This chapter presents a detailed evidence of the involvement of algesic inflammatory mediators as well as anti-inflammatory mediators in neuropathic pain, including their structure, source, molecular targets, and effect on nociceptors, glia, and immune cells. It discusses some of the key inflammatory mediators implicated in neuropathic pain including kinins, purines, lipids, amines, and neurotrophic factors. Bradykinin contributes to ongoing inflammatory cascades by stimulating the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as stimulating histamine release from mast cells. Cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors are widely expressed in the nervous system, and there is growing evidence they play a major role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. Modulation of cytokine signaling by blocking pro-inflammatory cytokines and/or augmenting anti-inflammatory cytokines has shown considerable efficacy in models of neuropathy. Finally, the chapter discusses some of the key cytokines implicated in neuropathic pain.