Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-7f7b94f6bd-rpk4r Total loading time: 0.295 Render date: 2022-06-28T10:22:33.545Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

19 - Hydrocephalus and dementia

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 October 2009

Margaret M. Esiri
Affiliation:
Department of Neuropathology The Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK
Gary A. Rosenberg
Affiliation:
Department of Neurology University of New Mexico, USA
Margaret M. Esiri
Affiliation:
University of Oxford
Virginia M. -Y. Lee
Affiliation:
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
John Q. Trojanowski
Affiliation:
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
Get access

Summary

Introduction

The ancient term hydrocephalus refers to an excessive accumulation of fluid (water) inside the head. It is most readily detected in infants and children with congenital hydrocephalus since its existence before the skull sutures are closed causes the formation of an enlarged head. Such children have long been recognized commonly to have mental impairment, manifest as mental retardation, although the extent of this is very variable. Morgagni (1769) first described hydrocephalus due to enlarged cerebral ventricles in an adult without head enlargement. If this condition develops insidiously during adult life, dementia is an almost invariable accompaniment, though not the only one. More familiarly hydrocephalus in adults develops acutely or subacutely and presents with symptoms of raised intracranial pressure – headache, vomiting and drowsiness. However, in this chapter we are concerned with chronic hydrocephalus in adults, a condition in which symptoms and signs of raised intracranial pressure are commonly clinically absent and in which the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure is often normal when measured randomly – hence the commonly used term – normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). The recognition of this condition, and the realization that it is responsible for some cases of progressive dementia in adults are recent (Riddoch, 1936; Foltz & Ward 1956; McHugh, 1964; Hakim & Adams, 1965; Adams et al., 1965). Cases of NPH, some of which respond well to a shunting procedure, are to be distinguished from cases of dementia due to neurodegenerative diseases in which the ventricles dilate as a consequence of cerebral atrophy (hydrocephalus ex vacuo).

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2004

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)
1
Cited by

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×