Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-7mfl8 Total loading time: 0.388 Render date: 2021-12-04T12:12:13.820Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

1 - The common monkey of Southeast Asia: Long-tailed macaque populations, ethnophoresy, and their occurrence in human environments

from Part I - The status and distribution of long-tailed macaques

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 May 2011

Agustín Fuentes
Affiliation:
University of Notre Dame, Indiana
Michael D. Gumert
Affiliation:
Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Michael D. Gumert
Affiliation:
Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Lisa Jones-Engel
Affiliation:
University of Washington
Get access

Summary

The long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) population spreads over one of the widest geographical ranges of any primate, trailing only humans (Homo sapiens) and rhesus macaques (M. mulatta) (Wheatley,1999) (Figure 1.1). According to Fooden (1995, 2006), the population extends across the majority of mainland Southeast Asia. They occur in the southeastern most part of Bangladesh, spreading south along the coast of Myanmar, east through the southern two-thirds of Thailand, all of Cambodia, the southeastern tip of Laos, and through the southern half of Vietnam. Through Thailand, the population extends past the Isthmus of Kra, and occurs all through Sundaland (i.e., peninsular Malaysia and the Indonesian archipelago west of the Wallace line) and into the Philippines. Long-tailed macaques also occur on smaller islands. For example, long-tailed macaques occur off the northern coast of Sumatra on the most southern Indian Nicobar Islands, as well as occurring on small islands off the west coast, such as Simeulue and Lasia. Other island habitats include Maratua, off Kalimantan, Karimunjawa, off Java, Koh Khram Yai, off Thailand, and Con Son, off Vietnam. They certainly occur on many other small islands, as the region is covered with tens of thousands of islands.

Long-tailed macaques are found predominantly on the western side of the Wallace line and are considered Asian fauna. Despite this, populations in Wallacea exist on the eastern side of the line, which are possibly the result of historical human introductions (e.g., Lombok, Nusa Tenggara, and East Timor) (Kawamoto et al., 1984).

Type
Chapter
Information
Monkeys on the Edge
Ecology and Management of Long-Tailed Macaques and their Interface with Humans
, pp. 3 - 44
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2011

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Aggimarangsee, N. 1992. Survey for semi-tame colonies of macaques in Thailand. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 40: 103–166.Google Scholar
Aimi, M., Bakar, A. and Supriatna, J. 1982. Morphological variation of the crab-eating macaque, Macaca fascicularis (Raffles, 1821), in Indonesia. Kyoto University Overseas Research Report of Studies on Asian Non-Human Primates 2: 51–56.Google Scholar
,Anonymous. 1993. Wildlife Protection Act 1972 (amended 1993). Government of India, New Dehli.
Atran, S. 2002. In Gods We Trust: The Evolutionary Landscape of Religion. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Bernstein, I. S. 1966. Naturally occurring primate hybrid. Science 154: 1559–1560.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bismark, M. 1991. Analisis populasi monyet ekor panjang (Macaca fascicularis) pada beberapa tipe habitat hutan. Buletin Penelitian Hutan 532: 1–9.Google Scholar
Bismark, M. (1992). Peranan hutan di luar kawasan pelestarian alam dalam konservasi populasiMacaca fascicularis. Buletin Penelitian Hutan 549: 9–18.Google Scholar
Brown, D. W. G. 1997. Threat to humans from virus infections of non-human primates. Reviews in Medical Virology 7: 239–246.3.0.CO;2-Q>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blancher, A., Bonhomme, M., Crousu-Roy, B., et al. 2008. Mitochondrial DNA sequence phylogeny of 4 populations of the widely distributed cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis). Journal of Heredity, 99: 254–264.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burton, F. and Chan, L. 1989. Congenital limb malformations in the free-ranging macaques of Kowloon Hong Kong. Journal of Medical Primatology 18: 397–404.Google Scholar
Burton, F., Bolton, K. and Campbell, V. 1999. Soil-eating behavior of the hybrid macaques of Kowloon. NAHSON Bulletin 9: 14–20.Google Scholar
Carlsson, H.E., Schapiro, S.J., Farah, I., and Hau, J. 2004. Use of primates in research: a global overview. American Journal of Primatology 63: 225–237.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carpenter, A. 1887. Monkeys opening oysters. Nature 36: 53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheke, A. 1987. An ecological history of the Mascarene Islands, with particular reference to extinction and introduction of land vertebrates. In Studies of Mascarene Island Birds. Cambridge University Press. pp. 5–89.Google Scholar
Chiang, M. 1967. Use of tools by wild macaque monkeys in Singapore. Nature 214: 1258–1259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chiew, H. 2007. Reimpose export ban on macaque, urges animal rights groups. The Star. http://thestar.com.my/lifestyle/story.asp?file=/2007/9/11/lifefocus/20070911081410&sec=lifefocus
Chivers, D. J. and Davies, A. G. 1978. Abundance of primates in the Krau Game Reserve, Peninsular Malaysia. In The Abundance of Animals in Malesian Rain Forest, Marshall, G. (ed.). Misc PT. Series no 22, Department of Geography, Hull, University of (Aberdeen-Hull Symposium on Malesia Ecology). pp. 9–32.Google Scholar
Crockett, C, and Wilson, W. 1980. The ecological separation of Macaca nemestrina and Macaca fascicularis in Sumatra. In The Macaques: Studies in Ecology, Behavior and Evolution. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold. 148–181.Google Scholar
Crockett, C. M., Kyes, R. C., and Sajuthi, D. 1996. Modeling managed monkey populations: Sustainable harvest of long-tailed macaques on a natural habitat island. American Journal of Primatology 40: 343–360.3.0.CO;2-Y>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Das, P. and Ghosal, D. 1977. Notes on the Nicobar crab-eating macaque. Newsletter of the Zoological Survey of India 3: 264–267.Google Scholar
Di Silva, R. 2008. SpotLight: Culling solution to macaque 'explosion'. New Straits Times. 11 February.
Djuwantoko, , Thojib, A., and Hasanbahru, S. 1993. Ekologi perilaku kera ekor panjang (Macaca fascicularis Raffles, 1821) di hutan tanaman jati. Laparon Penilitian. Yjojakarta, Indonesia: Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada.Google Scholar
Engel, G.A., Jones-Engel, L., Schillaci, M.A., et al. 2002. Human exposure to herpesvirus B-seropostive macaques, Bali, Indonesia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8: 789–795.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Engelhardt, A. 1997. Impact of tourist contact on the competitive and social behaviour of wild long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). MS Thesis. Berlin, Germany: Free University of Berlin.Google Scholar
Eudey, A. A. 1994. Temple and pet primates in Thailand. Revue D'Ecologie (Terre et la Vie) 49: 273–280.Google Scholar
Eudey, A. A. 2008. The crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis) widespread and rapidly declining. Primate Conservation 23: 129–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Farslow, D. L. 1987. The behavior and ecology of the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) on Angaur, Island, Palau, Micronesia. Dissertation, Columbus, OH, Ohio State University.
Fellowes, J. 1992. Hong Kong macaques: Final report to the WWF Hong Kong projects committee. Hong Kong, WWF.
Fittinghoff, N. A., Jr and Lindburg, D. G. 1980. Riverine refuging in East Bornean Macaca fascicularis. In The Macaques: Studies in Ecology, Behavior and Evolution, New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold. pp. 182–214.Google Scholar
Fooden, J. 1964. Rhesus and crab-eating macaques: Intergradation in Thailand. Science 143: 363–364.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fooden, J. 1991. Systematic review of Philippine macaques (Primates, Cercopithecidae: Macaca fascicularis subspp.). Fieldiana Zoology n.s. 64: iv + 44.Google Scholar
Fooden, J. 1995. Systematic review of Southeast Asian long-tail macaques, Macaca fascicularis (Raffles, 1821). Fieldiana Zoology n. s. 81: 1–206.Google Scholar
Fooden, J. 2006. Comparative review of fascicularis-group species of macaques (Primates: Macaca). Fieldiana: Zoologyn.s. 107: 1–43.Google Scholar
Fooden, J. and Albrecht, G. 1993. Latitudinal and insular variation of skull size in crab-eating macaques (Primates, Cercopithecidae: Macaca fascicularis). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 92: 521–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Froehlich, J., Schillaci, M., Jones-Engel, L., Froehlich, D., and Pullen, B. 2003. A Sulawesi beachead by longtail monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) on Kabaena Island, Indonesia. Anthropologie 41: 76–74.Google Scholar
Fuentes, A. 2006. Human culture and monkey behavior: assessing the contexts of potential pathogen transmission between macaques and humans. American Journal of Primatology 68: 880–896.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fuentes, A. and Gamerl, S. 2005. Disproportionate participation by age/sex classes in aggressive interactions between long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and human tourists at Padangtegal monkey forest, Bali, Indonesia. American Journal of Primatology 66: 197–204.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fuentes, A., Kalchik, S., Gettler, L., et al. 2008. Characterizing human–macaque interactions in Singapore. American Journal of Primatology 70: 879–883.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fuentes, A., Southern, M. and Suaryana, K. 2005. Monkey forests and human landscapes: Is extensive sympatry sustainable for Homo sapiens and Macaca fascicularis on Bali. In Commensalism and Conflict: The Primate–Human Interface, Norman, OK: The American Society of Primatologists Publications. pp. 168–195.Google Scholar
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institute Press.Google Scholar
Gumert, M. D. 2004. Spirits or Demons?Tempo, 52: 27.Google Scholar
Gumert, M. D. 2007. Payment for sex in a macaque mating market. Animal Behaviour, 74: 1655–1667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gumert, M. D., Kluck, M., and Malaivijitnond, S. 2009. The physical characteristics and usage patterns of stone axe and pounding hammers used by long-tailed macaques in the Andaman Sea region of Thailand. American Journal of Primatology 71: 594–608.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gumert, M. D., Rachmawan, D., Iskandar, E., and Pamungkas, J. 2010. Preliminary population census of long-tailed macaques at Tanjung Puting National Park, Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia. Presented at Quest for coexistence with nonhuman Primates, ASIAN-HOPE 2010 IPS Precongress Symposium and Workshop, Japan. September.
Gurmaya, K. J, Adiputra, I. M. W., Saryatiman, A. B., Danardono, S. N., and Sibuea, T. T. H. 1994. A preliminary study on ecology and conservation of the Java primates in Ujung Kulon National Park, West Java, Indonesia. In Current Primatology: vol 1: Ecology and Evolution, Strasbourg, France: Université Louis Pasteur. pp. 87–92.Google Scholar
Hadi, I. 2005. Distribution and present status of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Lombok Island (Indonesia). The Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University (Suppl. 1): 90.Google Scholar
Hagelin, J. (2004). Use of live nonhuman primates in research in Asia. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine 50: 253–256.Google Scholar
Hamada, Y., Hadi, I., Urasopon, N. and Malaivijitnond, S. (2005). Preliminary report on yellow long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) at Kosumpee Forest Park, Thailand. Primates 46: 269–273.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heinsohn, T. 2003. Animal translocation: long-term human influences on the vertebrate zoogeography of Australasia (natural dispersal versus ethnophoresy). The Australian Zoologist 32: 351–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones-Engel, L, Engel, G, Rompis, A, et al. 2002. The not so sacred monkeys of Bali: A radiological assessment of human-macaque (Macaca fascicularis) commensalism. American Journal of Primatology 57 (Suppl. 1): 35.Google Scholar
Jones-Engel, L., Engel, G.A., Schillaci, M.A., et al. 2004. Prevalence of enteric parasites in pet macaques in Sulawesi, Indonesia. American Journal of Primatology 62: 71–82.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jones-Engel, L., Engel, G.A., Schillaci, M.A., 2006. Considering human-primate transmission of measles virus through the prism of risk analysis. American Journal of Primatology 68: 868–879.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kawamoto, Y. and Ischak, T. M. 1981. Genetic differentiation of the Indonesian crab- eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis): I. Preliminary report on blood protein polymorphism. Primates 22: 237–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kawamoto, Y., Ischak, T. M., and Supriatna, J. 1984. Genetic variations within and between troops of the crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis) on Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok, and Sumbawa, Indonesia. Primates 25: 131–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kemp, N. J. and Burnett, J. B. 2003 (revised, 2006). A biodiversity risk assessment and recommendations for risk management of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in New Guinea. Washington, DC: Indo-Pacific Conservation Alliance.Google Scholar
Kemp, N. J. and Burnett, J. B. 2007. A non-native primate (Macaca fascicularis) in Papua: implications for biodiversity. In The Ecology of Papua: Part II, Singapore: Periplus Editions Ltd. pp. 1348–1364.Google Scholar
Khan, M., Elagupillay, S. and Zainal, Z. 1982. Species conservation priorities in the tropical rain forests of peninsular Malaysia. In Species conservation priorities in the tropical forests of Southeast: Proceedings of a symposium held at the 58th Meeting of the IUCN Species Survival Commission Asia, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. pp. 9, 15.Google Scholar
Khanam, S., Sarker, S. U., Hasan, R., Baten, A. 2005. Review of the literature on primates in Bangladesh. The Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University (Suppl. 1): 95.Google Scholar
Kyes, R. C. 1993. Survey of the long-tailed macaques introduced onto Tinjil Island, Indonesia. American Journal of Primatology 31: 77–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kyes, R. C., Sajuthi, D., Iskandar, E., et al. 1998. Management of a natural habitat breeding colony of long-tailed macaques. Tropical Biodiversity 5: 127–137.Google Scholar
Linkie, M., Dinata, Y., Nofrianto, A., and Leader-Williams, N. 2007. Patterns and perceptions of wildlife crop raiding in and around Kerinci Seblat National Park, Sumatra. Animal Conservation 10:127–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Long, J. 2003. Introduced Mammals of the World. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.Google Scholar
Lorence, D. and Sussman, R. 1986. Exotic species invasion into Mauritius wet forest remnants. Journal of Tropical Ecology 2: 1470–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Louden, J. E., Howells, M. E., Fuentes, A. 2006. The importance of integrative anthropology: A preliminary investigation employing primatological and cultural anthropological data collection methods in assessing human-monkey co-existence in Bali Indonesia. Ecological and Environmental Anthropology 2: 2–13.Google Scholar
Mackinnon, K. 1986. The conservation status of nonhuman primates in Indonesia. In Primates: The Road to Self-Sustaining Populations, New York, NY, Springer-Verlag. pp. 99–126.Google Scholar
Lowe, S., Browne, M. and Boudjelas, S. 2000. One hundred of the worst invasive species: a selection from the global invasive species database. Aliens 12: 1–12.Google Scholar
MacKinnon, J. and Mackinnon, K. 1987. Conservation status of the primates of the Indo-Chinese Subregion. Primate Conservation 8: 187–195.Google Scholar
MacKinnon, K., Hatta, G., Halim, H., and Mangalik, A. 1996. The Ecology of Kalimantan. Singapore: Periplus Editions Ltd.Google Scholar
Malaivijitnond, S. and Hamada, Y. 2008. Current status and situation of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) in Thailand. The Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University 8: 185–204.Google Scholar
Malaivijitnond, S., Hamada, Y., Varavudhi, P., and Takenaka, O. 2005. The current distribution and status of macaques in Thailand. The Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University(Suppl. 1): 29–34.Google Scholar
Malaivijitnond, S., Hamada, Y., Suryobroto, B., and Takenaka, O. 2007a. Female long-tailed macaques with scrotum-like structures. American Journal of Primatology 69: 721–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malaivijitnond, S., Lekprayoon, C., Tandavanittj, , et al. 2007b. Stone-tool usage by Thai long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). American Journal of Primatology 69: 227–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malone, N. M., Fuentes, A., Purnama, A. R., and Adi Putra, I. M. W. 2003. Displaced hylobatids: Biological, cultural, and economic aspects of the primate trade in Jawa and Bali, Indonesia. Tropical Biodiversity 8: 41–49.Google Scholar
Marchall, V. and Hill, C. 2009. Primate crop-raiding: A study of local perceptions in four villages in North Sumatra, Indonesia. Primate Conservation 24: 107–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matsubayashi, K., Gotoh, S., Kawamoto, Y., Nozawa, K., and Suzuki, J. 1989. Biological characteristics of crab-eating monkeys on Angaur Island. Primate Research 5: 8–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maurin-Blanchet, H. 2006. Données récentes sur les Singes en provenance de I'lle Maurice: Illustration d'une production, de Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus or Macaque crabier), sous contrôle qualitatif et quantitatif, à des fins de recherche scientifique. Sciences et techniques de l'animal de laboratorie 31: 143–152.Google Scholar
McCarthy, M. S., Matheson, M. D., Lester, J. D., Sheeran, L. K., Li, J-H., and Wagner, S. 2009. Sequences of Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) and the tourist behaviors at Mt. Huangshan, China. Primate Conservation 24: 145–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McConkey, K. R. and Chivers, D. J. 2004. Low mammal and hornbill abundance in the forests of Barito Ulu, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Oryx 38: 439–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mungroo, Y. and Tezoo, V. 1999. Control of invasive species in Mauritius. In Invasive Species in Eastern Africa: Proceedings of a workshop held at ICIPE.
Pamungkas, J. and Sajuthi, D. 2003. The breeding of naturally occurring B virus-free cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) on the Island of Mauritius. In International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources, Washington, DC: The National Academic Press. p 20.Google Scholar
Pamungkas, J., Sajuthi, D., Lelana, P. A., et al. 1994. Tinjil island, a natural habitat breeding facility of simian retrovirus-freeMacaca fascicularis. American Journal of Primatology 34: 81–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Patterson, J. 2005. Commensalism and conflict: The Primate–human Interface, Norman, OK: The American Society of Primatologists Publications.Google Scholar
Perwitasari-Farajallah, D., Kawamoto, Y. and Suryobroto, B. 1999. Variation in blood proteins and mitochondrial DNA within and between local populations of long-tail macaques, Macaca fascicularis on the Island of Java, Indonesia. Primates 40: 581–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perwitasari-Farajallah, D., Kawamoto, Y., Kyes, R., Agus Lelana, R., and Sajuthi, D. 2001. Genetic characterization of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) on Tabuan Island, Indonesia. Primates 42: 141–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Poirier, F. E. and Smith, E. O. 1974. The crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis) of Angaur Island, Palau, Micronesia. Folia Primatologica 22: 258–306.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Quammen, D. 1996. The Song of the Dodo: Island Biogeography in an Age of Extinctions. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
Richard, A. F., Goldstein, S. J., and Dewar, R. E. 1989. Weed macaques: the evolutionary implications of macaque feeding ecology. International Journal of Primatology 10: 569–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Safford, R. J. 1997. Nesting success of the Mauritius Fody Foudia rubra in relation to its use of exotic trees as nest sites. Ibis 139: 555–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Santoso, N. and Winarno, G. D. 1992. Studi populasi dan perilaku monyet ekor panjang (Macaca fascicularis) di Pulau Tinjil, Jawa Barat. Bogor, Indonesia: Falkutas Kehutanan Institut Pertanian Bogor.
Santosa, Y. 1996. Beberapa parameter bio-ekologi penting dalam pengusahaan monyet ekor panjang (Macaca fascicularis). Media Konservasi V: 25–29.Google Scholar
Schaik, C. and Noordwijk, M. A. 1985. Evolutionary effect of the absence of felids on the social organization of the macaques on the island of Simeulue (Macaca fascicularis fusca, Miller 1903). Folia Primatologica 44: 138–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schaik, C. P., Amerongen, A. and Noordwijk, M. A. 1996. Riverine refuging by wild Sumatran long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). In Evolution and Ecology of Macaque Societies. Cambridge University Press. pp. 160–181.Google Scholar
Scheffran, W., Ruiter, J. R., and Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. 1996. Genetic relatedness within and between populations of Macaca fascicularis on Sumatra and off-shore islands. In Evolution and Ecology of Macaque Societies. Cambridge University Press. pp. 20–42.Google Scholar
Schillaci, M. 2010. Latitudinal variation in cranial dimorphism in Macaca fascicularis. American Journal of Primatology 72: 151–160.Google ScholarPubMed
Schillaci, M., Jones-Engel, L., Engel, G. A., et al. 2005. Prevalence of enzootic simian viruses among urban performance monkeys in Indonesia. Tropical Medicine and International Health 10: 1305–1314.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schillaci, M., Jones-Engel, L., and Engel, G. A. 2006. Exposure to human respiratory viruses among urban performing monkeys in Indonesia. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 75: 716–719.Google ScholarPubMed
Schillaci, M., Jones-Engel, L., Lee, B. P. Y-H., et al. 2007. Morphology and somatometric growth of long-tailed macaques Macaca fascicularis fascicularis in Singapore. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 92: 675–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schillaci, M., Engel, G., Fuentes, A., et al. 2010. The not-so-sacred monkeys of Bali: A radiographic study of human-primate commensalism. In Indonesia Primates. New York, NY: Springer. pp. 249–256.Google Scholar
Sha, J., Gumert, M. D., Lee, B. P. Y-H., et al. 2009a. Status of the long-tailed macaque Macaca fascicularis in Singapore and implications for management. Biodiversity and Conservation 18: 2909–2926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sha, J., Gumert, M. D., Lee, B. P. Y-H., et al. 2009b. Macaque-human interactions and the societal perceptions of macaques in Singapore. American Journal of Primatology 71: 825–839.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Son, V. D. 2003. Morphology of Macaca fascicularis in a mangrove forest, Vietnam. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 42: 9–11.Google Scholar
Southwick, C. and Manry, D. 1987. Habitat and population changes for the Kowloon macaques. Primate Conservation 8: 48–49.Google Scholar
Southwick, C. H. and Siddiqi, M. F. 1994. Population status of nonhuman primates in Asia, with emphasis on rhesus macaques in India. American Journal of Primatology 34: 51–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Southwick, C. H. and Southwick, K. L. 1983. Polyspecific groups of macaques on the Kowloon Peninsula, New Territories, Hong Kong. American Journal of Primatology 5: 17–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stanley, M. A. 2003. The breeding of naturally occurring B virus-free cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) on the Island of Mauritius. In International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources. Washington, DC: The National Academic Press. pp. 46–48.Google Scholar
Suaryana, K., Rompis, A. and Sibang, I. 2000. Status dan distribusi monyet ekor panjang (Macaca fascicularis) di Bali. Denpasar, Indonesia: Pusat Kajian Primata Lembaga Penelitian, Universitas Udayana.
Sugardjito, J., Schaik, C., Noordwijk, M., and Mitrasetia, T. 1989. Population status of the Simeulue monkey (Macaca fascicularis fusca). American Journal of Primatology 17: 197–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Supriatna, J., Yanuar, A., Martarinza, , et al. 1996. A preliminary survey of long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis and Macaca nemestrina) in Lampung, Bengkulu, and Jambi provinces, southern Sumatra, Indonesia. Tropical Biodiversity 3: 131–140.Google Scholar
Sussman, R. W. and Tattersall, I. 1981. Behavior and ecology of Macaca fascicularis in Mauritius: A preliminary study. Primates 22: 192–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sussman, R. W. and Tattersall, I. 1986. Distribution, abundance, and putative ecological strategy of Macaca fascicularis on the island of Mauritius, southwestern Indian Ocean. Folia Primatologica 46: 28–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tosi, A. J. and Coke, C. S. 2007. Comparative phylogenetics offer new insights into the biogeographic history of Macaca fascicularis and the origin of the Mauritian macaques. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 42: 498–504.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Twigg, I. C. and Nijman, V. 2008. Export of wild-caught long-tailed macaques from Southeast Asia. 22nd Congress of the International Primatological Society. Edinburgh.
Umapathy, G., Singh, M., and Mohnot, S. M. 2003. Status and distribution of Macaca fascicularis umbrosa in the Nicobar Islands, India. International Journal of Primatology 24: 281–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
,USFWS (United States Fish and Wildlife Service). 2009. Office of Law Enforcement, Information Service, Branch of Planning and Analysis.
Watanabe, K., Urasopon, N., and Malaivijitnond, S. 2007. Long-tailed macaques use human hair as dental floss. American Journal of Primatology 69: 940–944.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wheatley, B. 1988. Cultural behavior and extractive foraging in Macaca fascicularis. Current Anthropology 29: 516–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wheatley, B. 1989. Diet of Balinese temple monkeys, Macaca fascicularis. Kyoto University Overseas Research Report Studies on Asian Non-Human Primates 7: 62–75.Google Scholar
Wheatley, B. 1999. The Sacred Monkeys of Bali. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, Inc.Google Scholar
Wheatley, B., Stephenson, R., and Kurashina, H. 1999. The effects of hunting on the long-tailed macaques of Ngeaur Island, Palau. In The Nonhuman Primates. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company. pp. 159–163.Google Scholar
Wheatley, B., Stephenson, R., Kurashina, H., and Marsh-Kautz, K. 2002. A culturalprimatological study of Macaca fascicularis on Ngeaur Island, Republic of Palau. In Primates Face-to-Face: Conservation Implications of Human and Nonhuman Primate Interconnections. Cambridge University Press. pp. 240–253.Google Scholar
Wheatley, B. and Putra, D. K. H. 1994a. Biting the hand that feeds you: Monkeys and tourists in Balinese monkey forests. Tropical Biodiversity 2: 317–327.Google Scholar
Wheatley, B. and Putra, D. K. H. 1994b. The effects of tourism on conservation at the monkey forest in Ubud, Bali. Revue D'Ecologie (Terre et la Vie) 49: 245–257.Google Scholar
Wheatley, B. and Putra, D. K. H. 1995. Hanuman, the monkey god, leads conservation efforts in Balinese Monkey Forest at Ubud, Indonesia. Primate Report 41: 55–64.Google Scholar
Wheatley, B. P., Putra, D. K., and Gonder, M. K. 1996. A comparison of wild and food-enhanced long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). In Evolution and Ecology of Macaque Societies. Cambridge University Press. pp. 182–206.Google Scholar
Wong, C. L. 1994. Studies on the feral macaques of Hong Kong. Masters thesis, Biology. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.
Wong, C. L. and Chow, G. 2004. Preliminary results of trial contraceptive treatment with SpayVac™ on wild monkeys in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Biodiversity: AFCD Newsletter 6: 13–16.Google Scholar
Wong, C. L. and Ni, I. H. 2000. Population dynamics of the feral macaques in the Kowloon Hills of Hong Kong. American Journal of Primatology 50: 53–66.3.0.CO;2-A>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yanuar, A., Chivers, D. J., Sugardito, J., Martyr, D. J., and Holden, J. T. 2009. The population distribution of pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) in West Central Sumatra, Indonesia. Asian Primates Journal 1: 2–11.Google Scholar
23
Cited by

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×