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27 - Fortified human milk for premature infants

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 December 2009

Patti J. Thureen
Affiliation:
University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center
Richard J. Schanler
Affiliation:
Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Schneider Children's Hospital at North Shore, North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, NY and Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY
William W. Hay
Affiliation:
University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center
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Summary

Introduction

Nutrition support of the premature infant must be designed to compensate for metabolic and gastrointestinal immaturity, immunologic compromise, and associated medical conditions. Nutritional needs are determined based on intrauterine rates of growth and nutrient accretion. The beneficial effects of human milk extend to the feeding of premature infants (Chapter 26). Human milk is capable of satisfying most of the needs of premature infants if careful attention is given to nutritional status. Nevertheless, because of their specialized needs the human milk-fed premature infant may require nutrient supplementation, or fortification, to maintain optimal nutritional status while deriving benefits from enhanced host defense, neurologic development, and gastrointestinal function. The nutritional adequacy of human milk for premature infants may be limited for several reasons. The nutrient content of the milk may be inadequate for their needs and the variability in nutrient content results in an unpredictable nutrient intake for an infant who cannot feed ad libitum. Infants often receive restricted milk intakes. Mothers often are unable to supply sufficient milk to meet the needs of the infant throughout the hospitalization. As a consequence, nutrient inadequacy may manifest in the premature infant fed unfortified human milk. This review will focus on the feeding of fortified human milk to the premature infant.

Composition of preterm milk

Milk from mothers who give birth prematurely (preterm milk) generally has greater concentrations of immune proteins, lipid, energy, vitamins, calcium, sodium, and trace elements than in corresponding term milk.

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Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2006

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  • Fortified human milk for premature infants
    • By Richard J. Schanler, Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Schneider Children's Hospital at North Shore, North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, NY and Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY
  • Patti J. Thureen, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center
  • Edited by William W. Hay, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center
  • Book: Neonatal Nutrition and Metabolism
  • Online publication: 10 December 2009
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511544712.028
Available formats
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To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

  • Fortified human milk for premature infants
    • By Richard J. Schanler, Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Schneider Children's Hospital at North Shore, North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, NY and Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY
  • Patti J. Thureen, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center
  • Edited by William W. Hay, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center
  • Book: Neonatal Nutrition and Metabolism
  • Online publication: 10 December 2009
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511544712.028
Available formats
×

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

  • Fortified human milk for premature infants
    • By Richard J. Schanler, Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Schneider Children's Hospital at North Shore, North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, NY and Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY
  • Patti J. Thureen, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center
  • Edited by William W. Hay, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center
  • Book: Neonatal Nutrition and Metabolism
  • Online publication: 10 December 2009
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511544712.028
Available formats
×