, A. (1976). Interference with autoshaping by prior context conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 2, 332334.Google Scholar
Trowill, J. A. (1967). Instrumental conditioning of the heart rate in the curarized rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 63, 711.Google Scholar
Vince, M. A. (1956). ‘String-pulling’ in birds: 1. Individual differences in wild adult great tits. British Journal of Animal Behaviour, 4, 111116.Google Scholar
Vogel, E. H., Ponce, F. P., & Wagner, A. R. (2018). The development and present status of the SOP model of associative learning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 72, 129.Google Scholar
vom Saal, W. (1967). Blocking the acquisition of stimulus control in operant discrimination learning. Unpublished Masters thesis, McMaster University.Google Scholar
vom Saal, W. & Jenkins, H. M. (1970). Blocking the development of stimulus control. Learning and Motivation, 1, 5264.Google Scholar
Wagner, A. R. (2008). Some observations and remembrances of Kenneth W. Spence. Learning & Behavior, 36, 169173.Google Scholar
Wagner, A. R. & Rescorla, R. A. (1972). Inhibition in Pavlovian conditioning: Application of a theory. In Boakes, R. A. & Halliday, M. S. (Eds.) Inhibition and learning (pp. 301336). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Wagner, A. R., Logan, F. A., Haberlandt, K., & Price, T. (1968). Stimulus selection in animal discrimination learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 76, 171180.Google Scholar
Wagner, A. R., Rudy, J. W. & Whitlow, J. W. (1973). Rehearsal in animal conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 97, 407426.Google Scholar
Walker, K. C. (1942). Effects of a discriminative stimulus transferred to a previously unassociated response. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 31, 312.Google Scholar
Warner, L. H. (1932). The attention span of the white rat. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 41, 5790.Google Scholar
Warren, J. M. (1965a). The comparative psychology of learning. Annual Review of Psychology, 16, 95118.Google Scholar
Warren, J. M. (1965b). Primate learning in comparative perspective. In Schrier, A. M., Harlow, H. F., & Stollnitz, F. (Eds.) Behavior of non-human primates: Modern research trends (Vol. 1, pp. 249281). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Warren, J. R. & Marshall, B. (1983). Unidentified curved bacilli on gastric epithelium in active chronic gastritis. Lancet, 1 (8336), 12731275.Google Scholar
Wasserman, E. A. (1973). Pavlovian conditioning with heat reinforcement produces stimulus-directed pecking in chicks. Science, 181, 875877.Google Scholar
Watson, J. B. (1907). Kinaesthetic and organic sensations: Their role in the reactions of the white rat to the maze. Psychological Monographs, 8(33).Google Scholar
Watson, J. B. (1914). Behavior: An introduction to comparative psychology. New York: Holt.Google Scholar
Watson, J. B. (1924). Behaviorism. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
Watson, J. B. & Lashley, K. S. (1915). Homing and related activity of birds. Washington, DC: Carnegie Institute.Google Scholar
Wearden, J. (2021). Marc Richelle (28th February 1930−6th January 2021). Timing & Time Perception 9, 123126.Google Scholar
Weisman, R. G. & Litner, J. S. (1969). Positive conditioned reinforcement of Sidman avoidance behavior in rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 68, 597603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weiss, J. M. (1968). Effects of coping responses on stress. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 65, 251260.Google Scholar
Westbrook, R. F. (1973). Failure to obtain positive behavioral contrast when pigeons press a bar. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 20, 499410.Google Scholar
Whitlow, J. W. (1975). Short-term memory in habituation and dishabituation. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 104, 189206.Google Scholar
Williams, D. R. & Williams, H. (1969). Auto-maintenance in the pigeon: Sustained pecking despite contingent non-reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 12, 511520.Google Scholar
Wilson, B. J., Mackintosh, N. J., & Boakes, R. A. (1985a). Matching and oddity learning in the pigeon: Transfer effects and the absence of relational learning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 37B, 295311.Google Scholar
Wilson, B. J., Mackintosh, N. J. & Boakes, R. A. (1985b). Transfer of relational rules in matching and oddity learning by pigeons and corvids. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 37B, 313332.Google Scholar
Wimmer, H. & Perner, J. (1983). Beliefs about beliefs: Representation and constraining function of wrong beliefs in young children’s understanding of deception. Cognition, 13, 103128.Google Scholar
Windholz, G. & Wyrwicka, W. (1996). Pavlov’s position toward Konorski and Miller’s distinction between Pavlovian and motor conditioning paradigms. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 31, 338349.Google Scholar
Winter, A. (2016). Cats on the couch: The experimental production of animal neurosis. Science in Context, 29, 77105.Google Scholar
Wodinsky, J. & Bitterman, M. E. (1957). Discrimination reversal in the fish. American Journal of Psychology, 70, 569576.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wodinsky, J. & Bitterman, M. E. (1959). Partial reinforcement in the fish. American Journal of Psychology, 72, 184199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wolpe, J. (1952). Experimental neuroses as learned behavior. British Journal of Psychology, 43, 243268.Google Scholar
Wood, F. G. (1973). Marine mammals and man: The navy’s porpoises and sea lions. Washington and New York: Robert B. Luce, Inc.Google Scholar
Wyrwicka, W. (1994). Jerzy Konorski (1903–1973) on the 20th anniversary of his death. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 18, 449453.Google Scholar
Yerkes, R. M. (1925). Almost human. New York: The Century Co.Google Scholar
Zangwill, O. (1977). Obituary: G.C. Grindley (1903–1976). Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 29, 15.Google Scholar
Zener, K. (1937). The significance of behavior accompanying conditioned salivary secretion for theories of the conditioned response. American Journal of Psychology, 50, 384403.Google Scholar
Zentall, T. R. & Hogan, D. (1978). Same/different concept learning in the pigeon: The effect of negative instances and prior adaptation to transfer stimuli. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 30, 177186.Google Scholar
Zimmer-Hart, C. L. & Rescorla, R. A. (1974). Extinction of Pavlovian conditioned inhibition. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 86.Google Scholar