This chapter provides the most up to date information on the current and possible future preventative, intervention, and diagnostic treatments and druggable targets for chronic neuropathic pain sufferers. It introduces new druggable targets that have pharmacological agents with at-minimum Phase I clinical trial data published. Targets discussed within the chapter include, but are not limited to, ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), neurotrophic factors, and opioid receptors. The chapter discusses the role of certain pharmacological agents such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), whose biological target in neuropathic pain treatment remains uncertain. The development of pain biomarkers is essential in order to develop personalized treatment, and promising examples are discussed. Finally, in light of the clear deficiencies in pharmacological pain treatment an evidence based presentation of non-pharmacologic pain treatments is covered, such as acupuncture and brain stimulation, especially considering their cost-effective nature and efficacy in preclinical and clinical studies.