Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5d6d958fb5-x8cck Total loading time: 0.664 Render date: 2022-11-28T16:45:55.313Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

6 - Bilād al-Shām, from the Fāṭimid conquest to the fall of the Ayyūbids (359–658/970–1260)

from PART II - EGYPT AND SYRIA (ELEVENTH CENTURY UNTIL THE OTTOMAN CONQUEST)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  28 March 2011

Maribel Fierro
Affiliation:
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid
Get access

Summary

The geo-political background

The old divisions of ajnād or military government created by the Umayyads and completed by the ʿAbbāsids were still being used in the middle of the seventh/thirteenth century by the Aleppan writer ʿIzz al-Dīn ibn Shaddād to describe Bilād al-Shām: these were Jordan, Palestine, Damascus, Ḥimṣ and Qinnasrīn. The border areas, called ‘ʿawāṣim’, between Antioch and Samosata formed the northern limit of this area, a border which changed over the centuries. The Euphrates was, in theory, the eastern border, but from the fourth/tenth to the seventh/thirteenth century, northern Syria and Upper Mesopotamia (Jazīra) remained closely linked. Politically the two areas were often under the same power or different branches of the same family, while, economically, a highly important trade route linked Baghdad to the Mediterranean through the Euphrates valley to Aleppo and then Antioch. Other routes went from Mosul to Aleppo passing through the western part of Upper Mesopotamia.

Southern Syria and Palestine were also linked to Baghdad by the Euphrates route as far as Raḥba, then across the steppe to Palmyra, Damascus and the Palestinian coast. Damascus was closely linked to Egypt by the Mediterranean coast and the south of Palestine. When the settlement of the Franks in this area made this route difficult, it was temporarily replaced by the Sinai route, allowing access from Syria to Egypt via Transjordania.

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2010

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Shāma, Abū, Tarājim rijāl al-qarnayn al-sādis wa’l-sābiʿ, ed. al-Kawtharī, , Cairo, 1947.Google Scholar
Abu-Izzedine, N., The Druzes: A new study of their history, faith and society, Leiden, 1984.Google Scholar
al-ʿAẓīmī, , Taʾrīkh Ḥalab, ed. Zaʿrūr, I., Damascus, 1984.Google Scholar
al-Ḥarawī, , Kitāb al-ishārāt ilā maʿrifat al-ziyārāt, ed. Sourdel-Thomine, J., Damascus, 1953, and trans., Guide des lieux de pèlerinage, Damascus, 1957.Google Scholar
al-Ṭarsūsī, , Tabṣirat arbāb al-albāb, partial ed. and trans. Cahen, C., ‘Un traité d’armurerie composé pour Saladin’, Bulletin d’Études Orientales, 12 (1947–8), 103–63.Google Scholar
al-Ajji, E., Berthier, S. et al., Études et travaux à la citadelle de Damas (2000–2001): un premier bilan, Bulletin d’Études Orientales, Supplément au tome 53–54 (Damascus, 2003).Google Scholar
al-Bundārī, , Sanā al-Barq al-shāmī, ed. al-Nabrāwī, F., Cairo, 1979.Google Scholar
al-Dhahabī, , Taʾrīkh al-Islām, sections 61 (years 601–10), 62 (years 611–20), 63 (years 621–30), 64 (years 631–40), ed. ʿA. Maʿrūf, B., al-Arnaʾūṭ, Sh. and ʿAbbās, Ṣ. M., 4 vols., Beirut, 1988.Google Scholar
al-Iṣfahānī, ʿImād al-Dīn, al-Barq al-shāmī, vol. V (years 578–80), ed. Ḥusayn, F., Amman, 1987.Google Scholar
Al-Iṣfahānī, ʿImād al-Dīn, Kitāb al-fatḥ al-qussī fī’l-fatḥ al-Qudsī, ed. Landberg, , Leiden, 1888; trans. Massé, H., Conquête de la Syrie et de la Palestine par Saladin, Paris, 1972.Google Scholar
al-Makīn, Ibn al-ʿAmīd, al-Majmūʿ al-mubārak (or Taʾrīkh), partial ed. Cahen, C., Bulletin d’Études Orientales, 15 (1955–7) –84, and trans. Eddé, A. M. and Micheau, F., Chronique des Ayyoubides (602–658/1205–6–1259–60), Paris, 1994.Google Scholar
al-Maqrīzī, , Kitāb al-sulūk li maʿrifat duwal al-mulūk, ed. Ziada, M., 2 vols., Cairo, 1956; partial trans. Broadhurst, R. J. C., A history of the Ayyūbid sultans of Egypt, Boston, 1980, and Quatremère, E. M., Histoire des sultans mamluks, 2 vols., Paris, 1837–42.Google Scholar
al-Mundhirī, , al-Takmila li-wafayāt al-naqala, ed. ʿA. Maʿrūf, B., 4 vols., Beirut, 1981.Google Scholar
al-Muqaddasī, , Aḥsan al-taqāsīm fī maʿrifat al-aqālīm, ed. Goeje, M. J., BGA, vol. III, 3rd edn, Leiden, 1967; partial trans. Miquel, A., La meilleure répartition pour la connaissance des provinces, Damascus, 1963.Google Scholar
al-Nuʿaymī, , al-Dāris fī taʾrīkh al-madāris, ed. al-Ḥasanī, J., 2 vols., Damascus, 1948–51.Google Scholar
al-Qalqashandī, , Ṣubḥ al-aʿshā fī ṣināʿat al-inshāʾ, ed. ʿAbd al-Rasūl Ibrāhīm, M., 2nd edn, 14 vols., Cairo, 1963.Google Scholar
Anonymi auctoris chronicon ad A.C. 1234 pertinens, vol. II, trans. Abouna, A., Corpus scriptorum christianorum orientalium, vol. 354, Scriptores Syri, vol. 154, Louvain, 1974.Google Scholar
Asali, K. J., Wathāʾiq Maqdisiyya taʾrīkhiyya, vol. I, Amman, 1983.Google Scholar
Asali, K. J., Jerusalem in history, London, 1989.Google Scholar
Ashtor, E., A social and economic history of the Near East in the middle ages, London, 1976.Google Scholar
Ashtor, E., ‘Républiques urbaines dans le Proche-Orient à l’époque des croisades?’, Cahiers de Civilisation Médiévale, 18 (1975) –31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Athamina, K., and Heacock, R. (eds.), The Frankish wars and their influence on Palestine, Birzeit, 1994.Google Scholar
Balog, P., The coinage of the Ayyubids, London, 1980.Google Scholar
Hebraeus, Bar, The chronography of Gregory Abū l-Faraj the son of Aaron, ed. and trans. Budge, E. A. W., 2 vols., London, 1932.Google Scholar
Beddek, K., ‘Le complexe ayyoubide de la citadelle de Salâh al-Dîn: Bain ou palais’, Archéologie Islamique, 11 (2001) –90.Google Scholar
Berthier, S. (ed.), Peuplement rural et aménagements hydroagricoles dans la moyenne vallée de l’Euphrate, fin VIIe–XIXe siècle, Damascus, 2001.Google Scholar
Bianquis, T., Damas et la Syrie sous la domination fatimide (359–468/969–1076), 2 vols., Damascus, 1986–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bianquis, T., ‘Raḥba et les tribus arabes avant les croisades’, Bulletin d’Études Orientales, Le nord-est syrien, 41–2 (1989–90) –53.Google Scholar
Bianquis, T., ‘Pouvoirs arabes à Alep aux Xe et XIe siècles’, Revue du Monde Musulman et de la Méditerranée, 62 (1991–4) –59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bianquis, T., ‘Les frontières de la Syrie au XIe siècle’, in Castrum 4: Frontière et peuplement dans le monde méditerranéen au moyen âge, Rome and Madrid, 1992 –49.Google Scholar
Bylinski, Janus, ‘Qal’at Shirkuh at Palmyra. A medieval fortress reinterprated’, Bulletin d’Études Orientales, 51 (1999) –208.Google Scholar
Cahen, C., Les peuples musulmans dans l’histoire médiévale, Damascus, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cahen, C., ‘Mouvements populaires et autonomies urbaines dans l’Asie musulmane du moyen âge’, Arabica, 5 (1958) –50; 6 (1959), 25–56 and 233–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cahen, C., Turcobyzantina et Oriens christianus, Variorum Reprints, London, 1974.Google Scholar
Cahen, C., Orient et Occident au temps des croisades, Paris, 1983.Google Scholar
Cahen, C., La Syrie du Nord à l’époque des croisades et la principauté franque d’Antioche, Paris, 1940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cahen, C., ‘Une chronique syrienne du VIe/XIIe siècle: Le Bustān al-Jāmiʿ’, Bulletin d’Études Orientales, 7–8 (1937–8) –58.Google Scholar
Canard, M., Histoire de la dynastie des Hamdanides de Jazîra et de Syrie, Algiers, 1951.Google Scholar
Canard, M., Byzance et les musulmans du Proche-Orient, Variorum Reprints, London, 1973.Google Scholar
Canard, M., Miscellanea orientalia, Variorum Reprints, London, 1973.Google Scholar
Chamberlain, M., Knowledge and social practice in medieval Damascus, 1190–1350, Cambridge, 1994.Google Scholar
Chéhab, M., Tyr à l’époque des croisades, 2 vols., Paris and Beirut, 1975.Google Scholar
Dahlmanns, F. J., ‘al-Malik al-ʿĀdil: Ägypten und der Vordere Orient in den Jahren 589/1193 bis 615/1218’, Dissertation, University of Giessen (1975).Google Scholar
Eddé, A.-M., and Micheau, F., L’Orient au temps des croisades, Paris, 2002.Google Scholar
Eddé, A.-M., ‘Riḍwān, prince d’Alep de 1095 à 1113’, in Mélanges offerts au Professeur Dominique Sourdel, Revue des Études Islamiques, 54 (1986) –25.Google Scholar
Eddé, A.-M., ‘Les médecins dans la société syrienne du VIIe/XIIIe siècle’, Annales Islamologiques, 29 (1995) –109.Google Scholar
Eddé, A.-M., ‘Kurdes et Turcs dans l’armée ayyoubide de Syrie du Nord’, in Lev, Y. (ed.), War and society in the eastern Mediterranean, 7th–15th centuries, Leiden, 1997 –36.Google Scholar
Eddé, A.-M., La principauté ayyoubide d’Alep (579/1183–658/1260), Freiburger Islamstudien 21, Stuttgart, 1999.Google Scholar
Eddé, A.-M., Saladin, Paris, 2008.Google Scholar
Eddé, Anne-Marie,‘Quelques institutions militaires ayyoubides’, in Vermeulen, U. and Smet, D. (eds.), Egypt and Syria in the Fāṭimid, Ayyūbid and Mamlūk eras, Leuven, 1995 –75.Google Scholar
Egypt and Syria in the Fatimid, Ayyubid and Mamluk eras, ed. Vermeulen, U. et al., 3 vols., Leuven, 1995–2001.Google Scholar
Ehrenkreutz, A. S., Saladin, New York, 1972.Google Scholar
Elad, A., Medieval Jerusalem and Islamic worship: Holy places, ceremonies, pilgrimage, Islamic History and Civilization 8, Leiden, 1995.Google Scholar
Elisséeff, N.Les monuments de Nūr al-Dīn’, Bulletin d’Études Orientales, 13 (1949–51) –43.Google Scholar
Elisséeff, N., ‘La titulature de Nūr ad-Dīn d’après ses inscriptions’, Bulletin d’Études Orientales, 14 (1952–4) –96.Google Scholar
Elisséeff, N., Nūr al-Dīn, un grand prince musulman de Syrie au temps des croisades, 3 vols., Damascus, 1966.Google Scholar
Firro, K. M. A., A history of the Druzes, Leiden, 1992.Google Scholar
France, J., Victory in the East, Cambridge, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gabrieli, F., Arab historians of the Crusades, London, 1969.Google Scholar
Garcin, J.-C. (ed.), États, sociétés et cultures du monde musulman médiéval, Xe–XVe siècle, Nouvelle Clio, 3 vols., Paris, 1995–2000.Google Scholar
Gaube, H., and Wirth, E., Aleppo: Historische und geographische Beiträge zur baulichen Gestaltung, zur sozialen Organisation und zur wirtschaftlichen Dynamik einer vorderasiatischen Fernhandelsmetropole, 2 vols., Wiesbaden, 1984.Google Scholar
Gelichi, S., ‘Il castello di Harim (Idlib-Siria). Aggiornamenti sulla missione archeologica: la campagna di scavo 2000’, Le Missioni Archeologiche dell’Università di Ca’ Foscari di Venezia. III giornata di Studio, Venice, 2003 –85.Google Scholar
Geoffroy, E., Djihâd et contemplation: Vie et enseignement d’un soufi au temps des croisades, Paris, 1997.Google Scholar
Gibb, H. A. R., The life of Saladin, Oxford, 1973.Google Scholar
Gibb, H. A. R., Saladin: Studies in Islamic history, Beirut, 1974.Google Scholar
Gil, M., A history of Palestine, 634–1099, Cambridge, 1992.Google Scholar
Gilbert, J. E., ‘Institutionalization of Muslim scholarship and professionalization of the ʿulamāʾ in medieval Damascus’, Studia Islamica, 52 (1980) –34.Google Scholar
Goitein, S. D. F., A Mediterranean society: The Jewish communities of the Arab world as portrayed in the documents of the Cairo Geniza, 6 vols., Berkeley, Los Angeles and London, 1967–93.Google Scholar
Gonnella, J., ‘The Citadel of Aleppo’, Electronic Journal of Oriental Studies, IV, Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Turkish Art, Utrecht, August 23–28, 1999, ed. Kiel, M., Landman, N. and Theunissen, H. 22 (2001) –24.Google Scholar
Halm, H., ‘Der Treuhänder Gottes: Die Edikte des Kalifen al-Ḥākim’, Der Islam, 63 (1986) –72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hein, H. A., ‘Beiträge zur ayyubidischen Diplomatik’, dissertation, University of Freiburg im Breisgau (1968).Google Scholar
Hennequin, G. and al-ʿUsh, Abū l-Faraj, Les monnaies de Bālis, Damascus, 1978.Google Scholar
Heyd, W., Histoire du commerce du Levant au moyen-âge, 2 vols., Leipzig 1885–6, repr. Amsterdam, 1983.Google Scholar
Hillenbrand, C., The Crusades: Islamic perspectives, Edinburgh, 1999.Google Scholar
Hillenbrand, C., ‘The career of Najm al-Dīn Īl-Ghāzī’, Der Islam, 58, 2 (1981) –92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
History of the Patriarchs of the Egyptian Church, ed. and trans. Khater, A. and Burmester, O. H. E. -K. H. S., 4 vols., Cairo, 1970–4.Google Scholar
Holt, P. M., The age of the Crusades, London, 1986.Google Scholar
Humphreys, R. S., From Saladin to the Mongols: The Ayyubids of Damascus, 1193–1260, New York, 1977.Google Scholar
ʿAsākir, Ibn, Taʾrīkh Dimashq, 80 vols., Beirut, 2000, partial trans. Elisséeff, N., La description de Damas d’Ibn ʿAsākir, Damascus, 1959.Google Scholar
Uṣaybiʿa, Ibn Abī, ʿUyūn al-anbāʾ fī ṭabaqāt al-aṭibbāʾ, ed. Riḍā, N., Beirut, 1965.Google Scholar
al-ʿAdīm, Ibn, Bughyat al-ṭalab fī taʾrīkh Ḥalab, ed. Zakkār, S., 11 vols., Damascus, 1988.Google Scholar
al-ʿAdīm, Ibn, Zubdat al-ḥalab min taʾrīkh Ḥalab, ed. Dahān, S., 3 vols., Damascus, 1951–68.Google Scholar
al-Athīr, Ibn, al-Kāmil fī’l-taʾrīkh, 13 vols., Beirut, 1965–7; partial trans. D. S. Richards, The Chronicle of Ibn al-Athir for the crusading period from al-Kāmil fi ’l ta’rkh, 3 vols., Aldershot, 2006–8.Google Scholar
al-Furāt, Ibn, Taʾrīkh al-duwal wa’l-mulūk, ed. al-Shammāʿ, Ḥ., vol. IV, parts 1 and 2, vol. V, part 1, Baṣra, 1967–70; partial ed. and trans. , V. and Lyons, M. C. and Riley-Smith, J. S. C., Ayyubids, Mamluks and Crusaders: Selections from the Tārīkh al-Duwal wa’l-Mulūk of Ibn al-Furāt, 2 vols., Cambridge, 1971.Google Scholar
al-Qalānisī, Ibn, Dhayl taʾrīkh Dimashq, ed. Amedroz, H. F., Leiden, 1908; partial trans. Gibb, H. A. R., The Damascus Chronicle of the Crusades, London, 1932, and R. Le Tourneau, Damas de 1075 à 1154, Damascus, 1952.Google Scholar
al-Qifṭī, Ibn, Taʾrīkh al-ḥukamāʾ, ed. Lippert, J., Leipzig, 1903.Google Scholar
Jubayr, Ibn, Riḥla, ed. Wright, W., rev. Goeje, M. J., E. J. W. Gibb Memorial Series, vol. V, Leiden and London, 1907; trans. Gaudefroy-Demombynes, M., Voyages, 4 vols., Paris, 1949–65 and R. J. C. Broadhurst, The travels of Ibn Jubayr, London, 1952.Google Scholar
Kathīr, Ibn, al-Bidāya wa’l-nihāya, ed. al-ʿAṭṭār, Ṣ. J. and al-Biqāʿī, M., 10 vols., Beirut, 1998–2001.Google Scholar
Khallikān, Ibn, Kitāb wafayāt al-aʿyān wa anbāʾ abnāʾ al-zamān, ed. ʿAbbās, I., 8 vols., Beirut, 1968–72; trans. Slane, M. G., Ibn Khallikan’s biographical dictionary, 4 vols., Paris and London, 1843–71.Google Scholar
Ibn, Naẓīf al-Ḥamawī, Taʾrīkh al-Manṣūrī, ed. Abu’l-ʿĪd Dūdū, , Damascus, 1981.Google Scholar
Shaddād, Ibn, al-Dīn, Bahāʾ, al-Nawādir al-sulṭāniyya wa’l-maḥāsin al-Yūsufiyya, ed. al-Dīn al-Shayyāl, J., Cairo, 1964; trans. Richards, D. S., The rare and excellent history of Saladin, Aldershot, 2001.Google Scholar
Shaddād, Ibn, al-Dīn, ʿIzz, al-Aʿlāq al-khaṭīra fī dhikr umarāʾ al-Shām wa’l-Jazīra, ed. Sourdel, D., Damascus, 1953; ed. Dahān, S., 2 vols., Damascus, 1956–63; ed. ʿAbbāra, Y., 2 vols., Damascus, 1978; ed. Eddé, A. M., Bulletin d’Études Orientales, 32–3 (1980–1) –402 and trans. Description de la Syrie du Nord, Damascus, 1984.Google Scholar
Wāṣil, Ibn, Mufarrij al-kurūb fī akhbār Banī Ayyūb, ed. al-Shayyāl, J. al-D., Rabīʿ, Ḥ. and ʿĀshūr, S., 5 vols., Cairo, 1953–77; ed. ʿU. Tadmurī, Beirut, 2004.Google Scholar
Irwin, R., The Middle East in the middle ages, London, 1986.Google Scholar
Jubb, M., The legend of Saladin in western literature and historiography, Lewiston, 2000.Google Scholar
Kedar, B., ‘The subjected Muslims of the Frankish Levant’, in Powell, J. M. (ed.), Muslims under Latin rule 1100–1300, Princeton, 1990 –74.Google Scholar
Kedar, B. Z. (ed.), The Horns of Ḥaṭṭīn, Jerusalem and London, 1992.Google Scholar
Kennedy, H., Crusader castles, Cambridge, 2001.Google Scholar
King, G., ‘Archaeological fieldwork at the Citadel of Homs, Syria, 1995–1999’, Levant, 34 (2002) –58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Köhler, M. A., Allianzen und Verträge zwischen frankischen und islamischen Herrschen im Vorderen Orient, Berlin and New York, 1991.Google Scholar
Strange, G., Palestine under the Moslems: A description of Syria and the Holy Land, London, 1890; repr. Beirut, 1965.Google Scholar
Lev, Y., ‘Fatimid policy towards Damascus (358/968–386/996), military, political and social aspects’, Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam, 3 (1981–2) –83.Google Scholar
Lev, Y., State and society in Fatimid Egypt, Leiden, 1991.Google Scholar
Lewis, B., The Assassins: A radical sect in Islam, London, 1967.Google Scholar
Lewis, B., and Holt, P. M., Historians of the Middle East, Oxford, 1962.Google Scholar
Lyons, M. C., and Jackson, D. E. P., Saladin: The politics of Holy War, Cambridge, 1982.Google Scholar
Makdisi, G., The rise of colleges, institutions of learning in Islam and the West, Edinburgh, 1981.Google Scholar
Matthers, J., et al., ‘Tell Rifaʿat 1977: Preliminary report of an archeological survey’, Iraq, 40, 2 (1978) –62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
,Matthew of Edessa, Armenia and the Crusades: Tenth to twelfth centuries. The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa, trans. Dostourian, A. E., Lanham, New York and London, 1993.Google Scholar
Mayer, H. E., ‘Latins, Muslims and Greeks in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem’, History, 63 (1978) –92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mayer, H. E., Geschichte der Kreuzzüge, 10th edn, Stuttgart, 2005; trans. The Crusades, 2nd edn, Oxford, 1988.Google Scholar
Mesqui, J., Châteaux d’Orient, Paris, 2001.Google Scholar
Michaudel, B., ‘Le château de Saône (Sahyûn, Qal’at Salâh al-Dîn) et ses défenses, Archéologie Islamique, 11 (2001) –6.Google Scholar
Michel, Syrien, Chronique syriaque, ed. and trans. Chabot, J.-B., 4 vols., Paris, 1899–1914.Google Scholar
Möhring, H., Saladin und der Dritte Kreuzzug, Wiesbaden, 1980.Google Scholar
Morray, D., An Ayyubid notable and his world: Ibn al-ʿAdīm and Aleppo as portrayed in his biographical dictionary of people associated with the city, Leiden, 1994.Google Scholar
Mouton, J.-M., Damas et sa principauté sous les Saljoukides et les Bourides, 468–548/1076–1154, Cairo, 1994.Google Scholar
Nāṣir-i-Khusraw, , Safar-nāma, trans. Thackston, W. M., Nāser-e-Khusraw’s Book of travels, New York, 1985.Google Scholar
Nasrallah, J., Histoire du mouvement littéraire dans l’église melchite du Ve au XXe siècle, vol. III, 1, Louvain, 1983.Google Scholar
Nègre, A., ‘Les monnaies de Mayādīn. Mission franco-syrienne de Raḥba-Mayādīn’, Bulletin d’Études Orientales, 32–3 (1980–1) –6.Google Scholar
Nicolle, D., Arms and armour of the crusading era, 1050–1350, 2 vols., New York, 1988.Google Scholar
Pahlizsch, J. and Korn, L. (eds.), Governing the Holy City: The interaction of social groups in Jerusalem between the Fatimid and the Ottoman period, Wiesbaden, 2004.Google Scholar
Porëe, B., ‘La contribution de l’archéologie à la connaissance du monde des croisades (XIIe–XIIIe siècle): L’exemple du Royaume de Jérusalem’, in Balard, M. (ed.), Autour de la première croisade, Paris, 1996 –515.Google Scholar
Pouzet, L., Damas au VIIe/XIIIe siècle: Vie et structures religieuses dans une métropole islamique, Beirut, 1988.Google Scholar
Pouzet, L., ‘Les madrasas de Damas et leurs professeurs au VIIe/XIIIe siècle’, Mélanges de l’Université Saint-Joseph, 52 (1991–2 [1995]) –96.Google Scholar
Prawer, J., Histoire du royaume latin de Jérusalem, 2 vols., Paris, 1975.Google Scholar
Raymond, André and Paillet, Jean-Louis, Bālis II: Histoire de Bālis et fouilles îlots I et II, Damascus, 1995.Google Scholar
Richard, J., Histoire des croisades, Paris, 1996.Google Scholar
Rosen-Ayalon, M., Art et archéologie islamiques en Palestine, Paris, 2002.Google Scholar
Rosenthal, F., A history of Muslim historiography, 2nd edn, Leiden, 1968.Google Scholar
Runciman, S., A history of the Crusades, 3 vols., Cambridge, 1951–4.Google Scholar
Salame-Sarkis, H., Contribution à l’histoire de Tripoli et de sa région à l’époque des croisades: Problèmes d’histoire, d’architecture et de céramique, Paris, 1980.Google Scholar
Sauvaget, J., Alep: Essai sur le développement d’une grande ville syrienne des origines au milieu du XIXe siècle, Paris, 1941.Google Scholar
Schimmel, A., Le soufisme ou les dimensions mystiques de l’Islam, Paris, 1996.Google Scholar
Setton, K. M. (general ed.), A history of the Crusades, 6 vols., Madison, 1969–89.Google Scholar
Setton, K. M. (general ed.), A history of the Crusades: vol. VI, ed. Hazard, H. W. and Zacour, N. P., The impact of the Crusades on Europe, Madison, 1989.Google Scholar
Sibṭ, Ibn al-Jawzī, Mirʾāt al-zamān, facsimile ed. Jewett, J. R.; ed. vol. VIII, parts 1–2, Hyderabad, 1951–2.Google Scholar
Sivan, E., L’Islam et la croisade: Idéologie et propagande dans les réactions musulmanes aux croisades, Paris, 1968.Google Scholar
Sivan, E., ‘La genèse de la contre-croisade: Un traité damasquin du début du XIIe siècle’, Journal Asiatique, 254 (1966) –224.Google Scholar
Sivan, E., ‘Réfugiés syro-palestiniens au temps des croisades’, Revue des Études Islamiques, 35 (1967) –47.Google Scholar
Sourdel, D., ‘Réflexions sur la diffusion de la madrasa en orient du XIe au XIIIe siècle’, Revue des Études Islamiques, Hors série 13, L’enseignement en Islam et en Occident au moyen-âge (1976) –84.Google Scholar
Sourdel, D., and Sourdel-Thomine, J., ‘Nouveaux documents sur l’histoire religieuse et sociale de Damas au moyen-âge’, Revue des Études Islamiques, 32 (1964) –15.Google Scholar
Sourdel, D., and Sourdel-Thomine, J., ‘À propos des documents de la grande mosquée de Damas conservés à Istanbul. Résultats de la seconde enquête’, Revue des Études Islamiques, 33 (1965) –85.Google Scholar
Sourdel, D., and Sourdel-Thomine, J., ‘Une collection médiévale de certificats de pèlerinage à La Mekke conservés à Istanbul. Les actes de la période seljoukide et bouride (jusqu’à 549/1154)’, in Études médiévales et patrimoine turc, Paris, 1983 –273.Google Scholar
Sourdel, D.Les professeurs de madrasa à Alep aux XIIe-XIIIe siècles d’après Ibn Shaddād’, Bulletin d’Études Orientales, 13 (1949–51) –115.Google Scholar
Sourdel, D., ‘Rūḥīn, lieu de pèlerinage musulman de la Syrie du nord au XIIIe siècle’, Syria, 30 (1953) –107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sourdel, D. and Sourdel-Thomine, J., Certificats de pèlerinage dʾépoque ayyoubide: Contribution à l’histoire de l’idéologie de l’islam au temps des croisades, Documents relatifs à l’histoire des croisades, Paris, 2006.Google Scholar
Sourdel-Thomine, J., ‘Les anciens lieux de pèlerinage damascains d’après les sources arabes’, Bulletin d’Études Orientales, 14 (1952–4) –85.Google Scholar
Sourdel-Thomine, J., ‘Le peuplement de la région des “villes mortes” (Syrie du nord) à l’époque ayyoubide’, Arabica, 1 (1954) –99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tabbaa, Y., Constructions of power and piety in medieval Aleppo, University Park, Pennsylvania, 1997.Google Scholar
Tate, G., ‘Frontière et peuplement en Syrie du Nord et en Haute-Mésopotamie entre le IVe et le XIe siècle’, in Castrum 3: Guerre, fortification et habitat dans le monde méditerranéen au moyen âge, Rome and Madrid, 1988 –9.Google Scholar
The new encyclopedia of archaeological excavations in the Holy Land, ed. Stern, E., 4 vols., Jerusalem, 1993.Google Scholar
Ulbert, Thilo, Die Basilika des Heiligen Kreuzes in Resafa-Sergiopolis, vols. II and III, Mayence, 1986 and 1990.Google Scholar
Usāma, ibn Munqidh, Kitāb al-iʿtibār, trans. Miquel, A., Des enseignements de la vie: Souvenirs d’un gentilhomme syrien du temps des croisades, Paris, 1983, and Hitti, P. K., An Arab-Syrian gentleman and warrior in the period of the Crusades: Memoirs of Usāmah Ibn-Munqidh, 3rd edn, Princeton, 1987.Google Scholar
Yaḥyā, Ibn Saʿīd, History, ed. and trans. Kratchkovsky, I. and Vasiliev, A., Patrologia Orientalis, XVIII, 5 and XXIII, 3, Paris, 1924–32; ed. and trans. Kratchkovsky, I., Micheau, F. and Troupeau, G., Patrologia Orientalis, XVII, 4, 212, Turnhout, 1997.Google Scholar
Yāqūt, , Irshād al-arīb ilā maʿrifat al-adīb, ed. Margoliouth, D. S., 3rd edn, 10 vols., Cairo, 1980.Google Scholar
Yāqūt, , Muʿjam al-buldān, 5 vols., Beirut, 1955–7.Google Scholar
Zakkār, S., The Emirate of Aleppo, 1004–1094, Beirut, 1971.Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×