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11 - Affiliations and Dualities

from Part II - Seeing Structure

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 September 2023

Craig M. Rawlings
Affiliation:
Duke University, North Carolina
Jeffrey A. Smith
Affiliation:
Nova Scotia Health Authority
James Moody
Affiliation:
Duke University, North Carolina
Daniel A. McFarland
Affiliation:
Stanford University, California
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Summary

Whereas in one-mode data, individuals or groups are connected directly with one another through interactions or relations, in two-mode data, individuals are indirectly connected with one another through affiliations (events, organizations, associations, alliances, and so on). Affiliation data are often used as a proxy for detecting ties among social actors when direct evidence of ties is difficult to obtain. For example, it is generally easier to know that two people belong to the same club or work in the same department than to know that they have lunch together every Thursday. But affiliation data can also be used to see aspects of social structures not visible in one-mode networks. Duality is a kind of structural relation that shows how levels of social structure intersect with one another. We discuss the classic approach to duality as well as two generalizations that extend the duality approach in hierarchical, temporal, and spatial directions.

Type
Chapter
Information
Network Analysis
Integrating Social Network Theory, Method, and Application with R
, pp. 246 - 268
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2023

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References

Suggested Further Reading

Borgatti, Stephen P., and Everett, Martin G.. 1997. “Network Analysis of 2-Mode Data.” Social Networks, 19(3): 243–70. (Provides an overview of when and how analyses must differ when respecting two-mode networks.)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Breiger, Ronald L. 1974. “The Duality of Persons and Groups.” Social Forces 53(2): 181–90. (The foundational work on linking bipartite networks to sociological theories of duality.)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feld, Scott L. 1981. “The Focused Organization of Social Ties.” American Journal of Sociology 86(5): 1015–35. (A classic paper on how foci of activity establish opportunities for social network formation.)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knoke, David, Diani, Mario, Hollway, James, and Christopoulos, Dimitris. 2021. Multimodal Political Networks. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (A focused exploration of using multimode networks – bipartite, tripartite, and so on – to help understand political action across contexts.)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mizruchi, Mark S. 1992. The Structure of Corporate Political Action: Interfirm Relations and Their Consequences. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (Corporate interlocks represent a key application of the duality principle and allow one to see aspects of the economy and political structure that are usually hidden from view.)Google Scholar
Simmel, Georg. 2010 [1908]. Conflict and the Web of Group Affiliations. New York: Simon & Schuster. (Describes how overlapping social circles can be theorized and studied and how they organize in society.)Google Scholar

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