Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-6c8bd87754-hvdfp Total loading time: 0.314 Render date: 2022-01-17T00:31:07.562Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

3 - The Idea of St Andrews as the Second Rome Made Manifest

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  28 April 2017

Ian Campbell
Affiliation:
Professor of Architectural History and Theory at Edinburgh College of Art, University of Edinburgh.
Elizabeth Ewan
Affiliation:
University Research Chair and Professor, History and Scottish Studies, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario Canada
Julian Luxford
Affiliation:
Julian M. Luxford is Senior Lecturer at the School of Art History, St Andrews University.
Matthew Hammond
Affiliation:
Research Associate, University of Glasgow
Michael H Brown
Affiliation:
Professor of Medieval Scottish History, University of St Andrews
Katie Stevenson
Affiliation:
Senior Lecturer in Late Mediaeval History, University of St Andrews Keeper of Scottish History and Archaeology, National Museums Scotland
Get access

Summary

THERE are two principal versions of the St Andrews foundation legend that try to account for the known presence of the body of St Andrew in Constantinople and the presence of corporeal relics in Fife. They are usually referred to simply as Foundation Account A (FAA) and Foundation Account B (FAB), dated c.1000 and mid twelfth century respectively. In FAA we find the audacious claim that:

the archiepiscopacy of all Scotia should be exercised from this city where the apostolic see is [and] no bishop ought to be ordained in Scotia without the approval of the elders of this place. For in relation to the first Rome this is the second. This is the preeminent city of refuge. This is the city of cities of Scotia.

This essay revises and extends three of my earlier attempts to explore whether this claim was expressed physically in the forms of the cathedral and of the burgh, both founded in the mid twelfth century. It has been argued that St Andrews – as cathedral and burgh – was planned as ‘a single grandiose conception’; but even if that were not the case, the arguments for each element can still stand alone. After examining the evidence for first the cathedral and then the burgh, this essay will then consider the parallels (or lack thereof) at Compostela, which made a contemporary and successful bid to gain the status of an apostolic see.

Some believe that the ruins of the church known as St Rule's since the sixteenth century represent a rebuilding of the original church housing the shrine of St Andrew, by Bishop Robert, around the time of his consecration in 1127. If this is so one wonders at its modest size compared with the claims made in FAA, and whether the scale of the present cathedral, formally founded by Bishop Arnold in 1162, more truly reflects the ambitions of Bishop Robert, who died in 1159. It was the largest church in Scotland, with a nave originally fourteen bays long, making the length of the whole cathedral about 121.22m (see figure 3.1). However, after the collapse of the west front around 1272, the nave was reduced to twelve bays, making the present overall length 113.08m. Even in its sad post-Reformation state, it still impressed John Slezer (d. 1717).

Type
Chapter
Information
Medieval St Andrews
Church, Cult, City
, pp. 35 - 50
Publisher: Boydell & Brewer
Print publication year: 2017

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×